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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Проектирование и архитектура"
Проектирование и архитектура
Taletskaia I. - Main factors affecting the modern projects of children leisure and entertainment centers pp. 9-21

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.4.28108

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the main factors that affect the creation of modern projects of the children leisure and entertainment centers. The object of this research is the children leisure and entertainment centers, while the subject is specificities of its designing. The author provides an overview of the most common examples of the existing projects of the children leisure and entertainment centers, built over the period from 2006 to 2017; as well as presents a systemic analysis of the city-planning, functional and architectural-artistic characteristics of each object. The acquired results allow determining the key factors that affect the designing of the children leisure and entertainment centers, among which are the city-planning, socio-functional and psychological. Each of these factors must be considered in designing the children leisure and entertainment centers. The author underlines that the world practice of designing the children leisure and entertainment centers knows the cases of applying studies in the area of children and adolescent psychology, sociological survey data, as well as the city-planning peculiarities; however it carries an occasional and irregular character. The scientific novelty lies in systematization of the determined factors for the purpose of aligning and improving the designing of the children leisure and entertainment centers.
Dorozhkina E. - Constructional features of horizontal urban gardening pp. 10-17

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.27684

Abstract: The goal of this work is the determination of the peculiarities of technical engineering of horizontal urban gardening from the perspective of creating a poly-functional environment. The structural design s is viewed with consideration of the impact of plants upon the building structure. In the course of this research, the author examines the structure of “green” roof covering; the risks emerging in engineering, construction, and exploitation of such structural design. The article also analyzes the constructional-technical principles of the formation of poly-functional environment with horizontal urban gardening; provides the criteria of selecting plants for horizontal urban gardening of the various types of buildings; gives comparative characteristics to the types of horizontal urban gardening. The main research method is the systemic analysis, including the analysis of scientific literature, project materials, and recommendations. The author provides the typological classification of the types of urban gardening; describes the impact of urban gardening upon the building structures considering the used plants; describes the effect of climatic factors of the environment upon urban gardening. The principles of formation of the additional protective structure in engineering buildings and structures with horizontal gardening are presented.
Veretennikov D., Vilenskii M.Y. - Practice of project competitions in Saint Petersburg pp. 11-25

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29006

Abstract: The object of this research is the project competitions held in Saint Petersburg since the foundation of the city until the present day. The creative professional competitions in the sphere of architecture, urban planning, monumental art and landscape-environmental design pursuing the best solution of a specific project task are referred to the area of project competitions. The authors examine the evolution of the practice of implementation of competitive method in Saint Petersburg; and determine the most distinctive types of project tasks solved using the competitive method at various stages of city’s development. The competitions are analyzed in accordance with the following aspects: type of design object, format of its social affiliation (individual, collective, public), location within the city-planning pattern (central, peripheral, suburban zones) and relatively to water objects. The main conclusions consist in the evolution trends of the relevant city-planning objectives, determined on the basis of changes of the prevailing themes ad locations of the objects of competitive designing. The analysis of evolution of competitive practice is conducted in accordance with the five historical stages of spatial development of Saint Petersburg, characterizes by the diverse sociopolitical circumstances, peculiarities of urban development policy, and level if institutialization of the practice of holding the project competitions.
Zhzhonykh A.M. - Low-vacuum heat insulating panels based on the byproducts of crystalized silicon pp. 12-20

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.3.26161

Abstract: The heat insulating materials that reduce the thermal losses of buildings and constructs will play the key role in their energy performance. The low-vacuum insulation panels are an effective alternative to the non-vacuumed heat insulating materials due to the lower coefficient of thermal conductivity. The goal of this research is to examine the potential application of silica fume, aluminum byproduct as a filler for vacuum insulation panel. The author examines the properties of silicon dioxide powder, develops the composition and technology of production of the vacuum heat insulating panels on its basis. The article explores the silica fume – byproduct of crystalized silicon of Bratsk Ferroalloy Plant, which annual putput is 30,000 tons. The acquired results allow assuming that for manufacturing of the low-vacuum insulating panels can be used not only factory produced powder, but also less expansive powders of silica fume – the byproduct of crystalized silicon. In future, the use of byproducts can become the foundation of production of the high-quality vacuum insulation wilt low cost.
., . - Transportation in cities: organizing accessible and comfortable architecture and planning environment for the mobility-impaired citizens pp. 19-29

