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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue 04/2022
Contents of Issue 04/2022
Architecture and Environment
Galkin A. - The Depth of the Zone of Thermal Influence of Highways pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.38879

EDN: HCXRIZ

Abstract: The thermal regime of road surface and basements is an important factor determining their reliable and safe operation in the cryolithozone. The aim of the research was to quantify the possibility of replacing the layered environment of the road's soil base with an equivalent homogeneous soil with an average coefficient of thermal conductivity when calculating the depth of the road's thermal influence zone. Two methods of averaging the thermophysical properties of a layered medium are considered: weighted average and arithmetic average. Dependences are obtained for determining the degree of deviation of the properties and thicknesses of the layers of the soil base, in which both methods are acceptable for engineering calculations. As an example, the two-layer medium of the road base is considered. For the analysis, the classical formula of the depth of thermal influence was used, obtained from the solution by the integral method of the one-dimensional equation of unsteady thermal conductivity. Simple engineering formulas are given for the relative error in determining the values of the depth of thermal influence when using an equivalent layer of pavement in calculations. A concrete example of calculating the depth of the zone of thermal influence in the two-layer soil of the road base is considered. The equation of the functional relationship between the parameters characterizing the degree of deviation of the thickness and thermophysical properties of individual layers from each other is obtained, which provides an error in the calculations of the depth of the zone of thermal influence less than the permissible value. The results of numerical calculations are presented in the form of 2D and 2D graphs, which allow us to visually assess the influence of the range of changes in the values of the thermal conductivity coefficients of individual soil layers on the legality of using various methods of constructing an equivalent single-layer road foundation structure.
Fedorovskaya N.A., Kravchenko I.A., Chernova A.V. - Aestheticization of the park environment around utilitarian objects of university campuses (by the example of the design concept of reconstruction of the park parking area of the FEFU campus) pp. 10-19

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.37485

EDN: PJXJGS

Abstract: Today, university campuses are not only part of the university, but also part of the public space. The importance of these territories as an ecological, recreational and socio-cultural urban object is constantly increasing, which requires special attention to the appearance of both educational and administrative buildings and adjacent garden and park areas. The subject of the study was the possibility of aestheticizing park areas located around utilitarian objects of university campuses (parking lots, boiler rooms, technical warehouses, etc. objects). Traditionally, not enough attention is paid to these spaces. Using the example of the design concept of the reconstruction of the park parking area of the FEFU campus, the article presents a number of project proposals that contribute to the aestheticization of the space around these utilitarian university facilities. As a result of the study, it was found that due to the peculiarities of the relief, microclimate, as well as the existing layout, traditional gardening techniques are not effective and alternative solutions are required. 1. As the main artistic technique, it is proposed to use the principle of "alleyness" to give the integrity of the previously designed disparate sectors of the garden and park area around the parking lot. 2. The main decorative element selected art objects in the form of unique arches on the high points of the sectors, which are connected by paths surrounded by greenery. 3. The stone is used as a decorative element. Stone lawns are an important part of the design of the territories adjacent to the parking lot, solving the problem of freezing, burning out lawn covering. As a result, the formed park area with attractive artistic elements will bring the necessary aestheticization around the parking lot and create a visual dominant. The proposed solutions can be adapted to other objects of the university environment that are experiencing similar problems.
Design and Environment
Fomina E.V., Barsukova N.I. - Multilevel open urban spaces: current trends pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.38355

EDN: PFDIDI

Abstract: The object of the study is multilevel open urban spaces. The subject of this study is the general principles and design techniques of the organization of the subjectspatial environment of multilevel spaces. The article analyzes and systematizes a large project material devoted to new global trends in the organization of multi-level open public spaces. For the first time, a comprehensive overview of their conceptual varieties and compositional features is given. Design techniques aimed at the formation of multilevelness in the urban environment using landscape and design methods of shaping are revealed. A systematic analysis of the principles of the organization of multilevel open spaces in the unity of axiological, ecological, artistic, aesthetic and contextual approaches is carried out. The article identifies current trends in the organization of open multilevel urban spaces, defines them as separate fragments of a transportless urban environment, representing one or more tiers, at least one of which is above ground or water level, intended, as a rule, for recreation and walking. Among them there can be both monofunctional and multifunctional spaces, but they are all united by such qualities as recreational function, accessibility and openness. Typological types are proposed for the first time: multi-level pedestrian zones and additional levels of transport interchanges; tiered gardens and parks; above-water recreational spaces; mini-courtyards integrated into a multi-storey building; green roofs for various purposes; multi-level playgrounds. The conclusion is formulated that the design of multilevel open urban spaces is an actual trend of modern project culture and helps to solve various project and social tasks.
Bulatova E.K. - Design Code of the urban Environment along the main Avenue of Yekaterinburg pp. 34-49

