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Urban Studies
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Urban Studies" > Contents of Issue № 03/2018
Contents of Issue № 03/2018
Миграция и адаптация
Zavialov A. - Adaptation of migrants in urban environment: new living conditions in old cities pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article examines the peculiarities of social adaptation of migrants in urban space (cities). Today, the migration becomes an urban phenomenon, because migrants choose cities for bigger opportunities and realization of personal potential. For the quickest possible adaptation in urban environment, a migrant accumulate all of the adaptive capabilities that transform his attitude to work, behavioral strategies, and interaction with people. In important also belongs to the migrant social institutions (diaspora). Russian keeps up with the global trends: the percentage of migrants residing in urban settlements is growing, which leads to closer interaction between the accepting urban community and the migrants. The rate of migration to Russian remain persistently high that especially affects the cities, in which the infrastructure capabilities do not correspond with the size of available population, but the level of economic development is higher than in the countries of origin. This is namely why the municipal authorities should give careful attention to regulation of social adaptation of the migrants, using various socioeconomic instruments, implemented in separate municipal formation, because currently, there is no integral practical component of social adaptation of the migrants in cities.
Проектирование и архитектура
Zhzhonykh A.M. - Low-vacuum heat insulating panels based on the byproducts of crystalized silicon pp. 12-20


Abstract: The heat insulating materials that reduce the thermal losses of buildings and constructs will play the key role in their energy performance. The low-vacuum insulation panels are an effective alternative to the non-vacuumed heat insulating materials due to the lower coefficient of thermal conductivity. The goal of this research is to examine the potential application of silica fume, aluminum byproduct as a filler for vacuum insulation panel. The author examines the properties of silicon dioxide powder, develops the composition and technology of production of the vacuum heat insulating panels on its basis. The article explores the silica fume – byproduct of crystalized silicon of Bratsk Ferroalloy Plant, which annual putput is 30,000 tons. The acquired results allow assuming that for manufacturing of the low-vacuum insulating panels can be used not only factory produced powder, but also less expansive powders of silica fume – the byproduct of crystalized silicon. In future, the use of byproducts can become the foundation of production of the high-quality vacuum insulation wilt low cost.
Design and Environment
Atanesyan G. - Reconsideration of the new practices of erection of city monuments in post-Soviet Armenia pp. 21-26


Abstract: This article examines the mechanism of erection of the new city monuments in post-Soviet Armenia, as well as the reconsideration processes of their aesthetic significance in transformation of the urban symbolic landscapes. The residents of Armenia continue to welcome the erection of new monuments, thus the city authorities actively install the new statues across the country, approving all propositions of benefactors to rearrange the symbolic space of post-Soviet Armenia. Having examines the monuments erecter by benefactors in the cities of post-Soviet Armenia, it is stated that over the recent years the memorial landscape was transformed on both, physical and symbolic levels. Using the methods of observation and interview, the author clarifies the specificity of perception of the new monuments by the creative community and residents of the Armenian cities. The appearance of new monuments erected at the discretion of benefactors and entrepreneurs started to draw criticism of the experts and public that compare these statues with the tombstones. The residents of post-Soviet Armenia fear that in terms of continuing such practice, the cities will be filled with low-quality statues and tombstones, this blaming the city authorities that remain to approve all propositions on erection of monuments across the country.
Gushchin A.N., Pereverzeva N.V., Sanok S.I. - Regularities in the formation of the planning structure of territorial zones in largest cities pp. 27-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is formation of territorial zones in urban development zoning. Territorial zones were introduced into the urban development practice by the Town Planning Code of 1998. In terms of the subject of research, the author examined the following: 1) planning organization of territorial zones of large and largest cities of Ural; 2) typology of territorial zones; 3) correspondence of functional zoning of territories with the established use of territories; 4) formation of the functional-planning frameworks of a city. It is demonstrated that studying of the planning organization of territorial zones allows estimating the actions of administration aimed at regulating the territorial development of zones. Research method is based on building the territorial zoned. The requirements: to determine the key functional zones in accordance with the general layout; appoint within the land lots belonging to various urban development zones the main type of permitted use; group together the land lots of the territory belonging to urban development zones with identical types of use into the territorial zone; form separate territorial zones that differ in type of the permitted use. The scientific novelty lies in the approach based on the territorial zones. Using the methodology of territorial zines, the authors were able to study the characteristics of territorial zones in accordance will all of the clauses mentioned above. Having applied such methodology, the authors examined the planning structure of territorial zoned for large and largest cities of Ural. The results are obtained on the types and structures of territorial zones. A conclusion is made on the planning structure and prospects of spatial development of the cities.
Проектирование и архитектура
Veretennikov D. - Legislative regulation of architectural and urban planning contests in the Russian Federation pp. 38-47