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2014.1.12517

Abstract: This article examines the current state of affairs regarding transportation accessibility for the mobility-impaired urban dwellers. The author evaluates the solutions applied by Moscow, Moscow Region's cities and other major Russian cities. Proper ramps and sidewalks are a priority to ensure access by the disabled and parents with baby strollers. The author points out that the absense of a unified strategy in this area results in severe complications for those that need accessible environment. As an example for the authorities, the author points out the "Reminder for architects" paper that was devised by Urban planning authorities of Chita.Issues of transportation for the mobility-impaired citizens, as the focus of this paper, are explored on the basis of media publications, surveys and urban planning documentation, focusing on three main topics: equipping public transport stops, commissioning new means of transportation that would accommodate mobility-impaired citizens, building roads and access points for the disabled. Analyzing the rich factual base and comparing the current state of affairs and project requirements in official documentation, the author concludes that, despite of all state standards of accessible environment planning, social infrastructure is still being built with little regard for the norms at large. It is possible to salvage the situation by implementing the «Tempus Project CENEAST: Reformation of the Curricula on Built Environment in the Eastern Neighbouring Area», developed by the political and social science department of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering into urban planning. The goal of the project is to reform the education of bachelors, specialists and magisters by introducing new modules, including environment modules aimed at the creation of biosphere-friendly space in cities, comfortable environment for the mobility-impaired. 
Suvorov A. - Analytical description of nonlinear work of the normal section at the top of the inclined crack pp. 29-35

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.2.18688

Abstract: This article examines the technique of describing the stress-strain state (hereinafter - the SSS) of the normal section at the top of the inclined crack, based on nonlinear deformation model. Normal section's analysis will assess the uniaxial SSS of any concrete element subjected to bending, compression with bending, stretching or stretching with the bend. Parameters of SSS of the normal section are the normal and shear stresses, the relative deformation of compression and tension. Data acquisition of this parameters using the nonlinear deformation calculation, created the prerequisites for describing SSS oblique section. Algorithm is built using modern mathematical apparatus in the computer environment «MathCAD». Used abilities of mathematical analysis allowed foprming a realistic settlement of the normal section diagram at the top of the inclined crack. By implementing real chart of material deformation, the algorithm is allowed to build a more accurate diagrams of normal and shear stresses in the normal section on the basis of steps, iterative and integrated processes. During algorithmization work, section were identified important components of its work: the value of the centers of gravity of plane diagrams of stress and strain, the exact coordinates of the boundaries of the compressed, stretched and destroyed sectional areas. The study was applied and refined new ways to describe the theory of concrete strength.
Dorozhkina E. - Constructs in buildings with integrated vegetation pp. 30-37

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.2.23002

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the questions of projecting of constructs-foundations for vegetation integrated into the structure of a building. The object of this research is the building constructs that can serve as an artificial foundation for vegetation. The boundaries of the research are defined by integration of vegetation on roofs, terraces, facades (balconies and patios), and interiors. The article explores such aspects of the topic as additional strain on the buildings from vegetation. The additional constant weight of the vegetation system is being viewed as the sum of two types of loads: stationary and weighed average. The article substantiates the need to account for the change in the volume of lumber due to vegetation. However, to simplify the calculation in absence of data on the size of growth of separate types of vegetation in the catalogue, the author offers recommended average indexes of the weight for various vegetation elements.
Glatolenkova E. - Architectural and space-planning peculiarities of the city of Manzhouli pp. 33-43

