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Philosophy and psychology
Kulagina-Yartseva V.S. - Anthrony J. Steinbok. The Distinctive Structure of the Emotions (translated by Kulagina-Yartseva, V. S.) pp. 1-29


Abstract: The purpose of the article is to investigate, whether the acts relating to the emotional sphere of experience in the objectifying acts of cognition are funded, or have the unique structure and are independent of these acts. On this perspective we find the beginning of reasonings in Husserl's phenomenology. Revolutionism of ideas of Husserl consisted not simply in opening of intentional structure of consciousness, but in the unique phenomenological approach which has allowed it to describe a way of judgment of what is something (life a subject) in relation to force and limits of subjectivity. Saying that emotional acts are funded in more primary the intentional acts, Husserl means that emotions depend on objectifying acts because characteristics of the last that "the non-objectifying act", presented in a sense, meant something outside itself are necessary for them. Certain emotional experiences, such as considered here (trust), or in a broader sense, such which treat the sphere interpersonal and a reality of the personality, shouldn't be understood as based in the objectifying acts. Though it doesn't contradict to the basic structure of "funding" offered by Husserl, it contradicts to his early understanding of emotions.
Pershin Y.Y. - The Philosophy of Intelligence Support in a Case Study: 'Military Meta-Action' pp. 1-27


Abstract: The object of the research is the archaic mind and archaic vision and interpretation of the surrounding world. The subject of the research is the manifestation of the archaic thinking in case of military meta-action. Intelligence and counterintelligence operations are the types of such military meta-action in a situation of actual military actions. In such an extreme situation man has got a new vision of the world and situation and this vision differs from the one a regular person has in his everyday life. The present research is devoted to this particular vision of a situation. In his research Pershin applies systems and communicative approaches as well as the method of reconstruction of a militry meta-action from the point of view of the arhaic mind. The scientific novelty of the research is caused, on the one hand, by the fact that the author studies the manifestation of the archaic thinking, i.e. thinking of a primitive man, in an extreme situation of a military action and meta-action. On the other hand, the military situation and meta-action are themselves described from the point of view of the archaic thinking. Pershin has also tried to describe the essence and principles of the archaic mind and thiking in his other articles and researches. 
Parkhomenko R.N. - Myth as a category of perception of the world: the advantages and disadvantages of the theory of Ernst Cassirer pp. 1-30


Abstract: The object of research is the concept of myth plays in philosophy of Ernst Cassirer: in the early 20-ies Cassirer became interested in ethnological researches about life, language and thinking of primitive societies in order to understand the basic laws of functioning of primitive thinking, which he defined as "mythical life form. " These studies led to the conclusion that Cassirer that even primitive rituals often do not even verbalized, had its own logic, however, is different from the logic of modern scientific and rational society. The method of research was the study of a large complex of works by E. Cassirer and monographs on the philosophy of Cassirer, including German. The main conclusions of the study is a statement of the fact that Cassirer was convinced that the myth as a form of life in ancient societies, as well as the myth of politics in modern society, indicates the existence of different fragments of the human world, that the people responsible for committing various errors decision-making and in their behavior.
Sukiasyan S. - Psychoarheology as a Method of Mind Research pp. 1-31


Abstract: The methodological approach laid the basis for this study allows us to find general regularities in the development, study various sciences, proposing to study the evolution of nature and society a common platform in the universe. This approach comes from the fact that, along with a real (material) world there is a world of consciousness, the world of information fields. The philosophical platform from which emanates the author recognizes the equivalence of matter and energy and spirit, as well as combinations thereof. Matter and Spirit are continual internal unity at all levels of the organization being. The methodology of the study and analysis of the mind and mental processes presented in this article is based on the principle of universal evolutionism (synergy), which is based on the principle of a united world, involving the development of the physical, biological and social worlds on a single scenario. Considering the psyche, as a phenomenon, with its own history of development and formation, as well as a person as an object of biology, with its history of development, the author considers the psychopathological manifestations as historical artifacts, adequate in the current time and space, however, acquired pathological now time. As a basis for such an approach to the psyche of the author examines the theory of dissolution Jackson. An attempt to understand the psyche as a multilayered phenomenon, reflecting the phasing of the evolutionary process.
Rysev N. - The Necessary, Sufficient and Additional Components of Psychological Manipulation pp. 1-12


