Urban Studies - rubric Architecture and Environment
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Architecture and Environment"
Architecture and Environment
Pavlova I.D. - Spatial multi-criteria assessment of road network as a method of determining the level of comfort of the bicycle ride pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article examines the method of spatial multi-criteria assessment of road network for determining the qualitative index of the level of comfort of bicycle ride in urban environment within the framework of development of city-planning information system of designing the urban cycling transport infrastructure. The object of research is the urban environment from the perspective of bike riders’ needs. The subject is the principles of establishment of cycling transport infrastructure, the importance of each principle for the users. The author suggest the use of geoinformation systems for the comprehensive assessment of the existing situation and further formulation of city-planning propositions. The segments of road network should be assessed in accordance with the following criteria: safety, alignment, provision of amenities, functional saturation, connectedness, correlation with traffic infrastructure, and correlation with natural carcass. For determination of the level of importance of each criterion, the author uses the results of author’s sociological survey among the active bike riders. The author introduces the concept of the bike ride’s comfort level coefficient based on assessment of the segments of road network on the determined criteria and rating of each criteria. The high-grade correlation between the results and the data about the activeness of bicycle traffic is revealed. Based on the results of the research, the author arranges the chart of the bicycle ride’s level of comfort that is proposed within the framework of city-planning information system of the designing of urban cycling transport infrastructure.
Kozyrenko S.M., Babenko S.N. - Analysis of formation of the environment of the Orthodox rehabilitation centers pp. 11-33


Abstract: The subject of this research is presented by the peculiarities of formation of special environment contributing to active rehabilitation of the addicts and their return to society. The study is dedicated to the impact of spatial and object environment of the Orthodox retreats upon those who desire to get free from addictions, and how it becomes an environment for active psychotherapy. The amount of Orthodox rehabilitation centers grows each year, so is the number of addicts who voluntarily choose the retreats for rehabilitation in the ascetic living conditions. The scientific novelty consists in viewing the Orthodox rehabilitation centers as a conceptual environment, encouraging the addicts to recovery. Religious experience of drastic changes in person’s life as a result of his functional isolation as an addict, and living in a conceptually arranged environment, creates motivation to recovery. The research offers a review of specialized rehabilitation centers that reproduce the characteristics of Orthodox settlements of secluded type. The nature of design solution, formed as a sacredly important visual text of an Orthodox monastery/settlement, is considered as determining the worldview values and capable of shifting the idea of repentance and further revival in faith, which reveals the semantic constructs of the design [1]. The main conclusions lies in the fact that the impact of architectural environment upon the emotional state and behavior of a person allows considering the practice of Orthodox seclusion productive for overcoming the crisis states of the people defined as a result of chronic alcohol consumption and stimulants.
Kazantsev P.A., Marus Y.V., Smelovskaya A.M. - Peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of renovation of Vladivostoks water system pp. 18-32


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of rugged terrain and monsoon climate common for the city of Vladivostok, based on restoration of its natural hydrological cycle. The authors provide a brief overview of the current state of research on the topic of restoration and preservation of the natural hydrological cycle in urban environment; analyze the impact of the landscape-climatic factors upon the formation of hydrological cycle in the territory of Vladivostok; assesse the initial state and anthropogenic transformation of the natural carcass and water-collecting fabric of the landscape in the course of urban development of the south of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula. The research method contains the systematization of theoretical knowledge and design practices in the field of formation of the sustainable urban environment in the conditions of water system renovation the analysis of interaction of the urban planning pattern with the landscape and water system of the territory in accordance with the cartographic data of various years; on-side survey of and experimental design for the Obyasnenie River in Vladivostok. As a result, for the initial natural landscape of Vladivostok, are determine the three types of section of water-collecting fabric based on the seasonal variation of their contribution into the water content of the river system. The authors develop the index map of the water and landscape subsystems of the natural carcass of Vladivostok. Their correlation with the transport carcass and industrial zones allowed identifying the problematic territories and renovation reserves of the water system. In conclusion, the authors formulate the key directions in restoration of the natural hydrological cycle in urban territory as the foundation for formation of the sustainable urban environment within the region.
Khettou D., Razin A.D. - Principles of architectural organization and development of tourism objects in the coastal areas (Bejaia City, Algeria) pp. 33-43


