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Ordynskaya Y. - Typology of settlements on the borderlands between Russia and China pp. 1-9


Abstract: The object of this research is the localities on the borderlands between Russia and China. The historical and contemporary analysis of the development of borderline urban layouts demonstrated that any city-planning objects strives to expand its territory to achieve its potential. The disruption of localization, closeness of urban localities in the borderlands leads to formation of the phenomenon of condominium territory. The study considers the historical traditions, modern trends and peculiarities in city-forming and resettlement of the borderline territory of two countries. The factor analysis and systemic approach are applied in the course of this work. The scientific novelty consist in the following:  in order to determine the possible vectors of future development of urban layouts of the various hierarchical level, the author conducts their systematization by the characteristic typological groups; this will allow determining the vectors in development of each group.
Ordynskaya Y. - Main vectors of Russias and Chinas border area development pp. 1-10


Abstract: The subject of this research is the border territories between the two countries – Russia and China. Currently, in southern region of the Far East and on the territory of Northeast of China in the border zone, structurally are determined several promising directions. In terms of the various strategic goals of implementation of the state programs, they mutually complement each other. These directions have a high likelihood of realization and can provide conjoint development of the border settlement systems. This is because in all of them can be clearly traced the particular historical patterns, which are substantiated mostly by a special development mode of the border area. The author applies the factor analysis for determination of the main priority vectors in development of border territories, considering not only current, but also historical trends and peculiarities of urban development and populating of the border territory of two countries. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author is first to systemically consider the China’s and Russia’s programs of territorial development (“Open city”, “Russian districts”, law on “Far Eastern Hectare”, law on “Territories of Advanced Socio-economic Development” (Russia)), which implementation leads to another functional and structural transformation of urban layouts in the border area.
Ordynskaya Y., Kozyrenko N.E. - City-planning systems of the China-Russia border zone pp. 12-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the city-planning system of the China-Russia border zone, which development marks the two parallel directions associated with the trend and rates of development of the adjacent countries: active city-forming process in China’s territory and depressive state of the urban and rural settlement in Russia. In the Far Easter regions is noticed a decrease in population size across the entire bordering region and “focal” character of settlement along the border with low density of population. On the Chinese side, over a short period of time (policy of rural urbanization), the vast uninhabited territories were simultaneously populated by peasants, which led to emergence of the cities alongside the sparsely populated villages. A distinct Chinese policy of resettlement is reflected in direction of the “urbanization from below” (rural urbanization), due to which the finely-divided structure surpasses the entire territory of the Northeast of China. All of the bordering settlements form the systems of various level of development. For highlighting the peculiarities of formation of the transboundary systems of resettlement, the author apply factor analysis and system method; for determining the dynamics of urbanization and migration flows – the statistical method. The method of cartographic analysis is used for studying the processes of current resettlement on the territories of Far Eastern Region and Northeast of China. This article is first to analyze and determine the typological groups of resettlement systems common to the China-Russia border zone – agglomeration, transborder agglomeration, national systems of resettlement, transboundary systems of resettlement. The crisis state of Russian settlements and active development of the Chinese settlements necessitates the formulation of principles, which allow forecasting their further development. As a result of this research, it is established  that under the influence of certain economic, geopolitical, demographic, and social factors, the existing structure of resettlements in the transboundary zone and range of its impact (south of Far East) will transform.
Boltaevskii A.A., . - "To harness the Elements": problems of modern urban planning pp. 14-24


Abstract: In this article, the conflict of the controlled versus the spontaneous serves as a prism for analyzing modern urban studies trends, such as deindustrialization, deurbanization, environmentalization, comprehensive planning, legal regulation of the economy, conversion of urban industrial sites, migration flow control. The authors direct attention to the contradictory nature of processes that can be observed in the organization of architectural and planning areas of the modern megapolys, the crises that need to be overcome, for the sake of our civilization. Our civilization faces growing global challenges, the overcoming of which is key to preservation of humanity as a species, and thus, harnessing the elements of the city becomes a priority task. Scholars who research this field often miss the existence of two paradigms that emerged in architectonic studies. On one side, there's the "machine-city" paradigm, on the other, there's the "living city" that adheres to objective laws of nature. This article demonstrates contradictory elements in both approaches, as well as potential points of convergence, for mutual enrichment that could result in a general synthesis of urban development models. The result of city-planning processes is ambiguous to this day: problems with the environment, increasing social friction. In the modern world, the process of increasing complexity of urban development, the increase of demands towards housing and social environment give opportunities to professional integrators to unite the various urban segments, the architectonics, into one. The multivectoral nature of modern city development is largely dictated by the gradual replacement of the technocratic model with the biospheric approach. We need a city that can work with the input from all of its dwellers, for it to become comfortable for habitation and friendly to the environment.
Ordynskaya Y. - Use of the factor of having a border as a unique phenomenon of development of urban planning solutions of Russias border area and formation of transboundary spaces (on the example of Russian-Kazakhstan border zone) pp. 20-25


