World Politics - rubric Issues of war and peace
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "World Politics" > Rubric "Issues of war and peace"
Issues of war and peace
Spektor D.M. - Russophobia as a new antisemitism: from an interim measure to a measure of history pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2016.4.20977

Abstract: The research subject is the state of emergency concept – primarily in the interpretation of G. Agamben. This concept is considered in the two most significant aspects: in the political one (as it is interpreted by G. Agamben) and in the ontological (epistemological) one. The author ascertains the duality of the nature of the state of emergency, its ecstatic roots, traced in the logic of the slave-master relations and the ontological basis, the reconstruction of which is possible by means of a successive comparison of the notions of cognition and interrogation, investigation and research, condemnation and judgement, etc. The research methodology is based on the analysis and the reconstruction of the notions “investigation”, “procedure”, and “judicial proceedings” (substantiated in their genealogy by etymological closeness of the terms “history”, “truth” and “plaintiff”). The scientific novelty of the study consists in the disclosure of the genesis of the state of emergency from the early 20th century till the present days. The author demonstrates the continuity of the concept; proves that the role of “Jews” of the past century at present belongs to “Russians” and partly to “international terrorism”. At the same time, the general conditions of postmodernity leave a stamp on this role. 
Shapiro N.I. - Continuity and novations in U.S. policy in Afghanistan
pp. 26-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2019.4.31510

Abstract: The research object is U.S. strategy in asymmetric regional conflicts in the Middle East. The research subject is the process of formation and implementation of U.S. strategy in the conflict situation in Afghanistan and its consequences for regional and international security. The author demonstrates the confrontation between the competing coalitions of supporters of different behaviour strategies in the conflict reflecting the fundamental contradiction in U.S. political elite between the supporters of interventionism and a moderate foreign policy line. The author reveals the elements of continuity and transformation of U.S. policy in the conflict situation in Afghanistan. The research is based on the traditions of the systems approach to studying international relations and world policy. The author uses the elements of the historical-political and structural-functional analysis. The author studies the role of a personal factor in the development of foreign policy decisions using the techniques of political psychology. The author concludes that as a result of complex socio-political interactions, foreign policy of a state can markedly differ from the subjective goals and preferences of particular participants of foreign policy process. The experience of modification of U.S. strategy in Afghanistan undertaken by the Administrations of Barack Obama and Donald Trump, shows that the basic guidelines of U.S. policy have been stable during quite a long period of time. The interpretation of the key goal in the conflict - the prevention of Afghanistan turning into a base for international terrorism - hasn’t changed for a long period of time. The reduction of involvement in the conflict, which started during Obama’s administration, is in compliance with U.S. long-term orientation to more prudent, pragmatic and selective involvement into conflicts on the periphery of the world system.
Rustamova L.R. - Contribution of International Non-Governmental Organizations to Peaceful Conflict Resolution Processes: The Case of the Syrian Conflict pp. 32-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-8671.2022.4.38836

EDN: IMDEEC

Abstract: Due to the increase in the number of conflicts, which lead to the growth of tension and destabilization of the system of international relations, the search for new mechanisms for their settlement and new participants who are able to introduce a positive agenda through interaction with all parties is an urgent research task. This paper focuses on international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), acting as such new actors and taking part in the settlement of the conflict in Syria. The purpose of the article is to analyze their contribution to the Syrian peace process, to consider their possibilities and limitations. The methodology is based on discourse analysis and case studies. The case of Syria was chosen because of the ongoing nature of the civil war there, as well as the fact that INGOs have proposed a number of new initiatives to resolve the conflict, which makes this study novel. The study identified the main organizations that propose a peaceful settlement of the conflict, and also identified the main trends in the participation of INGOs in the crisis settlement in Syria. Thus, participating in the peace process, they also implement peacebuilding projects, actively cooperate with local INGOs, and switch to remote work formats due to security problems. However, the analysis of their proposals for the peace process also revealed the main problems of the activities of INGOs within the framework of track II diplomacy, which consist in their neglect of the principle of impartiality. The ability of INGOs to promote their initiatives is also influenced by the dynamics of traditional diplomacy. The key takeaway is that, despite the complexity of the Syrian peace process and the dominant role of traditional diplomacy, INGOs have a significant positive impact on the peace process as they promote grassroots cohesion among the Syrian population and encourage them to form civil associations similar to INGOs, which are also gradually beginning to look for ways of national reconciliation.
Karlova E.N., Ermolov N.A. - The place of private military companies within the public-private partnership system pp. 69-75

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8671.2016.3.17653

Abstract: The research subject is the conditions and prerequisites of the demand for private military companies. The research task is to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the participation of private contractors in military operations in Russia. One of the most disputable questions of this article is the regulation of their activity which can take several forms: unofficial control (social and corporate) and official (legislative regulation). The research is theoretical and based, mainly, on foreign resources, since Russia doesn’t have direct experience of use of private military companies in modern conflicts. The author applies general scientific methods: generalization, analysis, synthesis and comparison. The analysis of foreign experience shows that among the key social prerequisites to the rise of private military companies are the collapse of the bipolar world system, the decrease of reputation loss in cases of participation of the state in unpopular military campaigns, the redundancy of military specialists and technique, the evolution and increase of outsourcing in the military sphere, the influence of neoliberal ideology. In relation to Russia, doubts occur as to the two latter factors. During Serdyukov’s office, the idea of outsourcing has been discredited; the neoliberal policy is neither popular in Russia. The confidence in private companies is not among the typical features of Russian economy and mind. 
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