Man and Culture - rubric Culture and civilization
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Culture and civilization
Alekseev-Apraksin A.M., Li L. - Six schools of Chinese Mahayana pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article is an analysis of the Mahayana Buddhist schools that were developed in China due to the development and adaptation of knowledge that came to the country along the Silk Road. Starting with the history of the penetration of Buddhism into the Celestial Empire, the authors offer the reader an overview of the main schools of Chinese Mahayana: Tiantai-zong, Huayang-zong, Chan-zong, Iznitu-zong, Sanlun-zong and Fasyan-zong, noting that they are all studied and practiced to this day. In addition, many of the ideological positions developed in them have formed a kind of frames over time, combining a number of cultural codes of the Chinese ethos. A review of the main schools of Mahayana allowed the authors of the article to show the continuity between Indian sources and Chinese-Buddhist thought, and at the same time demonstrate cultural forms of adaptation and independent development of the teaching. The centuries-old history of the existence of schools reconstructed by the authors testifies to the role of China in the transmission of Buddhism to neighboring countries. The present work reveals the conceptual kinship of Chinese and Russian Buddhism. The study showed such features of Buddhism as the openness of the teaching to new cultures, the lack of dogmatism in it and a number of valuable timeless ideological resources necessary for the implementation of cultural synthesis.
Tsurikov V.I. - The influence of the geographical and natural environmental factors upon Russian mentality pp. 15-32


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of the natural conditions, in which the Eastern Slavic people have live and cultivated land, upon the formation of certain features of the Russian economic mentality. The author analyzes the role of the landscape specificities and geographical factors of the Eastern Europe concerning the establishment of peculiar attitude of the first settlers towards the surrounding space, as well as their place of residence and property. The specific environmental conditions necessitated the farmers towards the unequal work rhythm in the course of year, which later spread over the entire lifestyle of their descendants. Nature and climate dictated to the first settlers and their successors the difficult living conditions in the woody and swampy lands, forcing them to concentrate on farming and husbandry, which impeded development of the trade-economic relations, thus prolonging the economic lag behind Western Europe. The research is conducted primarily within the framework of the historical method, which allows determining the inner logic and prerequisites for education and strengthening of the certain mental characteristics. The main conclusion consists in the following: the popular among Eastern Slavic people fire–fallow form of cultivation forced the farmers to lead the migrating lifestyle, under the influence of which the mental characteristics of the migrants have formed.  
Tuzovskii I.D. - Global holiday as a cultural phenomenon of the Digital Age pp. 33-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is modern celebratory culture in the context of impact of globalization processes upon festivities. The author explores a new phenomenon that emerged in the early XXI century – a “global holiday” within the framework of sociocultural transformations related to transition of humanity towards the Digital Age, and formation of the global information space. Special attention is given to the following aspects: creation of media and post-mythological global holidays of the Digital Age, and transformation of the traditional holiday into new metanational forms. The methodological foundation for studying the holidays that received the status of "global" in modern culture became the adaptation of “head page method” applied in sociological, cultural and futurological research and sociocultural monitoring, including overt observation. The conclusion is made that modern culture marks the formation of several types of global holidays that carry metanational character: the first group includes media-produced holidays associated with post-folklore and post-mythology of modern society, or represent celebratory events as award ceremonies in the field of politics, art and science; the second group includes ethnic traditional holidays that received the global status (Halloween, St. Patrick's Day, Mexican Day of the Dead, Holi “Festival of Spring”, etc.). The phenomenon of global holidays should be taken into account in creation of the national strategies of cultural policy, and the global holiday itself may become one of the "soft power" tools in the Digital Age.
Bykovskaya A.V. - The image of enthroned goddess in coroplast of the Early Hellenistic Bosporus pp. 46-68


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the composition of Bosporan terracotta with the image of enthroned goddess of the Early Hellenistic period (the late IV century BC – the late II century BC). The research material involves the figurines from the collection of the East Crimean Historical and Cultural Museum-Reserve of this type of iconography. Terracotta from the prewar excavations of the museum, as well as a number of figurines from the excavations in Porfmy are being published for the first time. The goal of this work is to highlight and analyze the characteristic traits of iconography of the enthroned goddess in the Bosporan coroplast, as well as their reveal their sacred meaning. Special attention is given to interpretation of the depicted attributes, which allow identifying the deity. Analysis of iconography testifies to the spread of the cult of Cybele in the III – II centuries BC. In the ancient coroplast, the image of this goddess is associated with such attributes as a tympanum, a young lion, and a cup. Such details can be traced in the Bosporan terracotta. However, by the turn of the III – II centuries, perhaps under the influence of the ideas of autochthonous population of the region, emerges a specific local iconography: new attributes, such as medallion with the head of a young line and a cone). Replication of the new image in the coroplast works underlines the popularity of the cult of the syncretic female deity among the overall population of the Bosporus.
Mikheeva V.V. - Private Higher School of Russia: history and current problems of study pp. 68-80


