Man and Culture - rubric Gender studies
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Gender studies"
Gender studies
Churkina N.A. - Image of the Other in the realm of gender mentality pp. 1-7


Abstract: The problem of gender specificities of human mentality is relevant within the modern sociocultural knowledge. The subject of this research is the gender mentality that defines the identity of a human as a representative of a gender. It is underlined that the principle of binary oppositions underlie the mechanism of gender mentality of a patriarchal society, which leads to the establishment of hierarchy and diverse value markedness of masculinity and femininity as the key structural elements of gender mentality. Particular attention is given to the analysis of relation to the “Other” from the perspective of binary structuring of gender mentality. Methodology contains the works of the representatives of the French Annales School, as well as the scholars who actualize gender approach in science. The author’s main contribution lies in the analysis of the transformation of gender mentality in modern society under the influence of sociocultural changes. The becoming dominant in modern society principle of decentration contributes to changing the perception of a woman as the Other, and with time grow into foundation of a new gender order.
Ionov A. - Slasher subgenre in light of Carol J. CloverТs gender theory pp. 6-15


Abstract: The author of this article turns to a number of main theses of the Carol J. Clover’s book “Men, Women, and Chain Saws” (1992), as well as analyzes if in reality they represent the intrinsic genre-defining features for the examined Clover’s subgenre. The work of Clover is the first to draw attention to such disrespectable horror subgenre by the humanitarian science, which not only revolutionized the area of gender research in cinematography, and popularized the term “shlasher”, but also firmly penetrated the contemporary pop culture. In this article, Clover’s book which still has not been translated into Russian, is subjected to a critical content-analysis. The aspect and comparative analyses of the slasher subgenre movies of 1970-2010’s are being used for the purpose of verification on authenticity of the main positions of the work of this legendary theoretician. The author of the article underlines the use of the main positions of Clover’s theory by the agents of the cinematography community, and conducts an analysis with regards to them. Calling a number of Clover’s observations fair, the author however does not believe that the others (including the “final girl” concept) are necessary for determination of the slasher subgenre.
Gerasimova Y., Sosnina N. - Costume and fashion as the embodiment of gender transformations pp. 44-52


Abstract: The subject of this research is the processes of gender transformation and their embodiment in costume and fashion. The article examines the traits of femininity and masculinity, as well as their manifestation on the male and female costume during various period of fashion development throughout the late XIX and XX centuries. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the impact of political, economic and sociocultural transformations in society, as well as scientific and technological discoveries upon the appearance of new styles and trends in costume that reflect the gender shifts in the society: unisex, grunge, minimalism, deconstructivism. The author applies the general scientific methods based on the comprehensive culturological approach, which allows determining the consistencies of the influence of global changes in society on the gender transformations through the prism of costume and fashion. As a result, the author generalized and structuralized the types and stages of gender transformations that were embodied in costume. The process of gender transformations in costume is not a new phenomenon. The first manifestations of the effect of gender transformations on costume took place during the World War I; and over the course of a century, this process is one of the driving forces of fashion industry. The accent shifts from male costume to female, depending on the social changes of one or another period. The generalizing became the invented in 1960’s trend of agender clothing, which makes to reconsider the gender function of costume even today. The research materials can be valuable in scientific and pedagogical work.  
Sidorova G.P. - Soviet Economic Everyay Life in Images of Popular Art of the 1960 - 1980th: Gender Features of the Axiology of Labour pp. 70-89


Abstract: Object of research is representation of the Soviet economic daily occurrence of the 1960-1980th in art of this period. Production and consumption, household and social production, the individual valuable orientations motivating economic activity of the subject of culture, and also their subject-corporal fixedness falls within the scope of economic daily occurrence; perception of official culture masses; mentality manifestations in economic activity; perception of official culture masses – adaptation of specialized forms of economic culture in daily forms. Research objective – to reveal gender features аксиологики the work, reflected in artistic images of the Soviet mass art of the 1960-1980th. Research methodology: system, historical typology and komparativny methods, semiotics and germenevtichesky analysis of works of art. Research showed: in the Soviet socialist culture of industrial society development of innovations is inconsistent connected to strengthening of traditional valuable orientations and new forms of tradition. From "thaw" time to the "seventieth" value of socialist values in society steadily decreased. Valuable orientations were displaced from socialist to traditional and universal values, and also to values of market economy and a consumer society. In the period of "thaw" and in the "seventieth" art figuratively embodied all completeness of the real valuable world of the subject of the Soviet culture.
Tolstokorova A.V. - Role of Socio-Spatial Exteriorization and Geographic Mobility in the Formation of Gender Identities of Ukrainian Women (late 19th-early 20th centuries) pp. 92-146


Abstract: The present article is devoted to the study of independent spatial mobility of Ukrainian educated women from the historical perspective and in terms of gender analyses. The article shows that the process of women gaining better social positions enabled the development of new social values of the generation of “new women" who denied the “women’s place is at home” principle and aimed at spatial and intellectual emancipation as prerequisites of their economic independence. The gender analysis of the process of institutionalization of Ukrainian women in the public space allows to describe the principle means of emancipation that include social, professional and geographic mobility combined with new ways of physical activities and practices. The article also defines the key factors contributing to the expansion of spatial context of women’s lives and their achievement of spatial freedom. These are economic, moral and ethical, socio-cultural and didactic factors. The results of the research show that fashion is one of the most efficient ways to control physical freedom of women. Liberalization of fashion in late XIX - early XX centuries resulted from the integration of Ukrainian urban women into the public space and the labour market and women’s spatial emancipation. This enabled the gender democratization of the body image of Ukrainian educated women.
Volkova V.B. - Representation of sexuality in Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns (1980Ц2016): gender approach pp. 116-133


Abstract: The subject of this research is the means of representing sexuality in advertising campaigns for Calvin Klein Jeans (1980 – 2016). The object of this research is the use of gender stereotypes (masculinity/femininity) in advertising as a way to manipulate collective consciousness for solution of marketing tasks. The aim of this article consists in determination of advertising strategies of the Calvin Klein brand for the period 1980 – 2016 and the techniques of representation of sexuality for the effective impact of advertising upon the target audience. Analysis is conducted on Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns for the past 40 years by decade, revealing the methods of suggestive effect on the consumer for promoting the product. The main following conclusions were made: 1) selecting provocation as the advertising strategy since 1980 to the present, the Calvin Klein brand employs diverse methods of suggestive effect on the recipient, programming their needs and behavioral attitudes, thereby manipulating collective consciousness; 2) kinesic, proxemic, coloristic, phonatory, and speech means for representation of sexuality testify to the use of gender stereotype (masculinity/femininity) in order to produce effective impact upon the target audience; Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns feature similar strategies for 40 years, which are intended to solve marketing tasks via provocation. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the identified provocation techniques in Calvin Klein advertisings based on the use of gender stereotypes allowed creating the “portrait” of the brand and tracing the patterns in arrangement of advertising campaigns. The author's special contribution consists in analysis of the means for representation of sexuality used in jeans advertising, techniques influencing the recipient through arbitrary interpretation of gender stereotypes, as well as manipulative methods of creating Calvin Klein PR-campaigns.
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