Man and Culture - rubric Culture and civilization
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Rubric "Culture and civilization"
Culture and civilization
Tsurikov V.I. - The influence of the geographical and natural environmental factors upon Russian mentality pp. 15-32

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8744.2016.4.20350

Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of the natural conditions, in which the Eastern Slavic people have live and cultivated land, upon the formation of certain features of the Russian economic mentality. The author analyzes the role of the landscape specificities and geographical factors of the Eastern Europe concerning the establishment of peculiar attitude of the first settlers towards the surrounding space, as well as their place of residence and property. The specific environmental conditions necessitated the farmers towards the unequal work rhythm in the course of year, which later spread over the entire lifestyle of their descendants. Nature and climate dictated to the first settlers and their successors the difficult living conditions in the woody and swampy lands, forcing them to concentrate on farming and husbandry, which impeded development of the trade-economic relations, thus prolonging the economic lag behind Western Europe. The research is conducted primarily within the framework of the historical method, which allows determining the inner logic and prerequisites for education and strengthening of the certain mental characteristics. The main conclusion consists in the following: the popular among Eastern Slavic people fire–fallow form of cultivation forced the farmers to lead the migrating lifestyle, under the influence of which the mental characteristics of the migrants have formed.  
Tuzovskii I.D. - Global holiday as a cultural phenomenon of the Digital Age pp. 33-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.4.31767

Abstract: The subject of this research is modern celebratory culture in the context of impact of globalization processes upon festivities. The author explores a new phenomenon that emerged in the early XXI century – a “global holiday” within the framework of sociocultural transformations related to transition of humanity towards the Digital Age, and formation of the global information space. Special attention is given to the following aspects: creation of media and post-mythological global holidays of the Digital Age, and transformation of the traditional holiday into new metanational forms. The methodological foundation for studying the holidays that received the status of "global" in modern culture became the adaptation of “head page method” applied in sociological, cultural and futurological research and sociocultural monitoring, including overt observation. The conclusion is made that modern culture marks the formation of several types of global holidays that carry metanational character: the first group includes media-produced holidays associated with post-folklore and post-mythology of modern society, or represent celebratory events as award ceremonies in the field of politics, art and science; the second group includes ethnic traditional holidays that received the global status (Halloween, St. Patrick's Day, Mexican Day of the Dead, Holi “Festival of Spring”, etc.). The phenomenon of global holidays should be taken into account in creation of the national strategies of cultural policy, and the global holiday itself may become one of the "soft power" tools in the Digital Age.
Bykovskaya A.V. - The image of enthroned goddess in coroplast of the Early Hellenistic Bosporus pp. 46-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.3.35728

Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the composition of Bosporan terracotta with the image of enthroned goddess of the Early Hellenistic period (the late IV century BC – the late II century BC). The research material involves the figurines from the collection of the East Crimean Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve of this type of iconography. Terracotta from the prewar excavations of the museum, as well as a number of figurines from the excavations in Porfmy are being published for the first time. The goal of this work is to highlight and analyze the characteristic traits of iconography of the enthroned goddess in the Bosporan coroplast, as well as their reveal their sacred meaning. Special attention is given to interpretation of the depicted attributes, which allow identifying the deity. Analysis of iconography testifies to the spread of the cult of Cybele in the III – II centuries BC. In the ancient coroplast, the image of this goddess is associated with such attributes as a tympanum, a young lion, and a cup. Such details can be traced in the Bosporan terracotta. However, by the turn of the III – II centuries, perhaps under the influence of the ideas of autochthonous population of the region, emerges a specific local iconography: new attributes, such as medallion with the head of a young line and a cone). Replication of the new image in the coroplast works underlines the popularity of the cult of the syncretic female deity among the overall population of the Bosporus.
Bocharova M.Y. - Visual state symbols of Japan during the Meiji era pp. 73-90

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2021.4.35261

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the visual state symbols of Japan of the late XIX century (national flag, personal seal of the emperor, order and medal of honor, and military insignia). The aforementioned symbols are viewed as the attributes of the status. First institutionalized graphic symbols in the history of the country have emerged under the influence of European culture and actualized elements of the ”old” Japanese culture, primarily  from the emblems “mon” used to decorate and identify an individual or a family. This article explores the mechanisms of their emergence, as well as the mechanisms of evolution and introduction into the cultural environment based on the material of print mass-market production (postcards and Ukiyo-e woodblock prints). The author’s main contribution consists in comprehensive analysis of the state symbols of Japan of the late XIX century as the attributes of the status, which has been conducted for the first time. The flag, order and emblem of the emperor were used to demonstrate their direct affiliation to the department, as an attribute of a festive event, or indicate their authority. The research also employed postcards as a rarely used source for studying political symbols, or used in the context of ideology alone. The visual images of print production illustrate the reality of using state symbols, as well as within the framework of artistic techniques expand their use as the symbols.
Gribov R.V. - Cultural inversion of the concept social responsibility on the example of activity of Saratovneftegaz branches during the 1950s 1980s pp. 81-89

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.1.31504

Abstract:
The article is retargeted due to the fact that a similar text was published by the author earlier: R.V. Gribov Cultural inversion of the concept of social responsibility on the example of the activities of the units of Saratovneftegas in 1950-80. // Culture and civilization. 2019.No 6A. T. 9.P. 33-42. DOI: 10.34670 / AR.2020.46.4.004
The subject of this research is the historical experience of interaction between industrial complex and social infrastructure. The object of this research is the oil and gas sector of Saratov Region in the 1950’s – 1980’s. The author examines the formation of the national tradition of social responsibility; interaction of the national culture of production with liberal tradition; specificity of civilizational base of national culture in the aspect of responsibility depending on cultural environment; methods of organization of living floor space by enterprises; regional aspects of the question of organization of production. In the course of this study, the author used the methods characteristic for historical-culturological approach: comparative, statistical, and retrospective. Having analyzes the materials from state archives along with archives and museums of enterprises, the author concludes on the existence of two stages in formation of the concept of social responsibility of enterprises. Analysis of the activity of enterprises of oil and gas sector in the period from 1950’s to 1980’s allows underlining substantial cultural differences in interpretation of social responsibility in the conditions of Russian reality and liberal tradition.
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