Urban Studies - rubric Миграция и адаптация
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Rubric "Миграция и адаптация"
Миграция и адаптация
Zavialov A. - Adaptation of migrants in urban environment: new living conditions in old cities pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of social adaptation of migrants in urban space (cities). Today, the migration becomes an urban phenomenon, because migrants choose cities for bigger opportunities and realization of personal potential. For the quickest possible adaptation in urban environment, a migrant accumulate all of the adaptive capabilities that transform his attitude to work, behavioral strategies, and interaction with people. In important also belongs to the migrant social institutions (diaspora). Russian keeps up with the global trends: the percentage of migrants residing in urban settlements is growing, which leads to closer interaction between the accepting urban community and the migrants. The rate of migration to Russian remain persistently high that especially affects the cities, in which the infrastructure capabilities do not correspond with the size of available population, but the level of economic development is higher than in the countries of origin. This is namely why the municipal authorities should give careful attention to regulation of social adaptation of the migrants, using various socioeconomic instruments, implemented in separate municipal formation, because currently, there is no integral practical component of social adaptation of the migrants in cities.
Ishmuratova D.F. - Migration factor in development of human capital pp. 15-20


Abstract: In modern conditions, human capital manifests as one of the leading factors of socioeconomic development. The efficient management over its formation and usage requires taking into accounts the specificity of these processes, as well as the impacting factors. One of them is the differentiation of the regions in human capital stock affected by the migration processes that reallocate it between the regions, as well as between a city and rural areas. The subject of this research is the internal migration within Russia viewed in the context of interregional migration and urbanization processes. The empirical foundation is the descriptive analysis of statistical data, complemented by examination of factors substantiating the dynamics of population migration rates. The analysis of statistical data demonstrates the vector of intraregional and interregional migration flows, which simultaneously boost or reduce the potential of different regions with regards to human capital. Most attractive for the migrants are the large cities and adjacent areas. The factors affecting the intensity and vector of migration remain the presence or absence of educational facilities, job opportunities and decent salaries, developed social infrastructure and a desire to achieve certain standard of living.
Slabukha A.V. - Urban development image of the Soviet Siberia: several pages in retrospective of the forced forms of exploitation of the territory pp. 17-28


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ideas about the assimilated territories of Siberia as the result of the forced forms and methods of the urban development reclamation of the territories, relocation and management of the workforce potential. The goal of this article consists in confirmation of the methods of assimilation of Siberia in the first half of the XX century as the continuation of tradition established by the end of the XIX century. The article reviews and describes the methods of relocation of population to Siberia for ensuring the industrial and city-planning development of its territories in the early XX century. The attention is focused on one of the methods formulated in different periods by the renowned researchers of Siberia N. M. Yadrintsev (1842-1894), P. N. Butsinsky (1854-1916), and V. P. Kosovanov (1872-1938) – the method of government forced colonization of Siberian territory. It is demonstrated that the necessity of the territorial exploitation of Siberia in the Soviet period, as one of the geopolitical and economic goals of the Soviet state, predetermined the tasks regarding the various methods of attraction of people to the sparsely populated territories. The history of urban development exploitation of Siberia in the first half of the XX century to a significant extent confirms the established ideas about the forced methods in implementation of the Siberian city planning. The conclusion is made about the succession of methods from the previous centuries pertaining to the government-forced colonization of the Siberian territories in the early XX century. It is noted that the studied methods complement the general picture of multiplicity of the forms of full-scale urban development activity in Siberia in the XX century, which contributed significant innovations into the global theory and practice of exploitation of the remote territories with the extreme nature-climatic conditions. This material represents the researchers’ interest for better understanding of the prerequisites for the modern urban development in Siberia.
Shchuplenkov O.V., . - Tansmigration policy in early XX century Russia. Methodology of the issue. pp. 31-72


Abstract: Government regulation of population migration in modern Russia has deep historical roots. The authors analyze the research experience of pre-revolutionary Russia's migration processes and reveals the main traits and results of this period's transmigration. They found out the following. Pre-revolution research viewed colonization as a settlement process, common in any historical background; the resettlement process from thickly-populated regions to places where the population is scarce, or poorly adapted to the environment; the migration is a government-driven process; involves measures that support culture and economy of the native population. Researchers attempted to demonstrate that the migration is both, caused by volume and patterns of the economy's growth, and is the cause for shifts in the country's economic potential, the structure of society and the spread of industrial relations. The authors conclude that pre-revolution authors focused their works on the transmigration process itself: migration destinations, social spread of settlers; ways and forms of resettlement; conditions of travel; main reasons and significance of resettlement. The issues of colonization and resettlement was viewed in a tight connection with agrarian and other social and economic issues.
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