Psychologist - rubric Тело и телесность
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Rubric "Тело и телесность"
Тело и телесность
Pogontseva D.V. - The Role of Age in Evaluation of Appearance pp. 14-20


Abstract: The subject of the research is the phenomena of ageism and lookism. The researcher analyzes the role of age in evaluation of one's appearance of attractive or non-attractive. She performs a theoretical analysis of researches devoted to grading one's appearance as beautiful and as well as the role of one's age in developing his or her views on success, health and beauty. Pogontseva focuses on the 'young age-health-beauty' triad as the key moment of assessing the other. Thus, the aim of the research is to analyze peculiarities of assessing someone else's appearance and ageism manifestations demonstrated by young women. For this purpose, the author has developed a set of 15 black-and-white photos (portraits) of women of different age (from 18 to 60 years old). Respondents were to evaluate these portraits depending on a number of criteria including those that say how beautiful, happy, successful in profession or personal life a girl on a photo is, and approximately how old she is. The review involved 30 young women from 18 to 25 years old (the mean age is 22). The results of the research demonstrate that the age of a girl on a photo does not affect attribution of certain qualities to her (the phenomenon of ageism), however, there are certain tendences towards it. In conclusion, the author emphasizes the need in further research, for example, she underlines that it is necessary to involve more respondents of different ages. It is also important to include men in the research, both male respondents and male photos. 
Filippova S.A., Shelispanskaya E.V. - The Phenomenon of Dissatisfaction with His or Her Body in One's Teens: Psychological Reasons and Opportunities of Modification Training pp. 21-31


Abstract: The research is devoted to one's attitude to his or her physical 'self', students' body satisfaction and the role of physical 'self' in the overall picture of psychological wellbeing as well as psychological reasons of one's body dissatisfaction and modification training methods. Being the basis of sexual and partially gender identity, attitude to our physical 'self' is shown through all components of self-concept: cognition, emotional-value attitudes, and behavior, and  interwine with all spheres of human existence, thus affecting the individual and social conscience. The research methodology is based on the biopsychosocial model of neurotic diseases and the idea of the mutual influence of objective and subjective realities in the process of developing one's 'self' as well as orientation at the leading role of personal activity in choosing a strategy of coping with psychological problems. The research methods include review and analysis of literature on the topic, diagnostic experiment, verbal methods of psychological diagnostics, mathematical methods of data processing and formative experiment. The results of the research prove that body dissatisfaction is typical for the major part of modern youth. The authors have discovered differences in body images and the impact of weight on body satisfaction demonstrated by students who have psychological problems and who do not have them. Body dissatisfaction shown by the students without psychological problems is usually a consequence of social factors. They perceive their bodies as a whole and their body satisfaction increases if their weight stays within the norm. Body dissatisfaction of students with psychological problems is caused by excessive fragmentation of body image and their weight does not have a significant effect on their body satisfaction. Individual sessions and group therapy prove to be efficient in overcoming psychological problems. 
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Psychological Risks of Socially Significant Diseases at Retirement Age pp. 32-47


Abstract: The aim of the research is to analyze psychological and behavioral risks of cardiovascular diseases at retirement age and to compare these risks to other risks of socially significant diseases. The research involved retired men and women. The subject of the research is personality traits of retired people that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, endocrinological and respiratory diseases. The authors examine the influence of such factors as addicitions (alcoholism, smoking, compulsive eating), typological behavioral features (A, B and D types of behavior), emotional sphere and communication peculiarities. The research involved 525 pensioners who came to the city out-patient clinic, 496 of them had a record of a significantly important disease. The researchers have applied such methods as questionnairies, self-assessment and medical analysis data. To process data, the authors have used one-factor analysis of variance and regression analysis. The results of the research demonstrate that many psychological risks are common for different socially important diseases (in particular, bad habits and aggression) and career advancement is the general cause. However, there are personality traits that influence the development of a particular disease, for example, creative hobby and attribution to the Human - Sign kind of profession reduce the risk of heart diseases. Attribution to the Human - Nature kind of profession decreases the risk of diabetes, and intellectual hobbies reduce the risk of lung diseases. Conclusions: it is necessary to take into account personality traits and personality type when assessing the risk of diseases. 
Berezina T.N., Chumakova E.A. - Personal Types of Retired People with Cardiovascular Diseases pp. 41-48


Abstract: The subject of the research is the distribution of psycho-types of patients with cardiovascular diseases. The object of the research are individuals of retirement age. The research involved 100 people who have been registered in the city clinic for cardiac disease. The comparison group consists of individuals with cancer. The vegetative-behavioral, temperamental and emotional personality types of pensioners were studied. The author pays special attention to the distribution of patients according to the types of the emotional sphere of unconscious and self-estimated levels. Diagnostics of personality types are carried out with the help of the following tests: Strelau, Rusalov as well as original questionnaires. To assess the reliability of differences between distributions, the statistical χ2 criterion is used. It is shown that there are differences in distribution by type for the temperamental level, and at the trend level for the vegetative behavioral. It is suggested to consider personal types as an additional variable; the belonging of a person to a certain personality type under certain conditions will increase the risk of the disease, while at others decrease. The direction for further research has been determined: identification of the risk conditions for cardiac diseases and conditions for the restoration of health for each personality type. 
Berezina T.N. - Heath as the Factor of Individual Life Expectancy of Russians in the 20th Century pp. 72-87


Abstract: The purpose of this research is to conduct a psychogenetic research of factors influencing individual life expectancy of Russians in the 20th century. The object of the research is individual life expectancy and the subject of the research is the influence of such factors as health and healthy lifestyle on individual life expectancy. The author of the article examines the role of heredity and environment in the genesis of dangerous diseases (cardiovascular disseases and cancer) as well as dangerous habits (drug and alcohol addiction, smoking and compulsive eating). The author pays special attention to the role of personality traits and environmental factors in how one arranges his or her life path. The research is based on the twin method and involved 100 pairs of monozygous twins who have already completed their life path. Through surveying their relatives, the author makes indicators of health and healthy lifestyle for each pair. There is a significant reduction in individual life span of those twins whose lives were influenced by such factors as 'drug addiction' and 'total sum of dangerous habits' in relation to average indicators within the group. The factors 'alcohol addiction' and 'cardiovascular diseases and cancer' evidently decreased the life span of a twin but not in relation to average indicators within the group. The influence of variables 'smoking' and 'compulsive eating' is levelled off by the influence of other negative factors, however, with the growth of the average life expectancy in Russia elimination of these factors can actually increase the life span and life productivity. 
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