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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Man and Culture" > Contents of Issue є 05/2020
Contents of Issue є 05/2020
Culture and cultures
Danilova N.K. - УMaterial worksФ in sacred space: ritual attributes in the context of symbolic information (archetypes, images and symbols) pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.33707

Abstract: The object of this research is ritual attributes applied in different ceremonies, associated with the spirits Ichchi and celestial deities of Aya, which possess a superior modeling and communicative function. The article describes the ritual sacred items that were not used in everyday life, such as the sacrificial spoon of the Aya-shaman, kumis ladle, fortunetelling spoon, and spatula of the potter. Interdisciplinary approach allowed applying a historical-cognitive method of research, which views an item as a narrative text and a creative tool for transforming the sacred space. The novelty consists in the fact that despite the sufficient examination of correlation between a myth and a ritual, semiotic aspects of functionality of one or another item, organization of the sacred space, etc. of the Sakha people, these ritual attributes did not become a subject of semiotic study and determination of their structural-functional role within the mythical-ritual space of the Sakha people. The conclusions is made that these ritual attributes have a mediating function that establishes a communicative link between the Aya-shaman and transcendental space; in all ritual acts they are involved in modeling a stable life environment. It is revealed that mixing of raw materials (kumis, clay) was similar to the act of creation of Man and Nature, and the Aya-shaman performed the function of a demiurge. The author believes that all these functions could underlie a single ritual attribute – the sacrificial spoon, which later became a prototype of the shamanic drum mallet.
Yarskaya-Smirnova V.N., Bozhok N.S., Zaitsev D.V. - Inversion of temporality in commemoration of cultural-historical reconstruction pp. 11-24

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.33747

Abstract: The object of this research is the commemorative practices of cultural-historical reconstruction. The subject of this research is the inversion of temporality in festival practices of cultural-historical reconstruction. The goal lies in determination of specificity of temporal representations of historical reenactors through the prism of the concept of inversion of social time. For achieving the set goal, the author carries out a secondary analysis of interviews with the planners and participants of the historical reconstruction festival “Times and Epochs”. The materials of Russian media comprised the empirical basis for this work. Most informative source was portal “The City”, which published interviews with the representatives of historical reconstruction movement from various Russian cities, socio-demographic and professional groups. The novelty of is defined by introduction of the new theoretical and empirical material into the scientific discourse. The memorial culture and cultural-historical reconstruction are viewed as significant and effective factors of collective commemoration from the perspective of temporal approach for the first time. The conducted analysis allowed determining multivariation of the motives and intentions underlying the commemorative practices of cultural-historical reconstruction. The festival “Times and Epochs” is viewed as an example of commemorative practice, where the subject of commemorative activity is the collective past, actualized within metropolitan sociocultural space in terms of the project-network approach. The author reveals the problems of development of the festival as a memorial project, as well as prospects of its integration into the urban environment.
Zhang T. - To the origins of creation of Beijing Ballet School. Olga Aleksandrovna Ilyina pp. 25-35

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.33738

Abstract: The subject of this research is the first stage of creation of Beijing Ballet School, while the object is the pedagogue of the Moscow State Academy of Choreography O. A. Ilyina. The author underlines her contribution to the creation of the first professional system of education in China. The role of Soviet ballet masters and pedagogues, who carefully examines the peculiarities of Chinese teaching technique is highlighted. The Russian system of choreographic education with its accumulated valuable theoretical and pedagogical experience laid the foundation for establishment of the system of preparing ballet dancers in China, creating a strong basis for the development of Chinese professional classical ballet. The novelty of this work consist in the analysis of Olga Ilyina’s impact upon the early stage of development of Chinese ballet. The author explores and assesses her versatile activity in China – initially, in creation of Beijing Ballet School, and later, as a pedagogy who made a significant contribution to preparation of national ballet dancers. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the fact that the activity of Olga Ilyina in China has not been previously a subject of a separate research, although she played a significant role, along with other pedagogues of the Moscow State Academy of Choreography under the Bolshoi Theatre, in creation of the first professional ballet school in Beijing.
Globalization, glocalization, mass culture
Geng B. - Confucianism as a cross-cultural integration in the context of globalization pp. 36-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.34008

