World Politics - rubric Resource competition
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Resource competition
Shapkin M.N. - Russia-Kazakhstan energy cooperation under the new geopolitical circumstances pp. 1-11


Abstract: The article considers Russia-Kazakhstan relations in the sphere of energy gaining special significance in the new reality of the global world. Energy cooperation is the most important factor of formation of the new political and economic strategies of both countries. The author studies the role of this sphere for the cooperation of the countries, the formation of interrelation models and the development of their national economies. The author analyzes the impact of the negative tendencies in this sphere on the dynamics of bilateral Russia-Kazakhstan relations, their multilateral cooperation with other countries, including their relations within Eurasian integration, and the prospects of these negative tendencies overcoming. The research methodology comprises general scientific methods and approaches, and the complex approach, which includes the wide range of social sciences. The novelty of the study consists in the consideration of bilateral relations of Russia and Kazakhstan from the position of the geopolitics of natural resources and their influence on various aspects of bilateral relations. The author concludes about the necessity to extend multilateral cooperation against the background of common and similar drawbacks of raw-materials-based economies of Russia and Kazakhstan. Their common drawbacks can serve as an impetus to the search for a collective approach which would simplify the task of development of a common modernization scenario aimed at the newest technologies mastering and introduction of innovations within the economies of the Union thus promoting their mutual integration. 
Israilov A.K., Shiriiazdanova I.F., Gatamova M.M., Ekazheva E.B. - The energy factor of the Persian Gulf countries in the American strategy of containing the PRC pp. 1-13


Abstract: The article examines the foundations of the US geopolitical interests in the Persian Gulf region, the increasing influence of China on the region and the subsequent US strategy regarding the containment of the PRC. The Persian Gulf region is of economic interest to a number of countries due to its rich hydrocarbon resources, as well as its unique geographical location, which has historically been subject to geopolitical influence. The stable growth of China's economy (before a 6.8% decline in GDP during the pandemic in the first quarter of 2020), China's growing cooperation with the Persian Gulf countries causes the United States to fear about losing its weight in world politics and, in particular, the loss of influence in the Persian Gulf region.   The article shows the main directions and ways of implementing the American strategy of containing China in the context of the energy factor of the Persian Gulf countries by: creating a "Middle East Strategic Alliance" (MESA), increasing the share of energy exports to the Chinese market for use later as a tool of pressure on China. Special attention is paid to the possibility of the United States joining the "price war" to restore oil prices. The study revealed that the energy factor of the Persian Gulf countries plays a significant role in the American strategy of deterring the PRC, which is determined by a number of geopolitical, economic and other factors.
Ponomarev N.V. - Transformation of the approaches to using military and political channels of the U.S. international influence in the context of implementation of the energy strategy during Trumps administration
pp. 8-18


Abstract: The research object is the global energy strategy of Donald Trump’s administration in 2017 - 2019. The research subject is the military and political aspects of implementation of the U.S. energy strategy connected with the plans to gain energy dominance and ensure international regimes favorable for maintaining the U.S. global leadership in the field of energy security and via the mechanisms of international military cooperation which include regional systems of energy export safety military provision formed by the U.S. in the 1990s - 2000s. The research is based on the system-structural approach to the analysis of the evolution of the U.S. foreign policy strategy, comparative analysis of regional vectors of implementation of the U.S. energy strategy, and document analysis. The research novelty of the study is conditioned by the estimation of the change of the role of the military and political factor in the U.S. energy policy in the context of the transformation of the global oil and gas market and the exacerbation of rivalry between the global powers against the background of weakening of the U.S. global position. The author notes both the continuation of policy towards the usage of the international military cooperation mechanisms for keeping control over the regimes of mining and transportation of carbohydrates on the global market, and the growing significance of military and political mechanisms of the U.S. influence aimed at furthering the U.S. interests as a liquified natural gas exporter. The decrease of the U.S. dependence on energy imports and the increase of its role as a huge exporter of natural gas do not lead to the reduction of the existing regional systems of military insurance of carbohydrates export. Competition for control over global energy flows management is still one of the key directions of the U.S. competition and independent centres of the forming polycentric global order.   
Starkin S.V., Pripisnova E.S., Krivov S.V. - The Energy Factor of Modern Geopolitics: an attempt at a cognitive Approach pp. 54-63