Abstract: Currently, there is a high global demand for tourism objects. With its landscapes and Mediterranean Sea coastal areas, Algeria is well positioned for the construction of tourism objects, especially within the coastline. These places become as frequented by tourists as Europe. Moreover, two-thirds of Algerian population reside in the area, which generated uncontrolled urbanization. One of such coastal districts is Bejaia. The Bejaya region covers an area of 785 km2 and has a high potential for tourism ensured by the coastline of over 100 km. The region has a shortage of tourism objects and infrastructure, as well as problems of preservation of the surrounding environment. The article considers the question of sustainable development of tourism in Bejaia, as well as the various options for the placement of these objects in mountainous areas and coastline. The architectural organization of tourism may help in solving multiple issues in the development of Algeria.
Glatolenkova E. - Architecture of residential environment in the settlements along the Chinese Eastern Railway pp. 34-48


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of formation of residential areas along the Chinese Eastern Railway (CER); analyzes the pattern of settlements; and examines the architectural nuances of residential buildings. The object of this research is the architectural urban development peculiarities of Russian railroad stations on the territory of Northern Manchuria. The subject of this research is the residential environment in the settlements along the Chinese Eastern Railway. The chronological framework covers the first three decades of the XX century: beginning of construction and first years of exploitation of the railway, characterized by active urban development process and creation of full-fledged environment for accommodation of construction workers, railway workers, migrants from Russia, Southern Manchuria and mainland China. The theoretical foundation for this study consists in the systemic-axiological approach, according to which the culture defines the system of materialistic and spiritual values passed from one generation to another, and allows determining the value grounds of cultural interaction and its panhuman significance. The work explores the peculiarities of architecture and urban development in the settlements along CER. Study is carried out on the construction process of the railway and living conditions of first workers, approaches towards design of the stations of the main line and the southern branch, as well as architecture of residential building of the settlements. The author considers the impact of Russian environment upon the existing Chinese cities, and the use of the traditional Chinese approaches in the projects by the Russian engineers and architects.
Wagner E. - Complex potential and assessment of efficiency of the functionality of architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces in the context of the established urban development pp. 35-50


Abstract: This article examines the aspects of assessment of efficiency of the functionality of architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces. Special attention is given to the analysis of characteristics of the pedestrian activity, which reflect the level of social efficiency of functionality of the public pedestrian spaces. In the result of the conducted research, the author determines that each fragment of the pedestrian network represents a dynamic space, the state and functions of which constantly change depending on such factors, as weather conditions, time of the day, mood of the residents, and other that create the circumstances for realization of certain types of activity – processes that reflects the important properties of the architectural environment of urban public spaces. The article examines the classification of process carried out within the architectural environment of the public pedestrian spaces. The author analyzes the existing methods, which allow classifying and assessing the types of pedestrian activity, as well as formulates the methodology of identification of the level of social efficiency of the architectural environment of public pedestrian spaces within the formed urban development. The scientific novelty of the article consists in substantiation and systematization of the processes that take place in the public pedestrian spaces along with their development and classification. The methods and principles laid in the methodology of assessment of the social efficiency of functionality of the public pedestrian spaces allow on the stages of pre-project analyses, internal audit and external expertize of the projects and implemented decisions, determining the format and vectors of reconstruction of the public pedestrian spaces in the conditions of the established urban environment. 
Malykh S.V. - The role of outdoor advertising in establishment of a city image pp. 40-47


Abstract: The subject of this article is the image of Irkutsk in perception of its residents through the images and forms of outdoor advertising placed in various districts of the city. The author examines the forms and types of the impact of advertising upon the social and territorial identity and perceptual unity of the urban environment. Special attention is given to the social and commercial advertising, evaluation of aggressiveness and harmonization of social space through the advertising images. The author also underlines the difference in perceiving advertising messages by males and females. The study applies the method of expert survey that consisted of 46 expert interviews of the representatives of government and business involved on advertising and advertising structures, as well as polling of 1,200 residents of Irkutsk. The scientific novelty lies in carrying out the analysis of outdoor advertising of the urban space of Irkutsk, determining the nationwide trends, and demonstrating the territorial peculiarities.
Fedchenko I.G., Chui Y.V., Kamalova K.V. - Trends in formation of residential areas at the beginning of the XXI century pp. 49-67