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.29145

Abstract: The subject of this article is the peculiarities of architectural and space-planning structure of the city of Manzhouli. One of the many settlements formed in the beginning of the XX century due to construction of the China Far East Railway is of particular research interest, first and foremost, because the development of the city reflects the common in formation of railway settlements of concessional period, while at the same time, demonstrates individual features in architecture and space-planning. The author provides a historical overview of construction of the city and surrounding areas, studies the architecture of residential and public buildings of the early XX century, as well as spatial development of the city. Methodological foundation contains the methods of comparative, functional, and factor analysis for describing the urban development process and determining the distinct characteristics of the settlement and construction objects. Empirical base includes the geographical and archival materials, particularly, maps, blueprints and field research data of railway settlements lengthwise railway line from Manzhouli  to Suifenhe conducted by the author in August 2018. There is a lot of Russian scientific and publicist works dedicated to cultural heritage of the Russian concession in the Northeast of China. The author’s contribution lies in description of the distinctive features s of space-planning structure of historic development of the city of Manzhouli; analysis of the modern state and space-planning arrangement of the extant Russian neighborhoods, and determination of their place and role within structure of the city.
Veretennikov D. - Legislative regulation of architectural and urban planning contests in the Russian Federation pp. 38-47

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.3.26426

Abstract: The objects of this research is the practice of design contests in the area of architecture and urban planning in modern Russia; while the subject is its legislative regulation. The normative legal base that affects the design contests is viewed in comparison with the systems of legislative regulation in the European Union and the United States. The author conducts an analysis of the three levels of regulation of the contestable practice: international, federal, and regional contained in the Civil Code, law “On the Architectural Activity in the Russian Federation”, and other documents. The article examines the aspects associated with the legislative regulation of the order and conditions of holding the contests, as well as determining the place of contest within the system of urban planning activity. A conclusion is made on the non-consistency of the contestable method of adopting the urban planning decisions in Russia and lack of answers to some practically important questions in the legislative framework. Particularly, the acting laws do not determine the criteria of situations that necessitate resorting to holding a public design contest. The article suggests a model on integration of the contestable practice into the system of urban planning activity for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of contestable method of adopting the important decisions in the area of urban planning and architecture.
Podkovyrina K.A., Podkovyrin V.S. - Energy efficient translucent building envelope (the modern historiography) pp. 49-60

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2016.3.19269

Abstract: The article provides an overview and analysis of research in the field of energy-efficient translucent walling, which results were published in the Russian literature over the last decade. The authors determine the relevant issues and promising directions of the research in this field. There is a significant amount of publications in the area of heat transfer and energy efficiency of the translucent constructs. This work reviews the articles published not earlier than 2008 and included into the database of the Russian index of scientific citations, as well as list of the journals recommended Higher Attestation Commission. The conducted overview of the literature allowed determining that the most attention is given to the translucent constructs with solar screens, as well as insulated glazing with low-emissivity glass. This direction is the most promising and relevant at the present stage. The analysis of the existing publications demonstrated that the articles do not examine the questions about the longevity of insulated glazing filled with inert gas, as well as there is lack of research in optimization of insulated glazing from the perspective of energy efficiency and economic purposefulness.
Kolesnikov A.G. - Modernization of design of the extruder for construction 3D printer and selection of its components pp. 64-70

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.2.29597

Abstract: This article explores the improvement of characteristic of the construction 3D printer through changing its design, mixing ratio, and selection of necessary additives. The object of this research is the influence of additives and methods of their use in cement-sand grout in accordance with its characteristics. Special attention is given to monitoring of the effective doping of additives in cement-sand grout for the construction 3D printer based on the experimental and theoretical studies, and possibility of a prompt change of the mixture ratio in erecting various building structures. For determining the effect of different additives upon the mixture properties for the construction 3D printer, the author conducts experimental research following the method recommended by the All-Union State Standard. For the convenient usage of mixtures in the construction 3D printer is designed a regime imitating the process of extruding the mixture. The article suggests recommendations on the selection of mixture ratio for the construction 3D printer in various buildings and constructs (load-bearing walls, cross-connections, partitions). The article provides the results of experimental study for durability of mixture and placeability of mixtures with the use of additives. The author presents the design of extruder for construction 3D printer that would ensure variability of doping additives in mixture.
Rozin V.M. - The defining aspects and development of architectural design - the fundamental technology of urban development and architecture pp. 65-108

