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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Architecture and Environment"
Architecture and Environment
Pavlova I.D. - Spatial multi-criteria assessment of road network as a method of determining the level of comfort of the bicycle ride pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article examines the method of spatial multi-criteria assessment of road network for determining the qualitative index of the level of comfort of bicycle ride in urban environment within the framework of development of city-planning information system of designing the urban cycling transport infrastructure. The object of research is the urban environment from the perspective of bike riders’ needs. The subject is the principles of establishment of cycling transport infrastructure, the importance of each principle for the users. The author suggest the use of geoinformation systems for the comprehensive assessment of the existing situation and further formulation of city-planning propositions. The segments of road network should be assessed in accordance with the following criteria: safety, alignment, provision of amenities, functional saturation, connectedness, correlation with traffic infrastructure, and correlation with natural carcass. For determination of the level of importance of each criterion, the author uses the results of author’s sociological survey among the active bike riders. The author introduces the concept of the bike ride’s comfort level coefficient based on assessment of the segments of road network on the determined criteria and rating of each criteria. The high-grade correlation between the results and the data about the activeness of bicycle traffic is revealed. Based on the results of the research, the author arranges the chart of the bicycle ride’s level of comfort that is proposed within the framework of city-planning information system of the designing of urban cycling transport infrastructure.
Kazantsev P.A., Marus Y.V., Smelovskaya A.M. - Peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of renovation of Vladivostoks water system pp. 18-32


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of rugged terrain and monsoon climate common for the city of Vladivostok, based on restoration of its natural hydrological cycle. The authors provide a brief overview of the current state of research on the topic of restoration and preservation of the natural hydrological cycle in urban environment; analyze the impact of the landscape-climatic factors upon the formation of hydrological cycle in the territory of Vladivostok; assesse the initial state and anthropogenic transformation of the natural carcass and water-collecting fabric of the landscape in the course of urban development of the south of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula. The research method contains the systematization of theoretical knowledge and design practices in the field of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of water system renovation the analysis of interaction of the urban planning pattern with the landscape and water system of the territory in accordance with the cartographic data of various years; on-side survey of and experimental design for the Obyasnenie River in Vladivostok. As a result, for the initial natural landscape of Vladivostok, are determine the three types of section of water-collecting fabric based on the seasonal variation of their contribution into the water content of the river system. The authors develop the index map of the water and landscape subsystems of the natural carcass of Vladivostok. Their correlation with the transport carcass and industrial zones allowed identifying the problematic territories and renovation reserves of the water system. In conclusion, the authors formulate the key directions in restoration of the natural hydrological cycle in urban territory as the foundation for formation of the sustainable urban environment within the region.
Wagner E. - Complex potential and assessment of efficiency of the functionality of architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces in the context of the established urban development pp. 35-50


Abstract: This article examines the aspects of assessment of efficiency of the functionality of architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces. Special attention is given to the analysis of characteristics of the pedestrian activity, which reflect the level of social efficiency of functionality of the public pedestrian spaces. In the result of the conducted research, the author determines that each fragment of the pedestrian network represents a dynamic space, the state and functions of which constantly change depending on such factors, as weather conditions, time of the day, mood of the residents, and other that create the circumstances for realization of certain types of activity – processes that reflects the important properties of the architectural environment of urban public spaces. The article examines the classification of process carried out within the architectural environment of the public pedestrian spaces. The author analyzes the existing methods, which allow classifying and assessing the types of pedestrian activity, as well as formulates the methodology of identification of the level of social efficiency of the architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces within the formed urban development. The scientific novelty of the article consists in substantiation and systematization of the processes that take place in the public pedestrian spaces along with their development and classification. The methods and principles laid in the methodology of assessment of the social efficiency of functionality of the public pedestrian spaces allow on the stages of pre-project analyses, internal audit and external expertize of the projects and implemented decisions, determining the format and vectors of reconstruction of the public pedestrian spaces in the conditions of the established urban environment. 
Malykh S.V. - The role of outdoor advertising in establishment of a city image pp. 40-47


Abstract: The subject of this article is the image of Irkutsk in perception of its residents through the images and forms of outdoor advertising placed in various districts of the city. The author examines the forms and types of the impact of advertising upon the social and territorial identity and perceptual unity of the urban environment. Special attention is given to the social and commercial advertising, evaluation of aggressiveness and harmonization of social space through the advertising images. The author also underlines the difference in perceiving advertising messages by males and females. The study applies the method of expert survey that consisted of 46 expert interviews of the representatives of government and business involved on advertising and advertising structures, as well as polling of 1,200 residents of Irkutsk. The scientific novelty lies in carrying out the analysis of outdoor advertising of the urban space of Irkutsk, determining the nationwide trends, and demonstrating the territorial peculiarities.
Kuryleva L.A. - Lighting of public spaces of the historical center of Saratov pp. 52-57