Abstract: The objects of this research is the practice of design contests in the area of architecture and urban planning in modern Russia; while the subject is its legislative regulation. The normative legal base that affects the design contests is viewed in comparison with the systems of legislative regulation in the European Union and the United States. The author conducts an analysis of the three levels of regulation of the contestable practice: international, federal, and regional contained in the Civil Code, law “On the Architectural Activity in the Russian Federation”, and other documents. The article examines the aspects associated with the legislative regulation of the order and conditions of holding the contests, as well as determining the place of contest within the system of urban planning activity. A conclusion is made on the non-consistency of the contestable method of adopting the urban planning decisions in Russia and lack of answers to some practically important questions in the legislative framework. Particularly, the acting laws do not determine the criteria of situations that necessitate resorting to holding a public design contest. The article suggests a model on integration of the contestable practice into the system of urban planning activity for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of contestable method of adopting the important decisions in the area of urban planning and architecture.
Озеленение и парковое хозяйство
Veretennikova K. - Role of national framework in the process of development of the airport-related zones of largest cities pp. 48-56


Abstract: This article is dedicated to determination of the role of natural framework within the structure of airport-related zones of largest cities.  The object of this research is the natural framework of the airport-related zones, while the subject is the forms of their effective use. The work considers the problems of development of the airport-related zones on the example of St. Petersburg Pulkovo Airport, factors of its dynamic urbanization and consequences of the unregulated construction. The author systematized the approaches towards implementation of the principle of environmental sustainability in foreign strategic documents on development of the territories adjacent to airport. The need is substantiated for creation of the universal developments strategy for the territories adjacent to airport, using the natural framework as an important planning element that allows ensuring sustainable development of the near-airport territory. The article determines the roles of natural framework and recommendations on its formation within the near-airport zones of largest cities. It is established that the natural framework consolidated in the complex strategic document of development of the near-airport territory, as well as the territorial planning documents, can manifest as an instrument for creating the balanced and efficient development of territories adjacent to airport.
Связь и коммуникации
Maslanov E.V. - City and Internet: shared problems of communication space design pp. 57-63


Abstract: The subject of this research is the consideration of shared problems of communication design in urban spaces and Internet. Special attention is given to the analysis of external factors of the formation of communication in cases of the initial design of communication space. The author examines the typological similarity of communication space design in the Internet and urban spaces, specificity of communication space design in the Internet, and the role of implicit knowledge in formation of communication space. Methodological bases of the work is the “trading zone” concept. The application of this approach allows presenting the urban spaces and communication platforms in the Internet as the local spaces of communication design based on the interaction between the actors. A conclusion is made that the communication design in urban spaces leans of the face-to-face interaction, use of the implicit knowledge and common background – physical space of the city and its conceptualizations; for formation of communication in the Internet is actively used the communication design of platforms that frames the general layer of representations and implicit knowledge, making the communication platforms similar to urban spaces.
Question at hand
Gataullin R.F. - Concept and patterns of the formation of urban micro-space pp. 64-70