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2015.3.16489

Abstract: The article studies the development and defining characteristics of architectural design. The author bases his study on the proposition of the fundamental division of design into two main types – “traditional” design – architectural and engineering design, and “non-traditional” – urbanistic and custom design. The author examines the genesis of design, especially its influence on the formation of engineering design and offers a typology of design knowledge and schematics (sketches and principal schemes) set around the three main stages of design – conception,  envisioning, implementation. The author offers a thorough description of the two types of design – engineering and designer. To conclude the study, the author examines the crisis of project ideology, stating that design has its limitations and that design consciousness is influenced by a particular “design fetishism” regarding what can or cannot be designed, and the attempts to design social and cultural entities are often turned against culture. This article  uses the methods of cultural-historical reconstruction, comparative and typological analysis, semiotic and epistemological approaches.. The author offers two cases for empirical material. As a result, the author managed to outline the logic of the genesis of design, and to offer a thorough typology of design knowledge (functional, individual-based, creative, relay-based, prototypical, schematic), and to demonstrate the role in designing of schematics, to characterize engineering and designer models. Overall, this study has brought a better understanding and modern design, its genesis and functioning.
Suvorov A. - An overview of the possibilities of nonlinear deformation model in analyzing the formation and development of the nagel effect pp. 70-75

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.2.23385

Abstract: This article reviews the possibility of application of nonlinear deformation model in studying the nagel effect. The nagel effect is the ability of armature to transmit the force perpendicular to its axis. This effect occurs in terms of the phenomenon of slip of the two edges of an inclined crack. And this slip is impeded, along with the force of engagement along theadges of the crack, by the intersected by this crack longitudinal reinforcement. And as a result, nagel’s deformation can be defined as the difference in deformations of two blocks separated by an inclined crack. The phenomenon of nagel effect is quite complicated and requires the introduction in the algorithm of its description of the nonlinear parameters of the environment of its formation and development. The nonlinear deformation model is optimally suited for determining the nature of the distribution of forces in the zone of transverse bending of the reinforced concrete element. The stress-strain state (SSS) of the oblique section requires more computational dependencies due to the complexity of describing the biaxial stress state in this zone. Modern regulatory techniques for the calculation of sloping sections have in their composition many empirical and semi-empirical dependences, which do not allow to fully estimate the SSS of the oblique section. The provisions proposed in this article represent a new perspective of the development of nonlinear deformation model and will allow making a contribution to the development of normative algorithms for calculating the cross sections in the zone of transverse bending.
Pospelova K.A. - Imperial Academy of Arts building in Saint Petersburg: Vallin de la Mothe and Kokorinov pp. 73-99

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2013.1.5953

Abstract: The article examines the issue of authorship of the Imperial Academy of Arts building in St. Petersburg. The author performs a comparative analysis of buildings and structures erected by the designs of Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe and Alexander Kokorinov. Analyzing the Moscow Academy of Arts building plans by J.F. Blondel. He focuses his attention on style, composition and layout. As a result, we see that the general features of the Academy of Arts building largely replicates the Moscow plans, while the details resemble those of buildings by Vallin de la Mothe. Despite the mentions in literature as the sole author, Kokorinov's contribution is not evident. It is likely that his role was limited to managing the construction process. The author concludes that the Academy of Arts building plans were created by Vallin de la Mothe's hand, basing his assumptions on the Moscow Academy building project. During the construction and renovation process, some features were changed, but, overall, it can be said that Vallin de la Mothe was the author. The article offers previously unpublished information on the issue.
Veretennikov D. - Competitive method in architecture and city-planning and the assessment of its effectiveness on the example of Saint Petersburg competitions of 1991-2017 pp. 76-86

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.2.25247

Abstract: The object of this research is the architectural city-planning competitions held in Saint Petersburg in the time after 1991. The indicated competitions are viewed as a part of a broader concept of competitive practices; seven of the most significant areas of their application are described. Based on the analysis of feasibility of the results of studied competitions, the author conducts an assessment of the effectiveness of competitive method as a way of adopting decisions in the field of architecture and city-planning. A need is substantiated for creating the normative-legal mechanism for regulation of holding the competitive procedures for increasing the efficiency of the competitive method. The assessment of efficiency of competitive method is carries out on the basis of specially compiled database that includes over sixty design contests. The main conclusion consists in the proof of the extremely low effectiveness of competitive method of adoption of the architectural and city-planning decisions in post-Soviet Saint Petersburg, as well as a list of the probable causes of the established situation. For the first time is submitted the systematization of various field of application of the competitive methods: the author determines the “strategic”, “developer”, “advertising” contests, as well as the competitions of ideas and foresights, nonpublic design contests (tenders), review and educational contests.
Podkovyrina K.A., Podkovyrin V.S., Nazirov R.A. - Peculiarities of engineering of buildings and structures in the northern latitudes from the perspective of structural physics pp. 78-85