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the research on current trends in formation of residential areas of the early XXI century. The dynamic of development of modern cities forms new perceptions on advancement of living spaces. The increase of mobility, multifunctionality, problems of social stratification, segregation, as well as growing dynamic of functional integration of production activity into residential environment and formation of socio-iconological worldview of society lead to visual transformation of residential areas. The global experience of city planning is being infiltrated by the newest 3D-planning solutions of residential development projects, forming new structural components of public spaces, and change social-functional characteristics of residential architecture, which is of particular interest for the modern theory of urban development. The article generalizes the development patterns of urbanized territories of large cities that impact the emergence of new forms of living spaces, new types of public spaces, and residential architecture. Characteristic is given to the modern principles of formation of residential areas. The research is carried out with financial support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research in the context of scientific project No.18-312-00177.
Kuryleva L.A. - Lighting of public spaces of the historical center of Saratov pp. 52-57


Abstract: This article analyzes the state of artificial lighting of the major squares, embankments, pedestrian precincts and avenues in the historical part of Saratov as the most popular public cultural spaces among its visitors and residents. The author provides the main results of the conducted social survey of the city population regarding the quality of night lighting environment of the claimed territories, as well as presents a descriptive analysis of the visual inspection of the spaces of historical center of Saratov under the conditions of artificial lighting. During the course of this research, took place the field measurements of the levels of horizontal, cylindrical, and semi-cylindrical lighting of the territories, as well as comparison of the acquired data with the standards. The author determines the negative and positive aspects of the existing artificial lighting environment, gives assessment to their convenience and attractiveness for the population. The article also suggests recommendations on increasing the quality of artificial lighting of the aforementioned territories, as well as guidance on further research.
Ivanova A.S. - Approaches to formation of virtual reality in the works of Maurits Cornelis Escher for designing the architectural space pp. 63-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the origins of the phenomenon of virtual reality in architecture, which advances the thought on the ambiguous impact of the works of the Dutch artist M. K. Escher upon the theoretical aspects of emergence of the new paradigm of the XXI century in architecture. The object of this research is the base effects of illusory perception, generated by the artist in his compositions. Special attention is given to determination and substantiation of the conceptual-theoretical phenomenon of the emergence of virtual reality paradigm in the practical artistic works that reflects the varieties of time and space paradoxes. The article applies the method of analysis of historiographical base of the studies of foreign authors for the formation of theoretical foundation of the modern scientific explanation in manifestations of the virtual reality of architectural environment. The conclusions are based on the conceptual systematization of “visual effects” in the works of M. K. Escher, examples of their interpretations in architecture by his successors, which became the means of a modern architect and designer, and increasingly predetermine the quality of visual perception of the architectural space.
Berestovskaya D., Petrenko A. - Semiotics of architecture in the urban space of cultural landscapes pp. 68-78


Abstract: This article examines the problem of symbolic urban space, as well as reveals the essence of a city as cultural text, while the signs and symbols as the information carriers. In the course of this research, the author analyzes the structure and principles of the establishment of architectural space, which is a complex multilevel system, integrated symbolic formation, which remains in constant pursuit of the own architectural image. The study of architectural space leads to contemplation of spatial phenomena related to regional uniqueness. The comprehensive analysis of this problematic implies the use of the variety of sources for studying the specificity of architecture of particular cities, issues regarding the establishment of urban space, its transformation, changes in sociocultural situation, and other aspects. Semiotics as the methodology for studying architectural space serves as foundation for the analysis. For the first time, from the perspective of semiotic approach, the author analyzes the architecture of Crimean cities in the context of the uniqueness of cultural landscape of the Crimean Peninsula, which carries certain information enclosed within sign system. Y. M. Lotman’s theory of semiosphere  alongside V. L. Kagansky’s concept of landscape hermeneutic, viewed in the context of regional specificities, underlie the analysis of the indicated cultural landscape. The research reflects a new approach towards studying the Crimean urban space as the cultural landscape, based on the sociocultural problematic of modern urban studies. City is interpreted as a social phenomenon, characteristic with system symbols, perception of which changes dynamically due to ongoing processes in the Crimean Peninsula.
Gorelova Y.R. - City as a concept and a visual artistic image pp. 74-89


