Agriculture
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Agriculture" > Contents of Issue 03/2020
Contents of Issue 03/2020
Horticulture
Okach M.A., Mukhametova S.V., Kharisova K.V., Polkanova A.S., Yakupova G.I. - Medium-grown daylily flowering in the Republic of Mari El
pp. 1-6

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2020.3.33772

Abstract: Daylily (Hemerocallis) is a perennial herbaceous plant widely used in landscape gardening. Daylilies are prized for their long term flowering mainly in late summer and low maintenance cultivation. According to flower spike height, the varieties are divided into runt, medium-growing and tall. The article contains the results of the study of 21 medium-growing daylily varieties’ terms of flowering in the botanic garden of the Volga region State University of Technology (Yoshkar-Ola, the Republic of Mari El). The research was conducted in 2015 - 2017. The calendar dates were converted into a continuous series. All varieties were classified as early, medium or late according to the terms of the beginning and the end of flowering and its duration. During three years of research, the earliest beginning of the phenological phase was registered in 2016, and the latest one  - in 2017. The early beginning and ending of flowering were typical for the varieties “Dr Regel” and “Royal Sovereign”. The late beginning of flowering was registered for the “Country Club” variety, and the late ending - for “Sandalwood”. Other varieties were classified as medium-term. The varieties “Royal Sovereign”, “Tejas”, and “Sugar Candy” are characterized by a short flowering period, while “Sandalwood” and “Derby Bound” - with a long one. It was established that the late-flowering varieties are characterized with a longer flowering period.
Organization of Agricultural Industry
Kuznetsova I.N. - Minimization of damage at agriculture objects (vineyards) by using hunting birds of prey as bio-repellents pp. 7-13

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2020.3.33311

Abstract: Wine-growers often face the necessity of fighting the insects, diseases, and pests threatening their business, and of protecting each racemation of their future harvest. Among the most frequent threats are the flocks of birds considering vineyards as a source of forage, which can eliminate the crop very fast. For many years, wine-growers have used various on-trend ways of repelling to avoid the destruction of harvest and plants, including the noisy air guns, laser emitters, holographic tapes, nets covering grapevines, acoustic systems, and even kites. However, the above mentioned means lose their effectiveness sooner or later, and their repelling effect lasts less than it is necessary for harvest ripening and preservation. It is explained by birds’ and animals’ adaptation to the changes in the environment - birds stop paying attention to the threats that haven’t been proved in reality or haven’t caused death. The forming adaptation leads to ignoring, birds and animals focus on foraging, and the harvest becomes at risk again. Meanwhile, the most significant results in harvest preservation are achieved by using a time-tested method of repelling, which doesn’t require any weird technologies - that is falconry. Based on a natural fear of a predator, the bio-repellent method doesn’t build up a tolerance. A centuries-old tradition of falconry is effective and fully in line with the current international standards in the field of environmentally safe products manufacturing.  
History of agriculture
Sevostyanova E. - Agricultural unions of Eastern Siberia in the late 19th - the early 20th century: the main forms of out-of-school education and the channels of popularization of agricultural knowledge
pp. 14-33

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2020.3.34392

Abstract: The research object is agricultural unions formed in Eastern Siberia in the late 19th - the early 20th century. The research subject is reflected in the title of the article. The purpose of the research is to define the forms of agricultural education and the channels of popularization of agricultural knowledge among the broad public. To achieve this goal, the author analyzes, based on the dynamics of agricultural unions formation, the initiation and dynamics of the change of the main directions of work and the extent to which the forms of education corresponded to the aspirations of the authorities, the demands of the progressive public, and the practical needs of rural population. Generally, the work of East-Siberian agricultural unions was definitely less active than the work of the unions of the European part of Russia. That could be explained by the lack of educated employees, the difficulty of using the new agricultural approaches in risk farming areas, and the low literacy rate of the rural population. However, in the first decade of the 20th century, the work of agricultural unions became more active, which was determined, among other things, by the change of the authorities’ attitude and the channels of popularization of agricultural knowledge: exhibitions and public lectures were organized, libraries were founded, and books and magazines were sent out. The ways of rational farm management were popularized via special newspapers and agricultural magazines. Before and during the World War I the agricultural unions of Irkutsk province and Transbaikal started actively creating the branches in rural areas. Agricultural unions created the atmosphere of public interest, broadened and clarified the ideas of society about the needs of Siberian villages.  
Khrykov V.P., Krupnov Y.V., Mikhalev E.V. - The reconstruction of agricultural industry in the microdistrict Nizhny Novgorod Vetluga region by means of the organization of a flax-growing agricultural technological cluster and a research farm
pp. 34-45

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2020.3.34399

Abstract: The development of the agricultural industry in Russia requires a specific approach. The conservative approach and the lack of financing of the agricultural industry are obvious, but the more dysfunctional are the organizational approaches to the development of agriculture, which require an interdisciplinary analysis. The research object is the microdistrict “Nizhny Novgorod Vetluga region” as a potential experiment area for the formation of a full-cycle agricultural flax-growing complex based on a locomotive flax-growing manufacture working with crop-rotation and agronomic crops and agricultural industries. The authors give special attention to such mechanisms as an agricultural technological cluster and a research farm, which should become effective instruments of high-quality development of both the flax-growing industry in Russia and the new level of agriculture in a non-chernozem belt. The scientific novelty of the research is the analysis of the problem of management approaches to the development of agriculture at the time when it's necessary to learn to use new technologies and to become an actor of the new highly competitive market. The authors offer a solution to the problem by means of a comprehensive projecting of the agricultural sector as a single interconnected system and the introduction of a locomotive instrument in the form of agricultural technological clusters and research farms, an analogue of the Soviet science and research  unions combining and coordinating science, education and manufacturing. Thus, the formation of the system of partnerships and interactions of the actors of the spheres of education, science and manufacturing in the field of organization of growing and processing of flax according to the agricultural technological cluster model, will give rise to the development of Nizhny Novgorod Vetluga region and its agricultural sector transforming it from a detrimental dotational condition to the all-sufficient level of development.  
Agriculture management
Solovyanenko N.I. - Issues of Legal Regulation of the Use of Digital Technologies in Agricultural Business pp. 46-53

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8809.2020.3.35336

Abstract: The modern agrarian revolution means the introduction of high-tech solutions, which play a significant role as a factor of sustainable development in the field of food security, agriculture, and the rational use of natural resources. The digital transformation of agriculture covers the use of a wide range of technologies in the production of agricultural products and food (the Internet of Things, robotics, artificial intelligence, big data analysis, e-commerce, and a number of others). The legislation lags behind the digital technologies being introduced, which are constantly improved and are a "moving target " in terms of regulation. An essential task is to create an up-to-date regulatory framework that will strengthen confidence in digital agriculture. Digital strategies define regulatory objectives. In Russia, the creation and development of the national platform "Digital Agriculture" is a part of the legal mechanism of strategic planning. It is aimed at the creation of conditions for the intensification of productivity and the reduction of operating expenditures by means of using high-tech solutions. Digital agriculture activities should be supported by updated basic legislation. The state information system of sectoral data collecting and analyzing "One-stop window" is projected as the incoming data source for the national platform "Digital Agriculture". 
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