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Publications of Bykova Iuliia Igorevna
Culture and Art, 2021-10
Bykova I.I. - Precious framing of the bestowed royal figures during the time of Peter the Great pp. 89-109

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0625.2021.10.36687

Abstract: The goal of this research is the comprehensive examination of precious framing of the bestowed royal figures in Russia during the reign of Peter the Great. The author explores the circumstances of emergence of such awards in Russia and creation of precious frames of this time, possible “prototypes” of the diamond frame pattern that are similar to Western European awards, the masters who design these frames, etc. The article is based on the combination of art criticism and historical-cultural approaches. The object of this research was the award badges – royal figures of the first quarter of the XVIII century (enamel and graphic miniature portraits of Peter the Great, as well as minted medals). The research employs the written (unpublished archival documents) and visual sources (portraits of the grandees of the Petrine period with such awards; images of the royal figures on lithographs of the mid XIX century). It is established that precious frames of the bestowed royal figures of the first quarter of the XVIII century had the same pattern. Most likely, in design of the framing of award badges in Russia, the masters relied on the appearance of the royal figures brought by Peter I from England and Holland after the Great Embassy. These Western examples, in turn, had the “design” characteristic to similar royal awards of the XVII century. The article list the names of the jewelers who manufactured diamond frames of the bestowed royal figures in Russia of that time. These are the "foreigners" J. Westfahl, K. Boldan, I. Jasper. A significant part of such frames (over a hundred) was created by J. Westfahl. The design of precious frame for the royal figures of the Petrine period remained in similar awards of the Russian rulers and in XVIII – XIX centuries.
Culture and Art, 2020-12
Bykova I.I. - Jewelers who were commissioned by the tsar in Russia during the time of Peter the Great: biography, work organization, and stylistics pp. 27-51

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0625.2020.12.34368

Abstract: The goal of this research consists in comprehensive examination of all groups of gold, silver and diamond jewelers who were commissioned by the tsar in Moscow and Saint Petersburg in the late XVII – early XVIII centuries (their biographies, work organization, and artworks), as well as in analysis of stylistic evolution in the artistic image of items made of precious metals of that period. The research is based on the combination of art and historical-cultural approaches. The object this work the jewelry art of the time of Peter the Great. For achieving the set goal, the author refers to the unpublished archival documents and monument of decorative and applied art from the collections of Russian museums. Summary and analysis are conducted on the published material dedicated to the work of jewelers of that time; new records on the jewelers are introduced into the scientific discourse. The research demonstrates that that in the early XVIII century, tsar’s order was carried out by several teams of jewelers from Moscow and Saint Petersburg, who were simultaneously public servants and “free” artisans. The analysis of archival documents allowed specifying the nationality of foreign specialists, as well as the time of their arrival to Russia. The author suggests correlation between attitude of the monarch-commissioner towards court culture and the stylistics of works of decorative and applied art.
Culture and Art, 2020-9
Bykova I.I. - Small crowns of Russian empresses in the XVIII Ц early XIX centuries: creation, presence, artistic attributes pp. 15-29

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0625.2020.9.33829

Abstract: The object of this research is the small crowns of Russian empresses of the XVIII – early XIX century. The goal of this work consists in specification of circumstances of the creation and presence of small imperial crowns in Russia of that time, description of their artistic attributes, and analysis of these regalia as the works of jewelry art, considering stylistic evolution. For achieving the designated goal, the author applied comprehensive method of research based on the combination of art criticism and historical-cultural approach, referring to a range of sources: from unpublished archival documents and memoirs of contemporaries to visual material. The article clarifies the term “small” crown. Based on the archival documents, the author introduces into the scientific discourse the records on a number previously unknown small crowns, as well as specifies the circumstances of their creation along with names of the craftsmen. The artistic image of small Imperial crowns was analyzed for the first time. The conducted research demonstrates that in the XVIII century this image transformed under the influence of stylistic preferences in Russian artistic culture and due to the change of court jewelers who belonged to different schools of jewelry art. In the XIX century, influenced by the national ideas and according to the already established state ceremonial, which tends to traditionalism, the exterior of small crowns was fully oriented towards the small crown of 1797.
Culture and Art, 2019-9
Bykova I.I. - Artistic feautres of the Russian imperial funeral crowns in the XVIII Ц early XIX century pp. 28-46

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0625.2019.9.30726

Abstract: The object of this research is the imperial funeral crowns of the Russian monarchy in the XVIII – early XIX century. The goal consist in determination of the artistic patterns and analysis of funeral crowns as the jewelry works of art considering the stylistic development. Reference to archival documents allowed revealing the circumstances of creating these crowns and names of the masters, role they played in funeral ceremony, as well as reconstructing the exterior of some of them. The author is first to analyze the artistic image of the imperial funeral crowns that undergone transformation throughout the XVIII – XIX century. It related to the shifts in stylistic preferences in the Russian artistic culture, as well as replacement of the court jewelers who executed the royal order. The author describes the stylistic evolution of funeral crowns – from exuberant, made out of multicolor gemstones in the early XVIII, to silver gilded silver crowns that only imitated the image of imperial crown of their deceased holder.
Culture and Art, 2018-12
Bykova I.I. - More Facts about the Creative Life of a Court Jeweler Yakob Dublon (1702Ц1768) and His Role in the Creation of the Small Imperial Crowns pp. 29-44

DOI:
10.7256/2454-0625.2018.12.28356

Abstract: The object of the research is the biography and creative life of a court jeweler Yakob Dublon who worked on the governor's order during the reign of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. In her research Bykova also discusses the biography of Yakob Dublon's full brother Martin Carl Dublon who was the silversmith. The scope of the research also covers jewelry masterpieces stored in the collections of Russian museums. Bykova focuses on the circumstances under which the Small Imperial Crowns were created and used during the first half of the XVIIIth century. In her research Bykova applied the integral research method (based on the combination of the fine art and historical-cultural approaches) which enabled a better view of the main research issues. For the first time in the academic literature the author of the article has managed to define the origin of two famous jewelers who worked at Russian palace in the mid of the XVIIIth century Yakob and Martin Carl Dublon and to discover that they represented the traditions of Nuremberg silversmithes. The documents found by the author in the archives extended the scientific view of the creative life of these masters and the orders they made. In a number of cases it was possible to 'define' jewels created by Yakob Dublon. The results of the research demonstrate that Yakob Dublon made a great contribution to the development of the Russian art of jewellery. The name of that master also relates to the creation of new imperial regalias. It was Dublon who defined the stylistics of these insignias that were efficient throughout the second half of the XVIIIth century. They also analyzed the problem of creation, use and existence of the Small Imperial Crowns of the first half of the XVIIIth century that had never before been raised in the scientific literature. 
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