Abstract:  In the strategies for development of municipal formation, which are currently being prepared for the period 2018-2030, a significant place is allocated to the improvement of living conditions of residential areas. The corresponding federal program is being currently implemented. At the same time, the socioeconomic content of the works on improvement of living conditions is far from being introduced to the economic science. Therefore, this segment of activity is somewhat unproductive. The subject of this work is the results of activity on the improvement of living conditions, elements of “micro-space” – the public goods justifying their usefulness. Within the framework of classical methodology of economic theory, the author reveals the essence and key patterns in formation of usefulness of the various elements of micro-space of the residential areas. This article is first to describe the socioeconomic value of the category of “micro-space”. The author demonstrates the main patterns in formation of micro-space elements – correlation between their helpfulness and frequency of exploitation of these goods; multiplicity of the forms of ownership; dependency of selecting their specific type from the existing system of interests. The dependence of the form of financing of rendering these goods from their usefulness and mechanism of the alignment of interests of various consumers is also being determined. The author suggests to use the factor of possible expansion of micro-space for increasing the quality of life of the fellow citizens.  
Starikova M.M. - Housing inequality in cities as a form of social stratification: criteria for distinction of housing classes and strata pp. 71-98


Abstract:  The object of this work is the phenomenon of housing stratification in modern cities. Considering that the majority of Russian cities have a fairly long history, the housing differentiation within and between the city districts becomes evident. The article substantiated the stratifying function of housing space, which is yet insufficiently studied in the sociological field. The author examines the methodology of sociological research of inequality in housing sphere in the works of Russian and foreign sociologists. The criteria and empirical indicators for assessing housing stratification are analyzed. The article also provides the results of empirical research of the parameters of housing inequality through the method of structured semi-formalized observation in the three cities of Kirov Oblast: regional center Kirov, and two administrative centers – Kirovo-Chepetsk and Vyatskiye Polyany. A number of objective and subjective estimates of the quality of housing accessible to observation is determined. The conducted comparative analysis allows revealing the strong and weak sides of the housing complexes of various cities. It is demonstrated that at the microlevel of the building, occasionally one can observe the polarization between building entrances depending on the civic engagement and responsibility of the residents. At the mesolevel, within the residential neighborhood, housing stratification depends mostly on the year built, because the parameters of quality and state of the building directly correlate with its age, despite the capital repair.  
Design and Environment
Griber Y.A., Samoylova T.A. - Gerontological specificity of color preferences associated with selecting color of the facade of residential building pp. 99-113


Abstract: The object of this research is the color preferences – subjective and collective color affinities that are expressed in certain arrangement of the basic colors and their hues. The goal of this work lies in examining the mechanisms of the matching color preferences of the senior citizens in situation when the color is viewed as part of the facade of residential building; determining the degree of impact of coloristics of the existing buildings upon their solutions; comparing the abstract and matching color choices of senior citizens with the color preferences of younger people. The experiment involved 20 senior citizens in the age between 61 and 72 (average age 64.95; 6 males and 14 females). The main conclusion of the conducted research lies in the statement that the mechanism of color choice among senior citizens differs drastically from the preferences of younger participants of the experiment. The abstract color preferences in various age groups significantly vary in tone. In the matching choices of senior respondents prevail the soft and light shades. Cold colors are selected more often than warm. Unlike younger participants of the experiment, color solutions of senior citizens do not accord with the shade groups of stimuli.
Question at hand
Gataullin R.F. - Transborder agglomerations in socioeconomic development of the regions pp. 114-122