Abstract: The object of the study is the system of non-state higher education in Russia. The subject is the analysis of historical research devoted to the difficult process of formation and development of a private higher school in Russia in various periods of national history. The methodological basis is the dialectical principles of the relationship between the process and the result, individual, special and general. In addition, there is a systematic approach that helps to identify the state of knowledge of the stated problem. A comparative historical method has also been used to explain the historiographical facts of the history of private education in connection with the historical situation, a retrospective method that contributes to complementing the picture of the development of historical and pedagogical events in our country. Relevance of the research topic. Democratic reforms in Russia in the 90s of the XX century contributed to the creation of conditions for the emergence of a non-state higher school. The State Higher School was unable to respond promptly and on a large scale to the changing situation in the country, the growing interest in education, the emergence of new professions and specialties, the provision of additional earnings to the teaching staff of state universities, etc. In these conditions, the non-state sector of higher education has experienced its rebirth, which is waiting for its reflection. The scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the conducted research are as follows: the trends in the development of the Russian system of private higher education from the moment of its birth to the present are outlined; the definition of the term "private higher school" is given; conclusions were drawn in the article about the state of domestic knowledge on the history of private higher school.
Bocharova M. - Visual state symbols of Japan during the Meiji era pp. 73-90


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the visual state symbols of Japan of the late XIX century (national flag, personal seal of the emperor, order and medal of honor, and military insignia). The aforementioned symbols are viewed as the attributes of the status. First institutionalized graphic symbols in the history of the country have emerged under the influence of European culture and actualized elements of the ”old” Japanese culture, primarily  from the emblems “mon” used to decorate and identify an individual or a family. This article explores the mechanisms of their emergence, as well as the mechanisms of evolution and introduction into the cultural environment based on the material of print mass-market production (postcards and Ukiyo-e woodblock prints). The author’s main contribution consists in comprehensive analysis of the state symbols of Japan of the late XIX century as the attributes of the status, which has been conducted for the first time. The flag, order and emblem of the emperor were used to demonstrate their direct affiliation to the department, as an attribute of a festive event, or indicate their authority. The research also employed postcards as a rarely used source for studying political symbols, or used in the context of ideology alone. The visual images of print production illustrate the reality of using state symbols, as well as within the framework of artistic techniques expand their use as the symbols.
Gribov R.V. - Cultural inversion of the concept social responsibility on the example of activity of Saratovneftegaz branches during the 1950s 1980s pp. 81-89


The article is retargeted due to the fact that a similar text was published by the author earlier: R.V. Gribov Cultural inversion of the concept of social responsibility on the example of the activities of the units of Saratovneftegas in 1950-80. // Culture and civilization. 2019.No 6A. T. 9.P. 33-42. DOI: 10.34670 / AR.2020.46.4.004
The subject of this research is the historical experience of interaction between industrial complex and social infrastructure. The object of this research is the oil and gas sector of Saratov Region in the 1950’s – 1980’s. The author examines the formation of the national tradition of social responsibility; interaction of the national culture of production with liberal tradition; specificity of civilizational base of national culture in the aspect of responsibility depending on cultural environment; methods of organization of living floor space by enterprises; regional aspects of the question of organization of production. In the course of this study, the author used the methods characteristic for historical-culturological approach: comparative, statistical, and retrospective. Having analyzes the materials from state archives along with archives and museums of enterprises, the author concludes on the existence of two stages in formation of the concept of social responsibility of enterprises. Analysis of the activity of enterprises of oil and gas sector in the period from 1950’s to 1980’s allows underlining substantial cultural differences in interpretation of social responsibility in the conditions of Russian reality and liberal tradition.
Ibragimova A.R. - Intercultural communication in the space of social interaction pp. 81-90


Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems of intercultural communication related to solving the problem of real achievement of consolidation in modern society. In this regard, special attention is paid to the analysis of the phenomenon of social interaction, which is traditionally mixed with the communication process. The article highlights the reasons for this confusion and its negative social and cultural consequences. Various levels and situations of social interaction that determine the nature and content of possible intercultural communications are also considered. The basis of the research methodology was the identification of various levels of social interaction as conditions for intercultural communication: micro-level, meso-level, macro-level and mega-level. The study of the levels of social interaction shows that the main problems in intercultural communications arise due to the mixing of these levels in the process of a particular communicative act. The main conclusions of this study are that it is the mixing and non-discrimination of the communicative and behavioral space that is the main cause of many modern social conflicts and confrontations. In the modern information society, virtual communications are increasingly dominating, creating an imitation of any social activity. To get away from this imitation, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive mutual study of the cultures of communicants involved in intercultural communication, which includes not only the development of relevant "cultural texts", but also the study of the processes of real social interactions in their relationship (or in the absence of such) with the processes of communication.
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