Agriculture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Agriculture" > Contents of Issue 01/2022
Contents of Issue 01/2022
Biological Resources
Nikiforova A.G., Skochilova E.A., Mukhametova S.V. - The content of organic acids and carotenoids in Sorbus fruits pp. 1-9

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2022.1.37915

Abstract: Organic acids and carotenoids are important biologically active compounds that largely determine the pharmacological value of rowan fruits. In medicine, mountain ashberry is used as a multivitamin, diuretic, tonic. Its fruits are standardized according to the content of organic acids. In this work, the content of the organic acids sum and carotenoids in the fruits of Sorbus aucuparia and the varieties 'Burka', 'Granatnaya', 'Alaya Krupnaya' and 'Titan' from the collection of the Botanical Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, Mary El Republic) was studied. The moisture content in the fruits of all studied rowans varied from 0.49 to 0.60%, which corresponded to the permissible value of the pharmacopoeia. The amount of organic acids varied from 3.06 to 3.93%. In the fruits of the varieties 'Titan' and 'Burka' the greatest amount of the organic acids was found, slightly less was in the variety 'Granatnaya', but the difference is insignificant. The low content of the studied compounds was determined in Sorbus aucuparia and 'Alaya Krupnaya', while the value of this variety did not meet the requirements of the pharmacopoeia article. The content of carotenoids in rowan fruits varied from 3.09 to 5.60 mg%. In terms of the number of these compounds, the fruits of the varieties 'Titan' and 'Alaya Krupnaya' were in the lead. The smallest amount of carotenoids was found in the fruits of Sorbus aucuparia and 'Granatnaya'. The most promising for obtaining biologically active compounds is the variety 'Titan'.
Horticulture
Okach M.A., Egoshina E.A. - The growth and development dynamics of small fraction bulbs of Hyacinthus orientalis pp. 10-16

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2022.1.38133

Abstract: Hyacinthus orientalis is a valuable decorative bulbous plant. One of the main limitations of its widespread use in landscaping is the low coefficient of vegetative reproduction and the high cost of planting material. Hyacinths are usually grown with the annual digging of bulbs in summer and planting them in autumn. The article presents the results of experience in growing bulbs of small hyacinth fraction with various agricultural techniques. The experiment was carried out in the period 2016-2018 in the open ground in the Botanical Garden-Institute of VSUT (the Mari El Republic). The dynamics of growth and development of 6 hyacinth varieties bulbs was studied during two-year cultivation with annual digging and without digging. It was found that the weight of bulbs of all studied hyacinths varieties increased intensively during two-year cultivation without annual digging. In the experiment variant with annual digging of bulbs weighing 7.3-8.5 g (first size), the formation of baby bulbs was noted only in the varieties Eros and Lady Derby, without annual digging in the varieties Carnegie, Lady Derby', Madame Sophie'. The weight of the bulbs of the second size (from 3.8 to 4.5 g) for 1 year of cultivation increased by an average of 1.6 times. Bulbs weighing up to 2 g (third size) for 2 years of cultivation are able to increase their weight by 3 times. Bulbs of terry varieties Rosette and Madame Sophie weighing up to 2 g grew better during two-year cultivation without annual digging. The data obtained can be used in the cultivation of hyacinths in decorative nurseries.
Botova A.V., Mukhametova S.V. - Dynamics of gladiolus leaves growth pp. 17-26

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2022.1.38291

Abstract: Gladiolus L. are beautifully flowering perennials that do not overwinter in the open ground in the conditions of central Russia. Its varieties are characterized by a huge variety in the height of the peduncle, the color scheme and the corrugation degree of the flowers. The disadvantage of this crop is the complexity of the annual digging and planting of corms. The purpose of the article is to study the growth dynamics of real gladiolus leaves in the open ground. Leaf height measurements were carried out after 15 days in the process of growing plants on ridges. The objects of the study were 9 varieties: 'Aurora', 'Granatovyj braslet', 'Grad Kitezh', 'Devichi tajny', 'Dolgozhdannyj debyut', 'Majya Plisetskaya', 'Tanyusha', 'Shapka Monomaha', 'Noon Moon'. The study showed that the most intensive growth of gladiolus leaves occurred after the emergence of sprouts. On the 20th day after planting, the plants reached about 1/3 of their final height, and on the 35th day 50%, after 2 months the height was almost 90%. Most varieties were characterized by the greatest increase in the first accounting period, in the future its value decreased, reaching a minimum in the last accounting period. In the process of growth, the taller varieties remained tall, the shorter ones remained stunted. At each date of the study, 'Devichi tajny' had the highest height, 'Grad Kitezh' had the lowest height. The obtained data can be used in the cultivation of gladioli in nurseries and landscaping location.
Animal husbandry
Kudelkin N. - Legal regulation of reindeer husbandry pp. 27-36

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2022.1.38547

EDN: WNPWLP

Abstract: The subject of the work is the legal norms regulating social relations arising in the process of reindeer husbandry. The purpose of the work is to formulate conclusions and proposals for improving legal regulation in this area based on the analysis of federal and regional legislation, strategic planning documents, as well as information and data related to reindeer husbandry carried out in Russia. In the process of work, general scientific, private and special methods were used. Including: analysis, synthesis, analogy, deduction, induction, formal legal and other methods. The relevance of the research topic is indicated by the fact that in Russia reindeer husbandry belongs to one of the most common types of traditional economic activity. Its importance is high not only for the northern regions, but also for the whole of Russia, reindeer husbandry is rightfully attributed to one of the reserves for strengthening the country's food security. In addition, the support of traditional economic activities, which includes reindeer husbandry, contributes to the preservation of the material and spiritual culture of indigenous peoples. These facts indicate the relevance of issues related to the legal regulation of reindeer husbandry. The paper draws a number of conclusions concerning the development of legislation in this area, so, as one of the measures aimed at supporting reindeer husbandry, it is proposed at the legislative level to prioritize the implementation of traditional nature management over other types of economic activity.
Forestry
Rumyantsev D.E., Epishkov A.A. - The Influence of the Forest Factors on the Variability of the Tree-ring Chronologies of the common Pine in the conditions of the Muromtsevo District Forestry of the Vladimir Region pp. 37-53

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2022.1.38494

EDN: WRPIPN

Abstract: Comparative analysis of tree-ring chronologies on the variability of the short-term component is based on the calculation of synchronicity coefficients. The study of the regularities of the variability of tree-ring chronologies on this basis in natural cenopopulations is important for establishing the reaction rate of this indicator. This is significant for the further progress of dendrochronological and dendroclimatic studies, improving the methods of forensic botanical examination using dendrochronology methods. In the study, this issue was studied on the basis of chronologies from different phytocenoses with the predominance of scots pine in the stand. The trial areas were located on the territory of the Muromtsevo forestry of the Vladimir region. The study was carried out as part of the implementation of R&D Rosleskhoz (2008-2011). The main parameters of the frequency of occurrence of different variants of the values of the synchronicity coefficient were established. The regularities of the frequency of occurrence of different values of the synchronicity coefficient depending on the type of forest are also established: The range of variation of values between groups from different types of forest is small and amounts to several percent. The data obtained are important for solving the following practical tasks: monitoring the accuracy of measurements of annual rings on individual wood samples; establishing the date of termination of cambial activity in the trunk of a tree; establishing the date of construction of wooden buildings; dating of archaeological wood; dating the time of creation of art objects; diagnostics of the condition of the tree at the time of cutting; establishing the time of cutting the tree; establishing the drying time a tree.
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