Abstract: Under the conditions of market economy, the bigger role in the settlement system belongs to agglomerations – clusters with economic, cultural and migration ties, reflected in economic literature and practice of government administration. At the same time, the analysis of particular problems emerging in formation of transborder agglomerations along with articulation of the problem of transborder agglomerations at the regional level are missing. The article examines the borders and composition of the Almetyevsk-Oktyabrsky, Kamsky and Southern-Transurals agglomerations located in the western and eastern borders of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The existing problems pertinent to formation of the indicated agglomerations and ways for their solution are demonstrated. The connectedness of separate municipal settlements that form one or another agglomeration is determined through assessment of the passenger traffic. The presence of transportation lines and history of economic development of the region are also taken into account. For the first time within the economic literature the borders are defined for the proposal to form Almetyevsk-Oktyabrsky, Kamsky and Southern-Transurals agglomerations. Timely determination and necessary support will allow better exploiting their potential, as well as increasing the level of socioeconomic development.
Malykh S.V. - The role of university brand in establishment of the image of Irkutsk city pp. 123-133


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of university brand upon the actual and potential development of the city. This article examines such correlation on the example of impact of Irkutsk State University brand upon the city of Irkutsk, its image, social and intellectual capital in the past, present and future; analyzes the perception of university within urban environment by the city dwellers as a way to preserve the past, understand the present and form the future. Irkutsk State University form the city’s sociocultural environment and defines the peculiarities of its development. Research methodology is structured on combination of the symbolic, structural-functional and constructivist approaches; applies the methods of survey and expert interview, as well as trans-symbolic analysis of interview and questionnaires for data processing. The main conclusion of the conducted research lies in the statement that the role of university brand in development of the local city is pivotal. Using the example of Irkutsk State University, the author is able to trace the peculiarities of social reproduction modelling, in which the university manifests as the fundamental sphere for preserving the past, forming the present and developing the future of the city of Irkutsk.
Gorelova Y.R., Gefner O.V. - The problem of structuring urban territories in perception of city dwellers (on the materials of Novosibirsk) pp. 134-140


Abstract: The subject of this research is the structural-spatial perceptions of the city dwellers. Within the framework of this article, the author presents the results of sociological survey conducted in the city of Novosibirsk focused on the examination of specificity of spatial perception of the city residents of central and suburban territories of their city. As a result, the author determined the spaces attributable to the center or suburbs; factors that influence the perception of certain spaces as central or of increased value; specifies the conceptual parameters of the center in perception of the residents of large city. The main research method is the questionnaire, using the principle of quota sample based on consideration of demographic characteristics of parent population. The results of research allow assessing the specificity of the structural-spatial perception of city dwellers of the place of their residence; can be used in city-planning solutions; and development of the conceptual bases for the regional cultural policy. The majority of answers is defined by the objective characteristics of life in the large cities, such as considerable size, accelerated pace of life, environmental problems, high level of visual monotony of the environment mostly presented by the objects of prefabricated housing, etc.
City dwellers
Gorelova Y.R. - Figurative clichés of a city in the poetic texts pp. 141-149


Abstract: In the context of this publication, main attention is given to examination the key factors of the figurative frame of a city. Figurative frame of the territory implies the system of most powerful, vivid and stable images associated with a certain territory and expressed through pivotal metaphors. Therefore, the object of this research is the poetic texts dedicated to a city; while the subjects of the determination of the typical, conceptual features that characterize the urban space as such, as well as peculiar attributes of the urban space of Omsk. The topic under consideration is elucidated with the priority of interdisciplinary paradigm and culturological model of research. Image of a city is viewed as a result of interaction of the architectural-landscape environment with the individual and collective consciousness of the city dwellers. The ideal component of “image of the place” is formed as a reflection of individuals and communities that populate this space. In this sense, the combination of images-symbols and myths sets the visual perception of a city for its residents. Each city dweller, entering into a dialogue with the city, contributes to the creation of its ideal – mythical space. The author believes that the images of the painters and literary artists most precisely and vividly recapture the subtle aura, individuality and distinctness of a particular place, which is why these materials should be referred to during a comprehensive research of the figurative space of a city.  
Design and Environment
Pankratova A.V. - Crisis in the design of modernism on the example of color arrangement of the environment pp. 150-161