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2017.4.24964

Abstract:   This article provides the basic principles that must be adhered to for establishing the comfortable indoor microclimate and ensuring the longevity of building structures in designing the residential and public buildings in the northern latitudes. The authors analyse the issues associated with the inappropriate account of physical processes within the building envelopes and structures in the severe natural and climatic conditions, such as low temperatures the whole year, long polar night and polar day, reduces air humidity in the central part of the Far North, strong winds and snowstorms. The article describes the consequences of the negative impact of inadmissible parameters of indoor microclimate upon the human health, named the “sick building syndrome”. The work presents the review of the literature on building engineering in the northern latitudes, which demonstrated that the majority of the articles are dedicated to the use of effective construction supplies, as well as peculiarities of engineering of buildings from the standpoint of architecture and structural engineering. The questions of consideration of the physics of environment and building envelopes are covered insufficiently.   
Taletskaia I. - Implementation of the system of functional modular unites in modern projects of the children leisure and entertainment centers pp. 111-119

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2019.1.28821

Abstract: This article examines the functionality of the children leisure and entertainment centers, demonstrates their functional circuit comprised on the basis of Rosstat statistical data on the number of students of the various disciplines of the advanced educational programs. The author determines the system of functional modular units as the most viable principle of the design of children leisure and entertainment centers that meets all the requirements imposed on the buildings of such type. The research defines the types of modular units intended for engineering of the children leisure and entertainment centers, as well as the variations of their configuration for the centers of different contemporaneous occupation. The research methods contain the systemic analysis of theoretical works in the field of design of public buildings of cultural and leisure purpose and construction of the modular prefabricated buildings, as well as the method of theoretical modelling of functional zoning of the children leisure and entertainment centers  in the context of implementation of modular technology. As a result, the author establishes that it is reasonable to divide the functionality of children leisure and entertainment centers into the three functional directions: sport, science, and art. Each of them has a diverse set of leisure and entertainment activities that are allocated to the separate rooms or sectors. Therefore, it is concluded that the construction technology of modular prefabricated buildings meets the most demands placed on the children leisure and entertainment centers. The scientific novelty lies in determination of the types of modular units and variations of their configuration.
Rozin V.M. - To structuring the concept of design pp. 116-122

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.1.25153

Abstract: This article reviews a relevant situation that compels to discuss and introduce the concept of design. The author confers the relation of some researchers to the indicated genesis of design, as well as distinction between the main types of design – traditional and nontraditional. The principles based on which V. Rozin reconstructs the formation of design and discusses its nature (functioning and development) are formulated. The author attempt to characterize design considering its evolution, suggesting the dynamic definitions of design instead of statistical. As a result of this work, the author was able to structure a dynamic definition of design and characterize the established within methodology of design situation that compel to form such concept. The article also analyzes the scheme of prerequisites of the establishment and development of design, as well as the difference between the two main types of design – traditional and nontraditional.
Rozin V.M. - The ideas of Bogdanov’s “Tectology” in the works of the architect Rosenberg (first stages of establishment of design methodology) pp. 162-170

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2018.3.27899

Abstract: This article considers the first stages of establishment of design. The author advances a hypothesis that likewise the creation of methodology preceded the establishment of science, similar process took place in the indicated field: first appear the methodological studies aimed at structuring the design thinking, and based on them, the design forms as a separate field of activity and practice. The article analyzes the methodological principles of design (correspondence principle, parsimony principle, optimality principle, etc.) formulated by A. V. Rosenberg, as well as demonstrates that in his proposals he leans not only on the reflection of the existing thereat experience of design, but also the ideas of “Tectology” of A. Bogdanov, first and foremost, organizational and systemic. As a result, the author was able to determine certain peculiarities of the establishment of design: role of the prerequisites of design; significance of methodological research; impact of the ideas of Bogdanov’s “Tectology”. Moreover, the author formulated a hypothesis about the two languages (systemic and systemic-substantive) description of design and similarly difficult intellectual practices.
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