Abstract: This article analyzes the development of the theory of the psychological manipulation. The study problem is the designation of the necessary, sufficient and additional components of the manipulation. The article deals with a variety of views of well-known authors in the manipulative behavior of individuals or social groups. As a result of analysis, the author puts forward a hypothesis about the five essential components of the manipulation. 1. The subject-object relationship. 2. Hiding the true purpose of the manipulator. 3. Hiding the very fact of manipulation. 4. Impact on the target of the object being manipulated (need, value, role or self-esteem). 5. Call the object’s emotions, thoughts, attitudes or actions in order to create the subjective feeling of the independence in decision-making. There is no manipulation without each of these components. On the other hand, the presence of these five elements all together is enough to make the behavior of the individual or social group to be the manipulation. Other components of the manipulation, for example, trigger, the script, content of the manipulation and tactical methods of influence are only complementary. But they have reinforcing effects. 
Spektor D.M. - To Be and to Have: the Will to Power of the Flesh and the Embodiment pp. 1-15


Abstract: The subject of the research is the relationship and difference between the concepts of will-to-power and possession (treatment). In a number of fundamental studies of the last time they were mostly opposed, the first (to be) at the same time correlated with the true being, while the second was correlated with a simulacrum and deceit despite the variety of reasons and phenomenology of the latter. At the same time the indispensable presence of the phenomenon of possession in the history (in particular, possession of "one's own body", "yourself") suggests non-randomness of its direct and indirect manifestations. In this regard, the author of the research sets a task of reconstruction of the "name" of the ontology and its establishment (ontological) connectivity with the will-to-power (being). The research method is based on the analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "power" and "property" in terms of their relationship; the most significant feature of the method is a sequential approximation of anthropological and logical forms (categories of incarnation, possession and "external" in the imperative of the "real"). The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author develops a category of transition and ontological connection modes of being and possession (of power and property) in their non-speculative, but anthropological attribution, reduced to the great-phenomenon of "exchange", "will" and sacrifice. The "ownership" form is enclosed in a form of "involvement" and "participation" (incarnation) initially at the level of the flesh (body).
Skleynis V.A. - Interaction of the Semantic Structures as a Nonlinear Dynamic Process pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the models of meaning systems and conscious experience used in the psychology of subjective semantics and psychosemantics. The author of the article analyzes a number of concepts that describe prospects for the implementation of physical models used by post-nonclassical philosophers to create simulation models of mental phenomena. Based on the understanding of the meaning as a structure that determines the order and system organization of consciousness, as well as on the concept of I. Pogojina in which the theory of activity corresponds to the post-nonclassical stage of development of psychological science, the author compares models of meaning systems that exist in the psychology of subjective semantics, on the one hand, and synergistic models of consciousness on the other hand. The objective of this research is to conduct a comparative analysis of the concepts of consciousness existing in the field of psychosynergetics and psychology of subjective semantics. The scientific novelty of the research is cuased by the fact that the author combines synergetic models of consciousness on the one hand and activity theory of consciousness proposed by V. Serkin and models of the image of the world and lifestyle that exist in the psychology of subjective semantics and psychosemantics on the other hand. This allows, in the author's opinion, to expand understanding of the nature of the interaction between the image of the world and lifestyle considering the dynamic aspects of this interaction as a non-linear process on the one hand and to extrapolate the synergetic aspects of the process of interiorization to the exteriorization process on the other hand. The author of the article has also carried out extrapolation of the thesis about the differences in the languages of the description of the surface and deep semantic structures to the processes of the intrapersonal dynamics of semantic structures and human interaction with culture as a field of collective meanings.
Spektor D.M. - On the Matter and Nature of Sensuality. The Problems of the Philosophy of Psychology pp. 1-13