Abstract: This article examines the development of Confucianism in the conditions of globalization. Globalization represents one of the most discussed in recent decades mainstream trends of global development. For quite a long time it remained one of the least strongly identified social and political phenomena. The article determines that in the process of globalization, the ideas of Confucianism ensure theoretical support for the development of cultural diversity. It is underlined that the fundamental principles of Confucianism coincide with the core moral-ethical principles of the “global ethos”. The article also describes the peculiarities of the concept of Chinese culture in the conditions of modern globalization processes. The main vector of research among Chinese scholars dealing with the questions of globalization, is the analysis of the process of cultural globalization and the pursuit of their place within it. Such analysis is based on the concept of culture accepted in Chinese science; however, there is yet to unified assessment of cultural globalization among the Chinese researchers. The key role of moral norms and cultural principles in governance is established. At the same time, based on the the analysis of status quo of globalization, it is suggested that the development and integration of culture should rely on the maintenance of cultural subjectivity. The author assumes that in future, the development of cultural globalization and Confucianism in order to fulfill the needs of modern society, would greatly impact cultural diversity with regards to preservation of cultural identity.
Ethnology and cultural anthropology
Riazanova E. - Priorities of Muslim youth with regards to spending spare time in modern Germany pp. 45-53

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.34083

Abstract: This article analyzes how the young ethnic Muslims of 2nd and 3rd generations who were born in Germany, as well as Muslim students studying in Germany, spend their spare time. The author used such methods as field ethnographic observation and unstructured interview with the respondents. The pool of respondents was formed via snowball sampling. Studying the pastime of Muslim youth, the author was able to trace the degree of their integration into German society. Since multiple sociocultural needs are usually fulfilled during the spare time, examination of the leisure of youth allows determining moral and spiritual image of a person. This article is first to analyze leisure time of ethnic Muslims residing in Germany based on the field material acquired by the author, which defines the scientific novelty of this research. The conclusion is made that usually ethnic Muslims of 2nd and 3rd generations (young people without higher education) spend their spare time on the Internet, doing sport or entertaining activities. Young Muslims studying in the universities prefer intellectual leisure activities: reading, visiting museums and exhibitions. The priorities of young Muslims of the 2nd and 3rd generation resemble a slow paced level life, keeping it easy, with no ambition in getting higher education. For Muslim students or Muslims who already received higher education, the priority in pastime include spiritual and cultural development, accumulation of investments and landing a highly-skilled job with decent salary.
Culture and authority
Bykova I.I. - To the question of creation of Great Imperial Crowns in Russia in the XVIII century pp. 54-75

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.33920

Abstract: The object of this research is the Great Imperial Crowns of the Russian monarchs in the XVIII century. The goal consists in clarification of the circumstances of creation and existence of the Great Imperial Crowns in Russia during this period, determination of their artistic peculiarities, and analysis these regalia as the works of jewelry art with consideration of stylistic evolution. For achieving the goal, the complex method based on the synthesis of art and historical-cultural approaches is applied. The author refers to a range of sources: unpublished archival documents, memoirs of the contemporaries, and visual material. This article presents a first comprehensive study on creation of the Great Imperial Crowns in Russia. The examines archival documents allow specifying names of the artists who created these regalia, many of which are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. The analysis of artistic image of Great Imperial Crowns is carried out. The research demonstrates that in the XVIII century this image transformed under the influence of stylistic preferences in the Russian art culture, as well as due to succession of the court jewelers who belonged to different jewelry schools. Up until Paul I of Russia, who made these regalia hereditary, the Great Imperial Crowns were usually taken apart after the coronation ceremony they were made for.
Culture and Cult
Golovushkin D.A., Gumarova I.R. - Expanding or limiting the boundaries of the УallowableФ: to the problem of outlining the concept of Уreligious artФ pp. 76-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.31638

