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Construction and architecture
Volos I.N., Tereshchenko R.V. - The project of stationing of troops in the conditions of Far North pp. 1-11


Abstract: Based on the available information, the authors have designed a project using BIM technologies regarding the stationing of troops in the conditions of Far North. The article presents the materials of architectural-engineering solutions, concept design of military town, architectural-constructive solutions for mobile complexes, and life-supporting infrastructure in the conditions of Far North. The result of this work became a unique architectural design project of creating a modern, specifically oriented towards extreme weather and climatic conditions of the Far North, mobile housing complex. The goal of this scientific work consists in the economically purposeful suggestion on stationing of military personnel of the Russian Federation based on the example of the missile artillery battalion, as well as civic personnel in severe conditions of the Far North with possibility of reorientation of architectural solutions for the needs of the scientific and industrial branches. Due to the information modelling of the building was designed a project, the novelty and distinctness of which is the adopted decisions of the dynamic architecture that allows creating a modern housing complex from the mobile blocks of octagon shape that in its characteristics and economic purposefulness outstrips the existing analogs in the Russian Federation.  
Sibisyuk S.V. - Production of building materials from wood industry byproducts pp. 21-26


Abstract: The subject of this research is the waste of the woodworking industry, which can be used for production of construction materials for small and medium-sized housing. The author focuses on the recycling of byproducts and waste, which has gained importance in the recent years. Despite the decline in the production of wood processing enterprises, the amount of waste from wood processing remains large. The increase of production and expansion of the range of insulation materials and products, disposal of waste wood processing company is an urgent task, which can be partially solved by organizing the production of building materials and products based on wood waste. This research employs analytical descriptive method for the study of theoretical materials; methods of theoretical analysis of literature and methods of studying and generalizing domestic practice; economic calculation method; general scientific methods, namely analysis, interpretation, analogy, induction, deduction. This article reveals the features of the chemical composition of sawdust, its processing, the process of production of building materials based on them, and the subsequent use in the construction of buildings and structures. The processing and utilization of waste from wood industry with positive research and experiments results will be of great importance for the current construction industry as a whole.
Gunenko E.D. - The peculiarities of formation of background radiation in buildings on the example of Krasnoyarsk Region pp. 22-30


Abstract: Radon concentration in the air of residential and public buildings is quite acute is a serious concern. Studies conducted in the territory of the Russian Federation, including Krasnoyarsk Region, are aimed at both, the determination of factors forming the indoor background radiation, as well as specific measurements of normative values. Collection and analysis of data, in turn, will allow systematizing such problem as indoor radon concentration, and provide an effective approach towards the implementation of antiradon protection. The article attempts to review and analyze the main sources of the release of radon, using the example of Krasnoyarsk Region, as well as compare the radon load received by the population of Krasnoyarsk Region with such received by the residents of other regions from the particular sources of radon exposure. The article generalizes the experience with regards to radiation situation, acquired over a relatively short history of the existence of this issue in the territory of Russia. Special attention is given to the formation of radiation background in residential and public buildings located in Krasnoyarsk Region, as well as new studies in this field.
Shakirova V.A. - Study of the structure and characteristics of autoclaved aerated concrete pp. 23-32


Abstract: The lightweight and porous building material has many advantages over conventional concrete, such as a higher strength-to-weight ratio, a lower coefficient of thermal expansion and good sound insulation. This article focuses on the historical periodization of the development of autoclaved aerated concrete and a literature review that focuses on the influence of porosity, vapor permeability and strength properties of a given building material. The subject of this research is the analysis of the key historical events and manufacturing technologies that influenced the creation and transformation of the structural components of autoclaved aerated concrete. In the course of research, the author revealed that although aerated concrete is a new material in construction, it appeared a long time ago. Initially, five thousand years ago, this composition of the material was used as a plaster and brickwork mortar; showing a positive effect in construction, the aerated concrete over the years took the form of a cellular block, and its characteristics continue to be discovered. The properties, composition and structure of autoclaved aerated concrete are being improved through its composition and geometry of the shape of block, which contributed to environmental friendliness of the new building material, its durability, and creation of comfortable living conditions for people. However, the material requires new rational manufacturing technologies are needed in order to improve its quality and characteristics.
Vakhrusheva E.A. - External reinforcement with carbon fiber as a method of strengthening building structures pp. 30-35


