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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Agriculture" > Contents of Issue № 02/2021
Contents of Issue № 02/2021
History of agriculture


Abstract: The article analyzes approaches to understanding the role of the peasantry as the basis of the Russian nation and culture and a special social community. The ideas of M. M. Kovalevsky, S. N. Yuzhakov, P. A. Sorokin, A.V. Chayanov and T. Shanin are presented. The conclusion is made about the relevance and methodological value of the approaches of representatives of Russian sociology to this issue. The article states that today, among the priority areas of agricultural sociology, the most popular is the study of family farming as a subject of the informal economy sector of the production of environmentally friendly products for the population interested in the development of bio-agriculture and innovative food networks that reduce the distance between food producers and consumers. It is this urgency of the problem that makes peasant studies the most promising direction of agrarian sociology. Taking into account the practical significance of this problem, relying on methodological approaches and developments of domestic and foreign sociologists, the research group of the Ural Agrarian University, based on the network interaction of universities of the Ural region and India, developed a program of initiative cross-cultural sociological research on the topic "Culture of farm labor", the purpose of which is to analyze the value bases of economic behavior of representatives of this social group for designing an effective agricultural policy.


Abstract: The article considers the model of development of agricultural enterprises in Russia, proposed by the outstanding agricultural economist A.V. Chayanov. The authors demonstrate the relevance of A.V. Chayanov's ideas for solving modern problems of import substitution and ensuring food security facing domestic agriculture. It is argued that today the socio-economic model of agricultural enterprises in Russia, developed by A.V. Chayanov in the 1920s-1930s, is still extremely relevant and in demand. According to Chayanov, the core of such the model is a family labor-based peasant farm. The authors claim that A.V. Chayanov used a large factual material to prove that the way to increase the efficiency and innovative development of agriculture in Russia lies through the increase and strengthening of farms, their support at the government level, as well as their association into production and consumer cooperatives. A.V. Chayanov strongly opposed the nationalization of agricultural cooperatives, he warned that the state could not directly manage agricultural production. The state can and should create favorable conditions for the development of family labor-based peasant farms and agricultural cooperatives: improve the regulatory framework for agricultural activities, create social infrastructure in rural areas, regulate the taxation of peasant farms and agricultural cooperatives, regulate social and labor relations in agricultural production, implement targeted subsidies in lean years or in the event of emergency circumstances.
Agriculture management


Abstract: The personnel-to-be for agricultural enterprises mostly live in rural areas. Therefore, it is important to create conditions for the intellectual development of young people in rural schools, which is the subject of the study in this article. Digitalization, creating conditions for the development of "smart agriculture", undoubtedly affects the progress in agricultural relations, but the main emphasis should be placed on the human resource of agriculture. Now it is necessary to develop a system of personnel retraining, to organize the labor discipline of rural residents in small forms of management, to find alternative forms for the production activities of the rural population. Promising technologies of "intelligent" agriculture will ensure effective environmentally safe pest control, will contribute to the restoration and preservation of useful properties of soils and groundwater, and with the help of these technologies, compliance with the certification requirements of organic agriculture will be constantly monitored. hus, the main goal of the personnel policy in the field of agriculture is the timely selection of highly qualified personnel, the development of human capital, the increase in human production efficiency through informatization and modernization of production in each individual agricultural enterprise.Setting Strategic integration is necessary to give the integrity of the overall organizational strategy to develop a personnel strategy. The overall goal of this process is to ensure the intellectualization of human capital and the transition to digital agriculture.
Biological Resources
Sukhareva L.V., Mukhametova S.V., Zhelonkina T.Y. - Phenology of Pentaphylloides representatives in the Mari El Republic pp. 25-34


Abstract: Representatives of the genus Pentaphylloides are low ornamental shrubs that are valued for long abundant flowering, compact size and unpretentiousness to growing conditions. P. fruticosa is a valuable plant that has not only decorative value, but also food, medicinal, soil protection. For medicinal purposes, young flowering shoots are used, harvested during budding and flowering. The article presents the results of phenological observations in 2018-2020. The objects of the study were plants of 8 kinds of Pentaphylloides in the collection of the Botanical Garden-Institute of Volga State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic). The studied plants undergo most phases of seasonal development, with the exception of the mass end of shoot growth, complete lignification of shoots, mass ripening of fruits, mass leaf fall. Species and cultivars vegetated from the end of April – the beginning of May to the end of October in a short time. The vegetation period was 177-182 days. There was no significant difference in the timing of the passage of phenophases between the taxa. Plants of Р. × friedrichsenii and P. mandschurica passed most of the phenophases earlier than the average dates for the genus, and 'Goldfinger' and 'Klondike' – later. The earliest and longest flowering was characterized by P. friedrichsenii (65 d.), the latest and shortest – P. fruticosa (28 d.). All plants of P. fruticosa cultivars bloomed for a longer period than the species. After mass flowering, single flowers were observed in representatives of Pentaphyloides until mid-October.
Okach M.A., Mukhametova S.V., Lyamina G.V. - The seasonal development of Crocus in the Mari El Republic conditions pp. 35-42


Abstract: Crocuses are beautifully flowering corm-bearing plants. They begin the growing season immediately after the snow melts. The research contains the results of phenological observations of 2014-2019 for plants of 6 Crocus taxa in the conditions of the Mari El Republic. Cultivars with early, medium and late periods of phenophase passage were identified. A flowering phenospectrum of the studied crocuses has been compiled. Crocuses vegetate from mid-April to early June for 40-50 days, and bloom from the third decade of April to early May. C. chrysanthus 'Prince Cloues' is characterized by the earliest unfolding of leaves and a short duration of their growth. The greatest value for landscaping is C. versicolor, characterized by the longest growing season and the earliest flowering, as well as C. chrysanthus ' Romance’ and C. angustifolia, characterized by the longest flowering within 2 weeks. The flowering of C. sieberi 'Spring Beauty’ is unstable. The obtained data on the seasonal development of crocuses can be used when including them in rockeries, alpine slides and other flower beds in natural-style gardens.
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