Abstract: The relationship between sensuality and consciousness is a traditional problem of philosophy. However, while classics view this issue from the point of view of human's status between a mortal creature and God, since the beginning of the last century opinions on the matter have been changing. The 'flesh' came to the fore while conciousness lost its previous position and autonomy and became part of life existence. On the other hand, this is what has brought the same issues that have been rising since Kant's critical works. As he wrote, 'in practice feelings create theory'. But these are the feelings that create a number of specific forms of sensuality (including derived emotions). Consequently, the human world confined in the sensual framework of time and space includes certain triggers of development of sensuality. At the same time, traditional view that feelings must be interpreted by the human mind (as a result of the concept that consciousness is the foundation of human existence) does not allow to view sensuality as having the main but not complementary role. Therefore, the author of the article sets a goalto define sensuality of human as a specific matter but not as part of consciousness anatomy or key to understanding the anatomy of sensuality. The author also raises a question about the need and contours of special ontology that is not applied to sensuality but rooted in sensuality and its genealogy.
Skleynis V.A. - Archetype Meanings of Conceptual Structure Dynamics pp. 1-8


Abstract:   The matter under research is intrapersonal and interpersonal semantic structures relevant to the definition of archetype. The author carries out comparative analysis of archetype models described in psychology, cultural studies and philosophy as well as models of meanings used in the psychology of subjective semantics and psychology of meaning. When describing intrapersonal archetype structures, the author compares the image of the world model offered by P. Serkin and the archetypic personality space concept given by Yu. Perevozkina. According to the author, the level of non-differentiated consciousness corresponds to the nuclear layer of the image of the world, mythological space corresponds to the semantic layer, information space corresponds to the perception layer. The objective of this research is to construct the model of archetype strucure dynamics viewed as a type of system of meanings with different levels of presentations in the form of intrapersonal and interpersonal structures. Cultural presentations of archetype is viewed by the author as transformed forms of intrapersonal stuctures. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the author analyzes aspects and functions of archetype such as archetype as the basic tendency, symbolic presentation of the basic tendency, and as a component of intrapersonal and interpersonal architectonics. The author offers a scheme of interaction of archetype structures understood as forms of conceptual constructs. Archetype constructs are viewed as many-level semantic structures in the process of dynamic interaction. Interaction patterns of such archetype structures obey the laws of non-linear dynamics which is an instance of dynamics of intra- and inerpersonal dynamics of conceptual structures. 
Skleynis V.A. - Archetypal Aspects of a Person's Life Scenario pp. 8-16


Abstract: The subject of this study is the correlation of the type of life scenario of the individual on the one hand and the components of the personality on the other. The aim of the research is to analyze the relationship between archetypal structures of the personality and his/hers life scenario. Considering the life scenario of the person and archetypal structures of his/her personality as components of the outlook, projected at the level of semantics in the form of attitudes to individual objects, situations and time intervals, the author compares the type of life scenario of the person on the one hand and the categorical axes of the archetypal space on the other. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that within the framework of this work, for the first time, the relationship between the types of the life scenario of the individual and the components of his/her archetypal space is empirically investigated. In addition, the novelty of the study lies in the fact that archetypal structures and the life scenario of a personality are considered in the framework of this study from the standpoint of the psychology of subjective semantics and are described as deep semantic structures that manifest themselves at the level of surface structures in the processes of meaning formation. In the course of the study, statistically significant data were obtained, indicating the presence of the conjugacy of the axes of the archetypal space and the type of life scenario of the individual
Faritov V.T. - Heidegger as a Remedy: the Ontology of Psychiatry pp. 12-23