Abstract: This article portrays city as a certain mental construct, cluster of ideas, as well as analyses the essential features of a city, which allow identifying the distinctness of such fragment of reality in people's perception. The author analyzes the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", considering their interaction at the level of essence and structure. Particular attention is paid to the specificity of artistic image as a special type of imagery, along with the images of everyday perception, official images, and others. At the same time, prioritized attention is given to the specificity of artistic imagery of the city captured in the visual arts. The author reveals the dynamics of the key trends in reflecting a city as a concept in the works of artists of various eras. Peculiar for this study became the imposition of subject areas of a city as a concept (as a term, mental construct) and methods of working with visual sources, namely the analysis of visual "texts" in form of the urban landscapes (the author compiled 843 city landscapes). A link is established between the term of "city" and the spectrum of qualities, characteristics and associations that stand behind it and form the perception of such fragment of reality. Analyzing the connection between the terms of "concept" and "image", the author concludes that the image and the concept have a similar structure (centered core, following by concentric layers in proportion to weakening of characteristic and decrease of its importance and awareness in the consciousness of recipients). However, the term of "image" is broader, filled with visual and emotional components. The concept is more focused on the category of essential and typical features, as well as familiar meanings. Describing the specificity of artistic image, the author notes that it is related to specificity of the sphere of art, which  distinctness manifests in subjectivity and emotionality of perception and presentation. The author determines the range of basic characteristics included in the concept of "city" that allow singling out the specific perception of this fragment within the framework of artistic imagery reproduced in works of art.
Burova O.G. - Small architectural form: assessment of load-carrying capacity and selection of optimal module frame based on structural weight pp. 79-87


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of engineering of structural frames for small architectural forms. The object of this research is the bearing frame of multifunctional module of the small architectural forms, intended for increasing comfort level of stay, recreation and awareness of population in urban and suburban environment. For comparative assessment and search of minimal weight construct, the author analyzes the options of frame manufacturing from steel, aluminum, and fiberglass. The module frame represents a framed structure consisting of rectangular cross-section tubular elements. The modelling of stress-stain state and evaluation of load-carrying capacity of the frame for various combinations of loading were conducted using the finite element method. The results of multi-variable calculations demonstrate that in ensuring the requirements of durability and rigidity the construct made out of composite material is lighter that the steel and aluminum alternative by about 71 and 7% respectively. The author formulates the factors limiting the reduction of material intensity of the constructs made out of composite materials and offset their advantages if compared to metallic materials.
Kozyrenko I.S. - Contemporary styles and images in Harbin architecture pp. 82-103


Abstract: The object of this research is the contemporary architecture of Harbin, which is currently developing as a megalopolis of the Northeast of China. The subject of this research is the architectural peculiarities of cultural public objects, built in the first decade of the XXI century. At the present time, Harbin determines the old districts of the Russian period of development of the city; new building imitating historical architectural styles; and unique objects of cultural designation. The authors of exclusive projects and the Chinese architectural firms that recently improves their rating not only in China, but also abroad. The scientific novelty is defined by the rapid construction rates in Harbin and formation of its new architectural image. The article is first to explore contemporary architecture of the unique objects for the purpose of determination of stylistic and imagery characteristics. This would allow forecasting future development of architectural environment of the “Russian Atlantis”. The main conclusion consists in the fact that Harbin actively develops cultural functions that increase its status as an international tourism center. Chinese and foreign architectural firms are attracted to design of the objects. Their works indicate the search of memorable and remarkable objects with attached profound semantic meaning. Contemporary architectural objects reflect history, culture and traditions of China, as well as innovative approaches to the formation of urban environment.
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