Abstract: The object of this research is the urban planning solutions of territorial development. The subject is the determination of peculiarities of development of urban planning solutions influenced by the factor of having a border. The capabilities of border areas are viewed as a combination of all resources existing within its limits. I this case, urban planning potential of border areas includes a particular set of factors (natural resources potential, infrastructure, demographic, etc.). The conducted analysis demonstrated the need for elaboration of a mechanism of development of border areas, with competent and accurate legislative regulation, considering positive and negative criteria, and reducing the latter to the minimum. The research of urban planning solutions, carried out in the context of the existing and anticipated risk factors, showed that risk factor pertains to natural-ecological, socio-demographic and infrastructural spheres. The researchers have previously covered the question on the development prospects of transboundary regions on the basis of Russia-Kazakhstan border cooperation, but mostly within the framework of geographical and social disciplines [4, 11, 10]. This article is first to view the solutions and risk factors emerging in formation and further development of territorial spaces from the perspective of urban planning activity. The scientific novelty consists in determination of positive and negative factors that impact the development of Russian-Kazakhstan border zone. In the course of study, the author determine the criteria affecting the advancement of urban planning solutions of a border area. The criteria used for assessing the risk factors give grounds for further long-term forecasting.
Vilenskii M.Y. - Urban planner in the United States as a profession pp. 21-32


Abstract: The transition to professional approach towards urban planning at the current stage of innovative and social transformations from the historical dual model of space and socioeconomic planning to a transdisciplinary approach creates prerequisites for formation of a new image of the urban planner profession in the United States. Having a faster reaction to changes, an employer forms their perception of professional requirements, and thus activates mechanisms impacting the entire organizational system of professional community, including curriculums. The research methodology leans on the conducted analysis of job offerings databases in the area of urban planning in the United States, including web analytics, analysis of the official statistical data “U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics”, data of educational establishments and public authorities of the Unites States in the area of urban development. The research describes the trends towards growth of professional requirements, including academic education. The article examines the qualification by level of professional competences, highlighting the requirements for each one. The author also examines the system of professional regulation of this industry without direct involvement of the government and its ties with the job market; as well makes recommendations on application of experience of training and certification of U. S. urban for the Russian Federation.  
Gushchin A.N., Pereverzeva N.V., Sanok S.I. - Regularities in the formation of the planning structure of territorial zones in largest cities pp. 27-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is formation of territorial zones in urban development zoning. Territorial zones were introduced into the urban development practice by the Town Planning Code of 1998. In terms of the subject of research, the author examined the following: 1) planning organization of territorial zones of large and largest cities of Ural; 2) typology of territorial zones; 3) correspondence of functional zoning of territories with the established use of territories; 4) formation of the functional-planning frameworks of a city. It is demonstrated that studying of the planning organization of territorial zones allows estimating the actions of administration aimed at regulating the territorial development of zones. Research method is based on building the territorial zoned. The requirements: to determine the key functional zones in accordance with the general layout; appoint within the land lots belonging to various urban development zones the main type of permitted use; group together the land lots of the territory belonging to urban development zones with identical types of use into the territorial zone; form separate territorial zones that differ in type of the permitted use. The scientific novelty lies in the approach based on the territorial zones. Using the methodology of territorial zines, the authors were able to study the characteristics of territorial zones in accordance will all of the clauses mentioned above. Having applied such methodology, the authors examined the planning structure of territorial zoned for large and largest cities of Ural. The results are obtained on the types and structures of territorial zones. A conclusion is made on the planning structure and prospects of spatial development of the cities.
Sadkovskaya O. - pp. 27-40


Al-jaberi A.A. - pp. 41-61


Boltaevskii A.A. - Does an ecopolis have a chance: outlook upon the future pp. 44-48


