Urban Studies - rubric ќзеленение и парковое хоз€йство
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "ќзеленение и парковое хоз€йство"
ќзеленение и парковое хоз€йство
Dorozhkina E. - Constructive issues of УgreenФ architecture pp. 1-11


Abstract: “Green” architecture receives more and more popularity around the globe. In such case, the metropolises urban development is no exception. There are multiple reasons, among the main ones, is the need for increase of beautification of contemporary urban development, environmentalization of the surroundings by means of forming the additional landscaped spaces. Thus, the established archetype of the environment must undergo transformation. Due to this fact, the typical design of urban development cannot fully meet the modern requirements, because first and foremost, it is oriented towards the increase of urban density.  In the context of forming the objects of “green” architecture, the design (both, architectural planning and engineering technical) is aimed at creating the buildings and constructs that simultaneously meet multiple demands: sustainability, reliability, durability, and environmental constraints. Currently, methods of mass “green” architecture and the corresponding technical base remain underdeveloped, which leads to the need for implementing the individual solutions that will consider the assemblage of all factors. Surface landscaping, exploitation, and beautification of special environment drastically changes the functional-engineering nature of development project, formal and constructive concept of the element of a building, putting them in the position of specific architectural, landscaping, and city-planning objects that demand a full project design. Therefore, formation of the architecture of urban development must take into account the peculiarities of “green” object.
Bulatova E.K. - pp. 9-19


Vorobeva M. - Project approaches towards the organization of theme parks pp. 11-23


Abstract: Based on the analysis of thematic parks of the Russian and foreign experience, the four main planning structures have been determined: “invariant”, universal, super thematic, and flexible. The author analyzes the patterns of the theme parks, amount of objects of demonstration, their location, as well as reviews the principle of building the rout in the parks with hierarchy of the thematic zones and objects of demonstration. Special attention is given to the thematic zoning and breaking the scenario into episodes. The work examines the planning principles that affect the environment of the park, as well as interaction of the planning structure with surrounding landscape. Scenario approach lies in the foundation of a theme park, which represents creation of the timely structure consisting of the objects of demonstrations that are connected between each other by the rout of a park. The main conclusion reflects the interconnection between the theme of the park and its planning structure. The “invariant” structure is common to the parks with fairy-tale and mythological theme; super thematic structure is usually used in the parts with scientific-technical theme; universal and flexible structures are characteristic to the parts with cultural and ethnical theme. The flexible planning structure is most popular for the theme parks.
Rodionovskaya I.S., Dorozhkina E. - Environment of the urbanized territories in the aspect of Уgreen architectureФ and improvement pp. 11-19


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the question of formation of housing development of the Moscow urban environment. The author examines the existing modern archetype of residential construction in the commuter areas, as well as notes the high-density housing with dense population. The principles of construction are viewed from the perspective of their impact upon the ecological characteristics of the environment. The article also analyze the influence of urban greening upon the ecological component of the environment, and thus, touches upon its new type – the “green” building. The main conclusion of the conducted research consists in the necessity of phyto-ecologization of the living environment through creation of the powerful system of urban greening. However, it seems rather difficult task due to the significant limitation of territorial resource. The article suggests forming a new type of urban greening – the “green” building”.
Miryugina T.A., Sadykova E.F. - City parks of Tobolsk: past and present pp. 26-35


Abstract: This article explores the insufficiently studied aspects of centuries-old history of the parks and gardens of Tobolsk – the spiritual center of Siberia. The author determines the key moments in their past, as well as current situation and future development prospects. The first gardens in Tobolsk and its surroundings have appeared in the early XIX century – Yermak Garden, Apothecary Garden, and Alexandrovsky Garden. The history of a number of city gardens is associated with the visits of Imperial Romanov family. For example, in 1837 the crown prince Alexander II of Russia visited Tobolsk, and after his assassination in 1881, the Tobolsk dwellers decided to erect a Chapel and lay out a garden around it, which received a name of “Alexandrovsky Garden”. The established in August 1839 “Yermak Garden” was visited by Nicholas II of Russia in 1891; “Apothecary Garden” is the first city garden, its history is traced since February 1810, when merchant Malkov acquired it form the Grand Duke Meshchersky. Currently, there has been developed the project for its reconstruction, with preservation of the historical image and selection of plants in accordance with their mentioning in the archival materials. For the first time in history, on the territory of West Siberian Plain (within the limits of Tyumen Oblast) is created a Central Siberian Botanical Garden; the botanical gardens in Tyumen and Surgut are also in progress.
Kritskaya S.B., Rozantseva L.E. - On particular aspects of recreational activity organization in urnab environment pp. 39-46


