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MAIN PAGE > Journal "International Law" > Contents of Issue 03/2023
Contents of Issue 03/2023
International courts
Smirnov V.V. - Some problems related to the supervision of the activities of the International Criminal Court pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2644-5514.2023.3.40921

EDN: ALQKHB

Abstract: The article deals with the problems related to the supervision of the activities of the International Criminal Court, including some aspects of the activities of one of the mechanisms of control and supervision of the work of the International Criminal Court the Independent Oversight Mechanism. The author examines in detail how the activities of the ICC affect the interests of the Russian Federation and other countries, and also analyzes the possibilities for the state to monitor and supervise the activities of the ICC if the ICC Statute has not been ratified and the country is not a State party. The author considers the recommendations made by the expert group concerning the work of the Independent Oversight Mechanism. The object of the study is the social relations developing in the field of activities of officials of international criminal justice bodies related to the work of an Independent oversight Mechanism. Topics related to the responsibility of officials of international judicial institutions, their accountability, as well as the control and supervision of their activities have been little studied. Meanwhile, although Russia is not a State party to the ICC Statute, nevertheless, the judicial acts of this international judicial body have an impact on the reputation of the state. The author comes to conclusions, firstly, about the need to develop scientific thought in this direction, in order to increase the effectiveness of protecting state interests, and secondly, about the possible consideration of an initiative to create an independent monitoring mechanism that would function within the framework of the UN Security Council.
Development of separate branches of international public law
Belozertsev S.M. - Forms of Compensation for Harm in Public International Law pp. 13-20

DOI:
10.25136/2644-5514.2023.3.39612

EDN: CPBDFM

Abstract: The study of the problems of international legal responsibility as one of the basic elements of international legal regulation is of particular importance due to the fact that the subjects of international law, taking advantage of the dispositivity and consensual nature of its norms, abuse them in their own interests, often seriously infringing the interests of their international partners. The institution of international legal responsibility is one of the earliest forms of interstate relations that arose long before the formation of public international law as a legal system. The article discusses the forms of compensation for harm in public international law. The property and non-property forms of compensation for harm are highlighted. The key characteristics of international legal responsibility are defined, such as compensation for harm, as the most effective sanction for unlawful actions, and restoration of the violated rights and interests of the victim. The analysis of the order and consequences of the application of forms of international legal responsibility is given. The institute of international legal responsibility is very extensive, we have considered only some of its part concerning the forms of international legal responsibility. Forms of international legal responsibility can be of a property and non-property nature. Property forms of liability include: restitution, compensation, satisfaction. Non-property forms of responsibility include: retorsions and reprisals. As a result of the conducted research, it is concluded that the forms of liability are most effective when they are combined when several property forms of liability (for example, restitution and compensation) are used together with non-property forms of liability. It is noted that non-property forms of liability are the most effective in terms of influencing the reputation of the harm-doer, due to their publicity.
Aleksandrova D.E. - Unilateral Sanctions in the Context of Modern International Law pp. 21-29

DOI:
10.25136/2644-5514.2023.3.38737

EDN: CPDKSD

Abstract: The author discusses the modern international legal framework governing the application of sanctions. The author focuses on the following issues: international and regional sanctions in the context of the UN Charter, restrictions on sanctions regimes, sanctions in humanitarian law, the legitimacy of unilateral economic sanctions. The methodological base of this work is a systematic approach, which allows to consider sanctions as part of the modern international legal system. As a result of the study, it was revealed that within the framework of the existing international legal system, only the UN Security Council is authorized to impose sanctions in order to ensure global peace and security. The resolutions of the UN Security Council on the issue of the application of restrictive measures are dominant in comparison with the decisions of other international bodies and the obligations of member countries under international treaties. The legitimacy of applying regional sanctions is limited by the statutes of regional organizations. The novelty of the study lies in a comprehensive consideration of the reasons why unilateral sanctions are a violation of international law. Unilateral economic restrictions violate the free trade regime of the WTO and the principle of non-discrimination that underpins the GATT. They represent a violation of the fundamental principles of sovereign equality, as well as the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. As a result of the application of economic sanctions by certain states, extraterritorial jurisdiction is manifested, which creates a dangerous precedent for international law.
International law and national law
Mammadov L.R. - International legal aspects of the construction and operation of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline pp. 30-39