Abstract: Since the ancient times people were trying to adjust the surrounding space for their own comfort and convenience. The initial period of industrialization led to the violation of sanitary norms, overcrowded accommodations, and destruction of the usual environment. The response for this lied in the urban development theories from Ebenezer Howard to Le Corbusier, who attempted to set the city to serve the needs of men. But as a result, of various mistakes, these concepts turned out to be debunked. The future of the cities in many ways is defined by the main trends of development of the entire humanity: strive for comfort and interaction with the nature. The author uses the critical analysis of the existing urban concepts, as well as comparative and situational analysis for demonstrating the evolution in views upon the optimal development of the urban space. In the third millennium the essential task of humanity will consist in creation of the biosphere-compatible space. Under the conditions of megalopolis this task will be extremely difficult to accomplish, thus at the initiate stages the reformations must take place in small cities. The transition to the new energy-saving technologies will improve the urban environment; the sources of pollution will be eliminate, such technologies will be removed underground, and telecommunications will make the transportation of cargo across vast distances unnecessary. The alternative sources of energy will become more popular.
Veretennikova K., Vilenskii M.Y. - The dynamics of spatial development of the airport environs of Russias largest cities pp. 44-57


Abstract: The subject of this research is the urbanization dynamics of territories around the international airports of Russia’s largest cities over the period from 2000 to 2018. Airports become the centers of urbanization, having a significant influence upon the development of adjacent areas. The authors introduce the concept of the “airport environ”. The goal of this work lies in determination of the groups of airport environs with similar attributes of the ongoing urbanization processes that allow forecasting their future development. The parameters defining the development of airport environs were subdivided into the following factors: city, airport, and airport environ itself. Using the method of hierarchical cluster analysis, the airports and surrounding territories were grouped by the set of parameters that correspond with the three elements of consideration. The authors determine the spatial characteristics of the formation of airport environs and distribution of functions within their limits over the indicated timeframe; as well as suggest classification of the airport environs of Russia’s largest cities in accordance with their urbanization level. The article also examines the trends in evolution of the airport adjacent territories based on the stages of their spatial and functional development.
Ordynskaya Y. - The principles of development of settlement zones in Russia-China border zone pp. 50-54


Abstract: The subject of this research is the forms of settlement located in border zone, as well as their emergence and development in the region under consideration. They serve as the foundation for the establishment of systems with particular spatial structure – agglomerations (China – Manchuria, Suifenhe, Heihe, Hunchun; Russia – Ussuriysk, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk); transagglomerations (Heihe – Blagoveshchensk, Manchuria – Zabaykalsk, Fuyuan – Khabarovsk, Dongning – Pokrovka); national settlement systems Manchuria – Hailar, Dongning – Hunchun, transboundary settlement systems. This is an evident beginning of the new stage of structural transformations, on a scale of large localities, as well as forms of settlement. Therefore, elaboration of the forecasting principles of their emergence and development is relevant. In terms of such elaboration, the author considered the historical traditions, modern trends, and peculiarities in city-forming and settlement. The scientific novelty lies formulating the principles that view the effect as a result of targeted actions upon the process of the formation of city-planning systems. This will allow determining the optimal development trajectory for the new city-planning objects, as well as exclude obtaining the null or negative effect as a result. 
Sadkovskaya O. - Spatial concept of organization of coastal areas of the Temernik River pp. 57-75


Abstract: This article is prepared on the basis of results obtained from the scientific research “Formation of the universal concept of development of coastal areas of the Temernik River in Rostov-On-Don” conducted by the Scientific Research and Design Institute of Urban Planning in accordance with state task of Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector of Rostov Oblast for executing the applied scientific research; as well as summarizes a number of projects and publications dedicated to the topic of rehabilitation of the Temernik River. Degradation of the small lowland river Temernik as a consequence of the development of the city Rostov-On-Don negatively affects not only the urban ecology, but also the image of riverine areas, which gradually led to “rejection” of the urban fabric from the river. In terms of the constant compaction of urban fabric and increasing deficiency of pedestrian spaces, rehabilitation of the Temernik River valley manifests as a possibility of a new stage of development of the urban infrastructure. In the course of studying the riverine areas, the author assess three indicators: access, populace, and landscape. The author develops visual triangle-based diagrams, where on three of its axes are plotted the approximate values of the aforementioned indicators. The analysis of the diagrams allows determining the boundaries of areas, which can be potentially transform into the public recreation spaces. The author proposes the approach towards examination of the Temernik River valley; carries out differentiation of coastal areas; outlines the territories that hold potential of being transformed to the public recreation spaces; develops the pattern of organization of public recreation spaces formed within the coastal area of the Temernik River, taking into account the implementation of eco technologies and cognitive approach towards designing urban spaces. The formation of hybrid spaces, which are able to integrate eco technologies, landscape, pedestrian spaces, infrastructure, and others underlie the creation of spatial concept of coastal areas of the Temernik River.
Burdina D.P., Kazantsev P.A. - pp. 62-76