Abstract: Energy resources are becoming an increasingly politicized commodity, which at the same time retains special technical and economic characteristics, which complicates the work of the foreign policy leadership. Using a cognitive approach to foreign policy analysis, the authors conduct a study of the relationship between energy and foreign policy through the prism of different cognitive structures used by subjects to assess the landscape of the world energy. On this conceptual basis, the authors explore the evolution of the relationship between energy and foreign policy: how much energy is a useful tool of foreign policy, and, conversely, how deeply the goals of energy policy are embedded in foreign policy and affect the sphere of energy security. The main results of this study should be considered the conclusion of the authors that in order to distinguish energy as a foreign policy area, it is useful to distinguish between short-term and long-term energy vulnerability. The degree of longterm vulnerability is determined by the availability of real alternatives - the ability to diversify energy routes and sources. Thus, energy security is the dominant, but not the only factor determining energy as an area of foreign policy. The problem of energy sustainability is penetrating deeper into the world foreign policy agenda, since it is related to energy independence. Thus, depending on the influence of environmental beliefs on political, economic and social structures, energy sustainability can affect energy needs, energy imports, and hence energy independence. In addition, discussing the importance of energy sustainability, first of all it is necessary to focus on the problem of security, since energy sustainability is associated with the influence of internal resource consumption on the level of energy independence, and energy security focuses on the influence of external factors on ensuring sufficient energy supplies, and hence on energy independence.
Rozhkov I.S. - Transit-and-Transport Synergy in the Caspian Region in the Context of Establishment of the International Legal Status of the Caspian Sea: a Historic Chance or a Modern Challenge? pp. 58-76


Abstract: The subject of study of the present article is an analysis of the transit-and-transport cluster of multilateral cooperation of the internal and external actors in the Caspian region in the context of the uncertain international legal status of the Caspian Sea. The author takes a short excursion into the history of the coastal countries' interaction in the sphere of trade and movement of goods; explores the origins of the main transport corridors; considers the major projects in the transit sector implemented at the present stage also through the prism of China's active actions in this direction within "One belt, one road" global economic initiative); and predicts further development of the situation on this track for the near future given progressive improvement of the legal regime of the water body. As a methodological basis the study uses a comprehensive method in combination with historical, institutional and comparative methods of scientific analysis, as well as methods of systematic and comparative analysis of sources. The scientific novelty of the study lies in identification and comprehension of the synergetic effect that could be obtained from the parties' interaction within the framework of the implemented projects of international transport corridors in the Caspian region (TRACECA, "North-South", " Silk Road Economic Belt", Trans-Caspian International Transport Route, etc). The author’s one of the conclusions is that final regularization of the international legal status of the Caspian Sea and adoption of the relevant Convention will have a beneficial effect on cooperation in this area and will create a solid legal framework for further cooperation and a reliable shield to counter external challenges and threats.
Raikhlin E.I. - On Soviet and post-Soviet distribution of the land income. pp. 76-87


Abstract: The land income is a form of income from land and subsoil resources. Just like any other form of income, the production of land income is different from its distribution.  The quantity of land is stable and limited, and it forms the conditions for the land income. The production factors do not include the owner of the plot of land or its user (not being it s owner). The limited quantity of land and the services provided with it is relative . It is relative in comparison with two other production factors: physical capital (means and instruments of production) and the workforce, as well as to the amount of services provided by these two production factors. The relative character of limitations of land and services guaranteed by it do not provide for the lack of unused opportunity expenses, that is, alternative options for the use of a plot of land. Of course, there are such expenses and such options.  However, the amount of unused opportunity expenses or the amount of alternatives for the use of land are less when the physical capital and workforce used are not so limited and not so permanent at the current period of time.
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