Abstract: Religious art is one of the most complex and controversial phenomena in the history of art. The attempts to conceptualize this phenomenon are relatively recent, and are carried out mostly in the context of the existence of confessional, ecclesiastical/nonecclesiastical, cult/atheistic art. Therefore, religious art within the Russian humanities traditionally receives ambivalent interpretation. In a narrow sense, religious art implies a combination of artworks with dogmatic, doctrinal, and liturgical meaning. In a broad sense, religious art represents a set artworks that reveal religious themes from ideological and figurative perspectives, reflect religious worldview, faith and experience, but do not carry sacred statues, nor intended for reverence, worship, liturgical practices.  The author concludes that neither definition describes the distinctness and novelty of the religious art. The appropriate interpretation describes religious art as d both, ecclesiastical/non-ecclesiastical and cult / atheistic art. This leads to a terminological confusion, and doubts the need for introducing the concept of “religious art” and the phenomenon itself. The key towards understanding this phenomenon and a new definition of the concept of “religious art” can be their context – the European and Russian secularization. It is not coincidental that the first was addressed, and the second was deliberately formulated at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. Religious art mainstreams during the historical periods when the boundaries of secularization/religion become flexible, initiating struggle for them.
Cultural heritage, tradition and innovation
Khotko B.S. - Traditional religious practice of Abkhazians as the way to preserve ethnos in the conditions of globalization pp. 89-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.31528

Abstract: This article examines the phenomenon of preservation of the traditional cult practices of Abkhazians in the current context. The key tasks of this research include studying ritualism in terms of the traditional beliefs (religion) of Abkhazians, creation of the “scenario” of ritual practice, and assessment of the relevance and role of this phenomenon in life of the modern Abkhazian ethnos. The conclusion that the cult practice manifests as a form of Abkhazians’ identity, a so-called cultural core, and allows the ethnos to preserve itself in the conditions of globalization and multiple destructive modern trends that  destructive for the ethnos.  The main results of the conducted research consists in the statement that the modern Abkhazian society marks dominance of the traditional values and beliefs (religion), against the background of which are implemented Christian or Islamic practices. Traditional religion is perpetuated, holistic, regulated by the institution of priests and the true faith of the entire Abkhazian ethnos. Reliability of the research is substantiated with the author's expedition materials, acquired as a result of expedition work in 2013-2017.
Culture of art and the process of creation
Frolov D. - The works of August Ivans in the context of development of Latvian art culture in the 1920s Ц 1930s pp. 95-103

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.33667

Abstract: The problematic of studying Latvian art culture after declaring independence in 1918 did not receive due coverage in the works of national researchers. Based on the new facts of artistic biography of the prominent cultural figure of Latvia –  the painter August Ivans (1895-1975), analysis is conducted on the isolated phenomena of the Latvian art culture of the 1920s – 1930s, namely the establishment of higher art education in the Republic of Latvia. The preserved sayings of the painter allow revealing the role of graduates of Russian schools of art in formation of the Latvian Academy of Arts. The author highlights the painter’s role in the process of democratization of the country's art life, which consists in his work on illustrations to the satirical magazines. The establishment of art education in Latvia is reviewed on the basis of life and creative path of the Latvian painter August Ivans for the first time. The role of the graduates of Russian art schools in formation of the Latvian Academy of Arts is also noted. In the 1920s – 1930s, the art life in Latvia became more public, and artists acquired more opportunities to exhibit their paintings. More artists were able to sustain themselves by selling their works. Printing numerous satirical publications designed by A. Ivans led to the process of democratization of art life of the country. This article is also first to publish the information on the death and burial place of the artist.
Art and Art History
Galyamov A.A., Ershov M.F. - M. A. Tebetev: sociocultural origins of painting of the Khanty artist pp. 104-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8744.2020.5.32286

Abstract: The subject of this research is the works of the unique Khanty artist Mitrofan Alekseevich Tebetev (1924-2011), viewed from the perspective of its sociocultural origins. The artistic path of the artist took place at the intersection of two intertwined cultures: patriarchal culture of the Ob Ugrians and the culture of Soviet official circles. M. A. Tebetev quite organically infused both cultures. It may seem that his visual art is characterized by propensity for the naive style. However, such assessment in many ways devaluates analysis of the content of artist's paintings. Therefore, certain alienation from the excessive narrow-focus art discourse can propel the analysis of his works to a different, general cultural level. The crucial role in this research is played by the works of such theoreticians as P. Tillich, Dvořák, A. Hauser, and V. N. Prokofiev, which outlined the theoretical and methodological framework for this article. The sources for this research became the works of M. A. Tebetev, exhibition catalogues, and reproductions of his paintings, as well as writings dedicated to his works. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that the works Of M. A. Tebetev feature the attributes of visual historical-ethnographic sources. The evolution of Russian painting from photographic accuracy towards latent iconographic simplicity and open archetypical paganism reflects profound changes in the worldview of the late XX – early XXI centuries.
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