Abstract: This article analyzes the state of artificial lighting of the major squares, embankments, pedestrian precincts and avenues in the historical part of Saratov as the most popular public cultural spaces among its visitors and residents. The author provides the main results of the conducted social survey of the city population regarding the quality of night lighting environment of the claimed territories, as well as presents a descriptive analysis of the visual inspection of the spaces of historical center of Saratov under the conditions of artificial lighting. During the course of this research, took place the field measurements of the levels of horizontal, cylindrical, and semi-cylindrical lighting of the territories, as well as comparison of the acquired data with the standards. The author determines the negative and positive aspects of the existing artificial lighting environment, gives assessment to their convenience and attractiveness for the population. The article also suggests recommendations on increasing the quality of artificial lighting of the aforementioned territories, as well as guidance on further research.
Ivanova A.S. - Approaches to formation of virtual reality in the works of Maurits Cornelis Escher for designing the architectural space pp. 63-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the origins of the phenomenon of virtual reality in architecture, which advances the thought on the ambiguous impact of the works of the Dutch artist M. K. Escher upon the theoretical aspects of emergence of the new paradigm of the XXI century in architecture. The object of this research is the base effects of illusory perception, generated by the artist in his compositions. Special attention is given to determination and substantiation of the conceptual-theoretical phenomenon of the emergence of virtual reality paradigm in the practical artistic works that reflects the varieties of time and space paradoxes. The article applies the method of analysis of historiographical base of the studies of foreign authors for the formation of theoretical foundation of the modern scientific explanation in manifestations of the virtual reality of architectural environment. The conclusions are based on the conceptual systematization of “visual effects” in the works of M. K. Escher, examples of their interpretations in architecture by his successors, which became the means of a modern architect and designer, and increasingly predetermine the quality of visual perception of the architectural space.
Berestovskaya D., Petrenko A. - Semiotics of architecture in the urban space of cultural landscapes pp. 68-78


Abstract: This article examines the problem of symbolic urban space, as well as reveals the essence of a city as cultural text, while the signs and symbols as the information carriers. In the course of this research, the author analyzes the structure and principles of the establishment of architectural space, which is a complex multilevel system, integrated symbolic formation, which remains in constant pursuit of the own architectural image. The study of architectural space leads to contemplation of spatial phenomena related to regional uniqueness. The comprehensive analysis of this problematic implies the use of the variety of sources for studying the specificity of architecture of particular cities, issues regarding the establishment of urban space, its transformation, changes in sociocultural situation, and other aspects. Semiotics as the methodology for studying architectural space serves as foundation for the analysis. For the first time, from the perspective of semiotic approach, the author analyzes the architecture of Crimean cities in the context of the uniqueness of cultural landscape of the Crimean Peninsula, which carries certain information enclosed within sign system. Y. M. Lotman’s theory of semiosphere  alongside V. L. Kagansky’s concept of landscape hermeneutic, viewed in the context of regional specificities, underlie the analysis of the indicated cultural landscape. The research reflects a new approach towards studying the Crimean urban space as the cultural landscape, based on the sociocultural problematic of modern urban studies. City is interpreted as a social phenomenon, characteristic with system symbols, perception of which changes dynamically due to ongoing processes in the Crimean Peninsula.
Gorelova Y.R. - City as a concept and a visual artistic image pp. 74-89


Abstract: This article portrays city as a certain mental construct, cluster of ideas, as well as analyses the essential features of a city, which allow identifying the distinctness of such fragment of reality in people's perception. The author analyzes the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", considering their interaction at the level of essence and structure. Particular attention is paid to the specificity of artistic image as a special type of imagery, along with the images of everyday perception, official images, and others. At the same time, prioritized attention is given to the specificity of artistic imagery of the city captured in the visual arts. The author reveals the dynamics of the key trends in reflecting a city as a concept in the works of artists of various eras. Peculiar for this study became the imposition of subject areas of a city as a concept (as a term, mental construct) and methods of working with visual sources, namely the analysis of visual "texts" in form of the urban landscapes (the author compiled 843 city landscapes). A link is established between the term of "city" and the spectrum of qualities, characteristics and associations that stand behind it and form the perception of such fragment of reality. Analyzing the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", the author concludes that the image and the concept have a similar structure (centered core, following by concentric layers in proportion to weakening of characteristic and decrease of its importance and awareness in the consciousness of recipients). However, the term of "image" is broader, filled with visual and emotional components. The concept is more focused on the category of essential and typical features, as well as familiar meanings. Describing the specificity of artistic image, the author notes that it is related to specificity of the sphere of art, which  distinctness manifests in subjectivity and emotionality of perception and presentation. The author determines the range of basic characteristics included in the concept of "city" that allow singling out the specific perception of this fragment within the framework of artistic imagery reproduced in works of art.
Burova O.G. - Small architectural form: assessment of load-carrying capacity and selection of optimal module frame based on structural weight pp. 79-87


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of engineering of structural frames for small architectural forms. The object of this research is the bearing frame of multifunctional module of the small architectural forms, intended for increasing comfort level of stay, recreation and awareness of population in urban and suburban environment. For comparative assessment and search of minimal weight construct, the author analyzes the options of frame manufacturing from steel, aluminum, and fiberglass. The module frame represents a framed structure consisting of rectangular cross-section tubular elements. The modelling of stress-stain state and evaluation of load-carrying capacity of the frame for various combinations of loading were conducted using the finite element method. The results of multi-variable calculations demonstrate that in ensuring the requirements of durability and rigidity the construct made out of composite material is lighter that the steel and aluminum alternative by about 71 and 7% respectively. The author formulates the factors limiting the reduction of material intensity of the constructs made out of composite materials and offset their advantages if compared to metallic materials.
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