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.38538

EDN: OZMSUK

Abstract: The strategy for the development of modern cities includes an analysis of a comfortable urban space, with the subsequent goal of improving the quality of life of the city's population. The main transit type of public space is the streets and avenues of cities. The study provides an analysis of the modern use of public space in city streets, as well as recommendations for the development and formation of a comfortable territory of Yekaterinburg streets for city residents. Recommendations after the analysis, when implemented, will allow the main city avenue to be not only comfortable for residents of Yekaterinburg, as well as visitors from other regions and foreign students, the avenue will attract domestic and foreign tourists even more. The subject of the study. Features of the current state of urban space and prospects for further modernization of urban areas and restoration of residential and public buildings. For the first time, the analysis of the current state of Lenin Avenue was carried out, the missing positions in the design code of the Yekaterinburg landscaping concept were identified and the points of recommendations for further implementation in architectural subject-spatial characteristics were indicated, taking into account sociological factors. To improve the organization of the public space of Lenin Avenue, it is proposed: 1. Exclude the presence of "visual noise" outside the points of attraction; 2. To restore the facades of residential and public buildings facing the avenue, including objects of historical and cultural heritage; 3. To give in general terms a unified design to small architectural forms; 4. Highlight an additional "image of the city"; 5. Creation of a full-fledged lighting line in a single style, along the entire avenue; 6. Organize linear landscaping along the roadway and pedestrian zone, plant perennial herbaceous plants; 7. Create a separate path for the bike infrastructure, additional bike parking; 8. Select a surface street pedestrian crossing instead of an underground one, with priority for pedestrians; 9. Exclude sidewalk fencing, which is not appropriate in this case.
Potapenko A.A. - Disproportions of the spatial structure of the city as a reserve for the development of the city frame: territorial and communication model and analysis of cellular data pp. 50-70

DOI:
10.7256/2310-8673.2022.4.37724

EDN: RNLSKA

Abstract: The work is devoted to the identification of existing imbalances in the spatial structure of the city and the assessment of reserves for improving the efficiency of spatial organization, primarily due to the development of the framework of the city as a stable structure-forming part of the spatial system of the city, characterized by a high degree of development. The subject of the study is the types of territories forming the framework of the city. The definition of the role and potential of individual territories is carried out by means of modeling using the methodology of constructing a territorial and communication model of the city of O.A. Bayevsky on the basis of the frame-tissue theory of A.E. Gutnov. The simulation results are compared with the analysis of mobile operator data on daily migrations of people in the city. As a result of the modeling, the territories were typified, the framework and fabric of the city were identified, as well as territories with disproportions of saturation with points of attraction and connectivity with the population. Comparison of the results of analytical modeling and visualization of real movements of cellular subscribers during the day confirms the significant disproportions of the spatial structure of the city of Vladivostok, expressed in its monocentricity. The prospects for improving the efficiency of the spatial organization of the city are associated with the need to move away from monocentricity through the development of local centers in the city districts. Clarification of the disproportions of daily migrations by city districts allows us to confirm the need and assess the reserves for the development of new growth points and business activity. The results of the territorial-communication model are compared with the results of the unevenly-zoned model of the city developed by the author earlier, built according to the method of A.A. Vysokovsky, which allows us to determine not only the existing configuration of the city frame, but also promising territories for its development. As a result of the work, recommendations are proposed for the development of the city's framework, and appropriate generalized directions of urban planning policy are proposed for the selected types of territories.
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