DOI:
10.25136/2644-5514.2023.3.43476

EDN: SCQXBQ

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to analyze the legal acts that make up the legal basis for the construction and operation of the main oil export pipeline "Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan", passing through the territory of such states of the region as Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. These legal acts involve two types of agreements. The first type is international treaties that are made between the countries in the region. The second type is host government agreements that are made between the governments of the states and operational partners. The methodological basis of the study is the following theoretical methods of cognition: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, analogy, as well as special methods of cognition of legal phenomena and processes: comparative legal and formal legal. The article reveals the main elements of the Agreement between the Republic of Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Republic of Turkey relating to the transportation of petroleum via the territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Republic of Turkey through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan main export pipeline and the Agreement between Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan on supporting and facilitating the transportation of oil from the Republic Kazakhstan through the Caspian Sea and the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan to international markets through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, which ensured the connection of Kazakhstan to this oil pipeline. According to the author, the applied mechanism for regulating the construction and operation of an international pipeline project by acts of a public law and private law nature is effective, since it allows considering the interests of entities of various statuses interested in the project implementation: states and operational partners (investors).
Development of separate branches of international public law
Agamagomedova S. - International standards of customs control regulation: modern assessment pp. 40-48

DOI:
10.25136/2644-5514.2023.3.40951

EDN: WUBOPB

Abstract: The subject of the study is the system of international standards regulating customs control, their impact on national legislation and law enforcement practice of customs control. The author examines the existing international treaties in the field of customs regulation, among which there are general and special acts dedicated to the regulation of customs control. Two main objectives of the development and adoption of such standards in the field of customs control are outlined: the unification and harmonization of customs control regulation and the establishment of a minimum for such regulation. Special attention is paid to the principles of customs control, which are reflected in international treaties, in particular in the Kyoto Convention. The author also assesses the impact of international customs control standards on national regulation and law enforcement in the context of increased sanctions pressure on Russia. The main conclusions based on the results of the study are the following provisions: 1. International standards of customs control regulation have a significant impact on national customs legislation, and in the context of economic integration on the level of integration regulation of customs control. 2. The goals of developing universal standards for regulating customs control in the world are: maximum convergence of national regulation in various countries, including through the establishment of customs control principles; establishment of a minimum level of regulation of customs control. 3. International treaties on the regulation of customs control are differentiated into acts of a general nature (for example, the Kyoto Convention) and acts of a special nature (for example, the TRIPS Agreement). 4. There are three main methods of the modern customs control system in accordance with the Kyoto Convention: risk management, audit and information technology. 5. The institution of customs control under sanctions is being transformed and used by the state selectively in relation to various countries.
International civil law/private law
Belozertseva V.V. - Some elements of the legal personality of an individual in private international law pp. 49-57

DOI:
10.25136/2644-5514.2023.3.43426

EDN: WULYUZ

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of the elements of the legal personality of an individual in private international law, the problems and features of conflict of laws regulation are identified and its characteristics in Russian private international law are given. The conducted research made it possible to identify a number of problems of conflict regulation, in particular, the use of different terminology in states regarding the same legal phenomenon, different understanding, interpretation and qualification of concepts. Such problems are inevitable due to the existence of different legal systems. It is possible to overcome this with the help of conflict-of-laws regulation, however, it does not solve all the issues and discrepancies that arise. The conflict of laws regulation of the legal personality of individuals differs in the following characteristic features: the legal personality of an individual is determined by his personal law; there are two rules of personal law the law of citizenship and the law of residence, the law of citizenship is applied as a general rule, the law of residence regulates the legal personality of those persons in respect of whom it is difficult to find out with a certain degree of certainty the legal connection with the state on the basis of citizenship; when determining the procedure and grounds for limiting legal capacity recognizing a citizen as unfit or incapacitated, Russian law is applied, i.e. the legislator uses unilateral conflict of laws rules.
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