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the ideological transformation of the phenomenon of design. The hypothesis lies in the fact that the ideology of modernism, which still prevails in design, does not meet the sociocultural conditions of modernity. The design of modernism is addressed to the averaged consumer and does not consider the age, gender, ethnic and other peculiarities of a human. The author explicates the internal contradiction of modernism and demonstrates the danger of identifying modernism with design: no target orientation and internationality, declared as a goal of design in modernism, make modern not adjusted to a specific human being. Based on comparison of color arrangement of the environment of the three main periods in the history of design – modern, modernism, and postmodern – the author demonstrates the changes in ideology of design related to the peculiarities of episteme. The article reveals the problems of the modern design environment that inherits the principles of modernism. The main conclusion lies in the need for shifting towards the new paradigm design – the era of techno-vitalism, when on the background of the increasing technological progress emerges the inquiry for return of the panhuman meanings and values. Design of the era of techno-vitalism, which unlike modernism, supports the transcendent concepts, will become the service for creating the individualized objective-spatial and visual-information environment.  
Проектирование и архитектура
Rozin V.M. - The ideas of Bogdanov’s “Tectology” in the works of the architect Rosenberg (first stages of establishment of design methodology) pp. 162-170


Abstract: This article considers the first stages of establishment of design. The author advances a hypothesis that likewise the creation of methodology preceded the establishment of science, similar process took place in the indicated field: first appear the methodological studies aimed at structuring the design thinking, and based on them, the design forms as a separate field of activity and practice. The article analyzes the methodological principles of design (correspondence principle, parsimony principle, optimality principle, etc.) formulated by A. V. Rosenberg, as well as demonstrates that in his proposals he leans not only on the reflection of the existing thereat experience of design, but also the ideas of “Tectology” of A. Bogdanov, first and foremost, organizational and systemic. As a result, the author was able to determine certain peculiarities of the establishment of design: role of the prerequisites of design; significance of methodological research; impact of the ideas of Bogdanov’s “Tectology”. Moreover, the author formulated a hypothesis about the two languages (systemic and systemic-substantive) description of design and similarly difficult intellectual practices.
Cherednyakova A.B., Dobrynina Y.S. - Image of the territory and its transformation in modern conditions (on the example of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk Region) pp. 171-179


Abstract: Image of the territory regarded as a distinct attribute that is responsible of the overall atmosphere in the region. For more viable framing of image of the territory, the region or city can be viewed as quasi-corporation, including into methodology of consideration the instruments of image marketing.  Of great importance is the empirical experience of structuring the image of the region, which carries a spontaneous character based on the historically established meanings of the territory, as well as the image formed on the basis of the declared policy and account of determinants that can shroud the region in one or another image. Using the example of Chelyabinsk Oblast and the city of Chelyabinsk, the author examines the impact of ecological determinant of the image as a factor of negative attitude towards the city and the region of its residents our outside audience, which also lowers the rest of the indexes. The article reveals the influence of industrial associations on image of the city. The authors argue the need for manageable formation of image of the city; otherwise, it significantly distorts and underrates its true characteristics in mass consciousness. It is underlined that positive image of the regions can improve the living standards of its population.
Транспорт и коммуникации
Barkovskiy A.M. - Architectural and sociological aspects of reconstruction of train stations in small towns pp. 180-189


Abstract: This article considers the possibility of creation of the highly urbanized multifunctional hubs of urban framework in small towns through reconstruction of the train stations and adjacent territories. Based on the example of Kinel, town in Samara Region, the author determines the architectural prerequisites for carrying out such reconstruction. The established urban culture contains the three spatial elements: railroad complex (train station, bus station and other transport infrastructure), personal social services (shopping facilities) and communication system (pedestrian bridge). Collection of information for this study was conducted via surveying the local population, using the method of individual questionnaire; processing and analysis of empirical data – using computer software. The article presents the results of the applied architectural-sociological study and their impact upon the architectural arrangement of functional process of reconstructed urban environment. The author underlines the development prospects of the train station territory with the possibility of preserving the historically formed public spaces and existing demands of the local population.
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