Slabukha A.V. - On the methods of organizing planning of settlements in conjunction with the construction of Siberian railroad pp. 66-73


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relationship issues among the members of the planning organization of settlements – central specialized departments, local government and “societies” due to the laying of the transcontinental railroad across Siberia in the late XIX century. The object of this research is one of the methods of organizing the design and development of near-railway settlements – established communication between the aforementioned parties. The article examines the response of local “societies” to the letter (1895) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Empire about the need to present the decisions on characteristics of possible locations for development of cities or large settlements (in conjunction with the laying of railroad) and the need for their advance and efficient planning. Special attention is given to the results of analysis of the situation by the local “societies” with defining importance of the natural and economic conditions in the context of emergence of the new and development of the existing settlements. Author’s special contribution into this research lies in revelation of the question about the joint participation of central government, local government, and local “societies” in discussion the issues and adopting the decisions pertaining to the design of settlements due to realization of the largest nationwide project – the construction of Siberian railroad.
Veretennikova K. - Consideration of the impact of airport in the city development planning of the near-airport zones of the largest cities pp. 66-73


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of the limited consideration of the impact of airport upon the surrounding territories in preparation of city development documentation in Russia. The object of this research is the near-airport territories of the largest cities, while the subject is their city development regulation. The article analyzed the factors and consequences of urbanization of the territories located near airports. Attention is turned to the fact that currently the documentation on regulation of such territories has a strictly technical orientation that neglects the city-forming potential of an airport. It is underlined that in Russia airport is typically considered as transport object and the source of negative effect on the surrounding areas, which is reflected in preparation of documentation. The described issues are viewed on the example of the near-airport territory of Pulkovo International Airport in Saint Petersburg. In the course of this study the author applies the methods of city development analysis, systematization, comparison of the national and foreign experience of development of the near-airport territories. A hypothesis is proposed that the cause of the emerging transport and social issues in the near-airport territory lies in the lack of consonance in the process of planning that leads to the irrational use of territorial resources, transport infrastructure, as well as degradation of natural carcass. The article proves the need for coordinated strategic planning of the near-airport territories, provides a list of instruments that encourage achieving the set goals.
Gushchin A.N., Sanok S.I. - The analysis of inner structure of urban planning regulations (on the example of the cities of Ural) pp. 76-88


Abstract: The subject of this research is the inner structure of urban planning regulations. It is a known fact that urban planning regulations were introduces into practice in 2004 due to acceptance of the new revision of the Town Planning Code. Currently, there has accumulated the traditional practice of their usage as the means of urban development management. Therefore, the analysis of inner structure of urban planning regulations and identification of patterns and interdependencies becomes a relevant task in both, theoretical and practical aspects. The authors come to the conclusion that at this point have formed the two ways of comprising urban planning regulations: activity and object. The first one is based on listing the types of permitted use as types of activity; and the second one leans on listing the types of objects that can be created within the framework of the types of permitted use. The authors also conduct a frequency analysis of the types of permitted use contained in urban planning regulations. It is demonstrated that most of the types of permitted use is characteristic to the social and business urban planning zones, and the least of them for recreational and urban planning zones, as well as special purpose zones. The author underlines that the variety of the types of permitted use inversely relates to the level of rigidity of administrative regulation.
Ordynskaya Y. - Methodological toolset for regulation of development of border areas based on comparative analysis of urban development systems of various zones of Russian borderland pp. 155-165


Abstract: Research is conducted on the border region, examining existing and forming systems of populated areas of Russia – Kazakhstan and Russia – China. In this case, the category of boundary (as one of the definitions of border) is a core element of transboundariness, while demarcation of the space serves as the main feature of the studied transboundary region (V. A. Kolosov was one of the first to introduce this concept into the Russian academic discourse) [5]. Transboundary region is viewed as a modern form of border cooperation. It is established that development of Russian borderlands (within the zone of research) takes place at different paces, which is associated with distinction by level of intensity by the border cooperation and integration ties. The work outlines vast differences in the level of development of the territory – border space is diverse and requires overcoming the existing disproportions. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author is first to determine and compare typological groups of the systems of resettlement characteristic to the border zones of Russia – Kazakhstan and Russia – China. The work also explores the specificity of development of these territories, based on which the author determines the methodological toolset for their possible further development. Analysis is conducted on the transboundary interconnections and formation of the systems of resettlement in the border area. The research outlines the meso-regions in the borderlands, defining development of promising settlements – hubs of border cooperation.
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