Abstract: In the industrially developed countries, the share of investments in new construction and remodeling of the already existing buildings sites has almost converged; therefore, the question of restoring the load capacity of building structures should be given particular attention. The method of reinforcing building structures with carbon fiber is considered as an alternative to the traditional method. The author notes that the currently used traditional methods are labor intensive and economically impracticable. Thus, the more innovative approach, which implies external reinforcement with carbon fiber, is needed for strengthening the building structures. The analysis of the results of national studies, along with the experience in construction using the external reinforcement system with carbon materials is conducted. The author concludes that despite the fact that this method has a number of advantages: increase of the building load capacity without significantly increasing its weight; reduction of repair costs; reduction of labor-related costs; prolongation of mean time between repairs; option to conduct repairs without shutting down the building, there is a problem of separation of the adhesive layer from the concrete.
Otkeev R.V., Sazanakova K.A. - Analysis of the composition of the lightweight self-compacting concrete pp. 36-42


Abstract: The materials presented in this article pertain to the lightweight self-compacting concrete – a substance that combines the qualities of lightweight and heavyweight self-compacting concrete. The combination of benefits of the lightweight and self-compacting concrete becomes the new area of research. The article discusses the key issues emerging as a result of combining the two types of the aforementioned materials. Attention is also given to the geographical distribution of case studies over the years, as well as to demonstration of the relative number of research dedicated to the lightweight concrete aggregates. The analyzed results are presented in the form of statistical expressions. The research method is the analysis of scientific publications and studies conducted over the years worldwide. The main conclusions lie in the the information collected for studying the proportions of the mixture that includes chemical and mineral additives, lightweight and normal weight aggregates, fillers, cement, and water. For future research, it is necessary to select suitable components with different ratios and curing conditions to achieve the desired grade of concrete in accordance with the planned application.
Yur Y.G. - Structural development of tourist recreational spaces in Siberia (on the example of Krasnoyarsk Krai) pp. 36-43


Abstract: The goal of this article lies in the analysis of the natural peculiarities of Krasnoyarsk Krai that comprise the tourist recreational potential of Siberia on the example of the Putorana State Natural Reserve, which is recognized by UNESCO as a World Natural Heritage Site. Research methodology employs the theoretical methods of analysis, generalization and synthesis of scientific methods with the use of data from scientific sources. The main results of the conducted research are as follows: 1) classification of tourist recreational zones by typological and taxonomic characteristics; 2) substantiation of the forms and types of tourism and recreation in the conditions of specially protected natural areas. The acquired results can be implemented in planning the efficient utilization of natural resources in Krasnoyarsk Krai and Siberian regions that have natural heritage sites. The scientific novelty and conclusions are associated with determination of natural resources of Krasnoyarsk Krai attractive for the development of tourism and recreational activities; as well as analysis and substantiation of the forms and types of tourism and recreation that are geared towards the vector of activity of natural heritage sites (specially protected natural areas) located in the region. It is noted that the measures carried out for organizing tourist recreational activity, without taking into account the peculiarities of functionality of natural heritage sites, increase the risks of anthropogenic impact and require constant monitoring and control of their implementation.
Alizade S.A. - Volumetric modular construction: experience and prospects of development pp. 38-52


Abstract: This article examines one of the methods of resolving the issue of ensuring the residents of the Russian regions with affordable and quality housing by means of application of the existing substantial historical experience in implementing the technology of prefabricated modular construction. The author leans on the example of experience of the active industrially developing regions of the country – Voronezh Region, Krasnodarsk Krai, and Krasnoyarsk Krai. The work analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of such construction technology, substantiates its application in the modern conditions, reveals the key value characteristics of such method, as well as provides a brief overview of construction industry over the past 30 years. The author describes the potential of architectural qualities of the volumetric modular buildings. As an example of explaining one of the quality characteristics of the external building envelope, the article presents a thermotechnical calculation through mathematical modeling of heat transfer. Conclusion is formulated about the level of correspondence of the modular buildings with the existing regulatory requirements, sanitary norms, and thermal insulation of buildings. The work considers the advantages of the main architectural qualities of volumetric modular buildings, as well as substantiates the purposefulness of application of such method as a promising direction in development of the construction sector of the prefabricated modular homebuilding.  
Podkovyrin V.S., Podkovyrina K.A. - Impact of the form of the outside corners upon the temperature for indoor surface of the building walls pp. 38-42


Abstract: In the construction practice, the most common angles in architectural morphogenesis are the right angles of outside building walls, but most recent projects utilize various forms of such outside corners. Within the internal structure of the external building corner the temperature distribution and the nature of the heat transfer differs from the surface of the wall, which makes it more vulnerable in sanitary maintenance and thermal protection. In the current construction norms and rules, for carrying out sanitary maintenance requirements the temperature of the indoor surface of the outside corners of the building should not be lower than the temperature of the condensation point of the indoor air. Violation of these requirements can lead to freezing of the corners, formation of condensate, and eventually mold and mildew. The article examines the special problem of changes to the temperature index on the indoor surface of the corner depending on its size and explores the forms of right angle corners. The author presents the results of experimental reading of temperature of the indoor surface of outside corners with 90 and 135-degree angles. The acquired data allowed comparing these angles from the position of sanitary maintenance.
Syuskin Y.V. - Problems of the loss of technical means of experimental scientific research and objects of such research in construction sector pp. 43-48