Abstract: First and foremost, the authors link the relevance of this study with the aggravation of environment, ecological, social, climatic and other issues which are specific to urban areas in the beginning of the XXI century. Not only large cities, but the whole area affected by the devastating impact of technological expansion. Under these conditions, the cooperation of the city authorities with environmentalists to create a comfortable environment is an important factor in solving these problems. However, there are some obstacles associated with the intervention of interest groups that use these problems to solve their short-term political goals. The study used hydrological monitoring data gathered in the regional centers of Moscow region, analyzing media sources, primarily regional newspapers and magazines. The novelty of the method proposed by the authors is based upon the connection of the social and natural aspects of urban area problems analysis. It's possible that the research conducted in the article will become a stepping stone for further research in this new field of social cognition - Social Hydroecology. Creating a comfortable environment is definitely possible with the cooperation between urban authorities and civil society, as far as architectural and planning are concerned.
Veretennikova K. - Role of national framework in the process of development of the airport-related zones of largest cities pp. 48-56


Abstract: This article is dedicated to determination of the role of natural framework within the structure of airport-related zones of largest cities.  The object of this research is the natural framework of the airport-related zones, while the subject is the forms of their effective use. The work considers the problems of development of the airport-related zones on the example of St. Petersburg Pulkovo Airport, factors of its dynamic urbanization and consequences of the unregulated construction. The author systematized the approaches towards implementation of the principle of environmental sustainability in foreign strategic documents on development of the territories adjacent to airport. The need is substantiated for creation of the universal developments strategy for the territories adjacent to airport, using the natural framework as an important planning element that allows ensuring sustainable development of the near-airport territory. The article determines the roles of natural framework and recommendations on its formation within the near-airport zones of largest cities. It is established that the natural framework consolidated in the complex strategic document of development of the near-airport territory, as well as the territorial planning documents, can manifest as an instrument for creating the balanced and efficient development of territories adjacent to airport.
Pryadko I.P. - Green architecture as a factor of environmental safety of the urbanized territories: Russian and foreign experience pp. 87-97


Abstract:  The object of this research is the principle of environmental safety, while the subject is the separate aspects of application of this principle in “green building”. The work analyze the volume and content of the aforementioned concept, as well as the content and volume of the concept of “sustainability”. The author determines the correlation between the environmental safety and sustainability, considers the examples of implementation of the principles of sustainability and environmental safety in urban development and production of construction materials. The author reviews the contribution of national and foreign companies that operate in the national construction market into the creation of “green architecture”. The article takes into account the method of environmental monitoring conducted in the capital metropolis and Moscow Region. One of the key methods is the retrospective analysis of the sources on “green architecture” and publications on the problems of environmentally safe construction. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the issues of biosphere-compatible construction are viewed from the perspective of social needs of the groups of urban population. Another novelty is the research of ecologically safe materials in national practice of erecting the buildings and constructs. The analysis of consequences of implementation of the international environmental standards DGNB into the construction practice for safety purposes has not been previously conducted. The goal of this article lied in filling this gap.  
Sadkovskaya O. - Technologies of ecological urbanism as a response to the consequences of climate change pp. 98-122


Abstract: This article analyzes the city-development experience of the countries that implemented in practice the principles of ecological urbanism. The object of research is the planning structure and landscape layout of the territory of low-rise residential construction. The author examines the planning methods that conduce the mitigation of anthropogenic effect upon the urban environment. The subject of research is the principles and methods of city-planning organization of territory aimed at formation of the comfortable microclimate of residential housing under the conditions of climate change. The article considers the practical experience of the following countries: United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Great Britain, Netherlands, and Germany. The satellite images of the fragments of urban territories are examined. The author analyzed the normative documentation in the area of urban-environmental approach, as well as the requirements: LID, SuDS, BMPs, SCMs, etc. As a result of scientific work, the author proposed the ways for integration of the ecologically safe landscapes into the structure of low-rise residential construction. The article also suggests the systematization of urban landscape by the types of regulatory practices of the hydrologic cycle: cumulative, absorbing, water-reducing, and directive. The city-planning and architectural components with regards to regulation of the hydrologic cycle of urban landscapes are determined.
Proshina A.S. - pp. 100-114


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