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of the loss of technical means of conducting experimental research. The question of the loss of the objects of such research is viewed due to the absence of scientific task for their preservation and subsequent technological development of construction sector. The author outlines the concept of acquisition of new scientific knowledge on the basis of systemic approach with the possibility of full preservation of the technical means of production. The need is formulated for storing the data obtained in the experiments on physical carriers. Consolidation of such knowledge underlies the solution of the issues in construction of buildings and structures. Description is given to the reasons that explain the low demand for the patterns, technical means, and objects of experiments. The author claims that among the key prerequisites for the effective solution of the issues in construction sector is the possibility of application of the concept of interdisciplinary research, including material and virtual “archive” archive of such results. The use of systemic approach is required regardless of the nature of the problems (natural, social, technogenic, etc.). The organization and conduct of interdisciplinary research is the priority task. The conclusion is made on the need to transfer full results of the research to physical carrier, as well storage, archiving of all objects of research, mechanisms and installations for their subsequent use. The implementation of such ideas requires concentration of efforts of the experts in various branches of science. It is necessary to consolidate the knowledge of all experts in all stages of the development – from the past to the present.
Podkovyrina K.A., Podkovyrin V.S. - Translucent enclosing structures (heat loss reduction methods and global experience in application) pp. 46-51


Abstract: Building construction in the regions with severe climatic conditions must pay considerable attention to the questions of heat preservation and minimization of heat loss through the external enclosing structures. The article analyzes the main sources heat leakage through translucent enclosing structures and determines that the best course of action is to reduce heat loss via window structure through the use of an effective glass unit. There are three main ways to increase the reduced resistance to heat transfer of a glass unit. Reducing methods of heat transfer, which occurs by convection and radiation, are discussed in detail. The reasons for the emergence of the need to use energy-efficient technologies, as well as global experience in the development and use energy-efficient double-glazed windows are given. The climatic conditions of populated areas of Siberia are compared with the climatic conditions of populated areas of Canada and it is established that the cold in Canadian and Russian territories is almost the same, but their north is deserted, the population is concentrated on the southern border. Thus, populated areas of Siberia have more severe climatic conditions, which is one of the factors that it is necessary not just to learn from foreign experience in using energy-efficient technologies, but to adapt them to more severe weather conditions.
Fedotov O.I. - The history of the development of the window design pp. 47-59



Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of development of the architectural and functional element of the window design - the window profile. In the work, the time frame of the study was determined Ц the XVII-XXI centuries. The features of the applied window profile designs for the considered climatic zone Ц Siberia north of the 55th parallel of northern latitude are revealed. The materials of window frames are considered, the design features of window profiles in these periods are revealed. Historical documents, scientific articles in the public domain, photographs were studied. Full-scale surveys of urban development objects were carried out, which made it possible to trace the functional development of this element of translucent structures. The novelty of the research lies in obtaining a chronological overview of the window profile design during the specified periods in Siberia. The results of the study showed that in the period of the XVII-XXI centuries, window profiles were improved both structurally becoming stronger, lighter, more reliable due to the use of the manufacturing method, the study of modern and traditional construction materials, the introduction of requirements and standards for the design of window profiles, and functionally, changing the functional requirements for window profiles (frames). As a result, the search for forms, materials, and window designs led to a modern translucent system that meets the conditions of the Siberian climate.
Volkova O.V. - Research of development and solution of problems of combined coverings of buildings pp. 49-60



Abstract: The article analyzes the main problems of the structures of combined coatings of residential buildings, during which both climatic and human factors were investigated. In the course of the study, the main methods of solving problems with the use of materials, additional technical means and new construction technologies are considered. Thanks to a retrospective analysis, three main historical stages have been identified Ц from the beginning of the construction of houses under the program of full-assembled housing construction in 1970 to the present. The main problems and solutions in each stage of the development of combined coatings are investigated, as well as modern technical developments to eliminate coating deficiencies are described and existing coating schemes are considered. The main conclusions of the study are the presence of problems in the design of the coating in various climatic conditions by ignoring the construction area. Despite the development of combined coatings, the structure needs to be improved due to the presence of problems in rolled materials - the appearance of cracks due to climatic conditions and not observing the necessary protection, as well as in the thermal insulation layer Ц moisture accumulates and condensation appears due to unreliable rolled materials. Conclusions are drawn on the use of aerators for evaporation of moisture from the thermal insulation layer. Such modern methods of solving problems of combined coating as the device of a rolled carpet made of PVC membrane by a welded method are analyzed. At the moment, the design of coatings with these materials have the best performance characteristics.
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