Abstract: The article deals with the influence of philosophies on the theory and practice of psychiatry. The material of the research is the work of the German psychiatrist and philosopher Ludwig Binswanger. The object of the research is the ontology of psychiatry. The subject of the research is the interpretation of fundamental ontology and existential analytics of Martin Heidegger in psychiatric research of Ludwig Binswanger. The author of the article analyzes the problem of the ontological foundation of psychiatry as a scientific discipline, the basic concepts of existential analysis as a method of psychiatric research, and describes the existential structure of schizophrenia. The author has used the methodological principles and the framework of categories and concepts from fundamental ontology and existential analytics. The main result of the research is the explication of the ontological content of existential analysis as a method of research in the field of psychiatry. The author shows that the works of Ludwig Binswanger bear not only mental but also the philosophical significance. Psychiatric studies of Ludwig Binswanger are based on phenomenology, fundamental ontology and existential analytics.
Sukiasyan S. - The Problem of Consciousness: the State of the Problem from the Point of View of Synergy pp. 13-69


Abstract: The subject of this study is the category of "consciousness" as a leading component and form of human mental activity in the context of its origin, forms of expression and development. The problem of consciousness is one of the most difficult issues in the scientific comprehension of a man. The purpose of this study is to analyze the main approaches and hypotheses about the nature of consciousness from the positions of the various areas of knowledge - the orthodox scientific and esoteric, and final consideration of the problem of consciousness in inseparable combination of these two approaches. The main tasks is to consider the modern, yet not popular approaches to the problem of the consciousness and its relation to the psyche, the brain, the universe. The work is structured and includes the following sections: history and classic of the problem, consciousness and synergy, the physical basis of consciousness, mind and brain, a special state of consciousness, the conclusion. The present study is based on theoretical analysis and categorical concepts and approaches, accepted in psychology, psychiatry, and physics. Author's original approach to understanding the nature and the human psyche is presented. It comes from the fact that the essence of any human phenomenon is manifested in its extremes, e.g. during the changed states of psyche, particularly in the states of depersonalization-derealization, out of body experience etc.The author suggests that this approach, which emphasizes the combination of extremes - the scientific and parascientific analysis, underlining the unusual and the unique capabilities of a person, the study of energeticoinformatic aspect of any problems, can lead us towards the knowledge of man and nature. It comes from the fact that there is an objectively existing, real world, "given to us in senses". But there is another reality with another form of existence - the world of our experiences and ideas, the world, the reality of which is beyond the scope of the existence of the material world.All the author's arguments are based on the theories of evolutionary universalism, physical vacuum and torsion fields. Modern science is based on the fact that the basic state of matter of any kind is the physical vacuum. This emptiness or "nothing" is a universal environment, regulating all the forces of interaction. It is the primary matter, the ancestor of all things in the universe. The psyche in person and, consequently, the consciousness acts as a physical manifestation, in form of extra weak mental interaction. Thus, the mental and the material are two different aspects of the same reality. Mental cannot behave like nonmental.In support of theoretical considerations author gives extensive experimental data, proving the reality and effectiveness of many extrasensory, extracorporeal and other phenomena intrinsic to a man. The author is inclined to believe that consciousness is a universal phenomenon intrinsic to the material world, from molecules to organisms. Modern theoretical and experimental studies show that the brain is not related to the production of consciousness. The brain is the receiving, processing and transmitting biological device that connects a person with the universe, the device that connects the human energoinformatic field and the universe. Consciousness exists outside the physical body and subtle matter. It has a dual nature.
Samokhina N. - The Concept of Psychic Energy in Agny Yoga Philosophical Psychology pp. 13-29


Abstract: In her article Samokhina analyzes the  main provisions of the teaching about psychic energy in Agny Yoga philosophical psychology, or Living Ethics, one of the least studied teachings of the modern age created by Helena Roerich. Samokhina analyzes the views of Agny Yoga founders on the ontological status of psychic energy and the main source of such energy (conscious soul) in human body. The main part of the article is devoted to the analysis of Agny Yoga teaching about the features of psychic energy and its influence on an individual's health. In her research Samokhina provides a brief comparative analysis of the views of the Russian philosopher and psychologist Nikolai Grot and founders of Agny Yoga on the nature and source of psychic energy as well as how it manifests itself in a human organism. In the course of her research Samokhina used the hermeneutic and analytical methods including comparative analysis. Agny Yoga founders' views on the interdependence between the ethic content of individual's mind and physical health are compared to the hypotheses of some psychologists about existence of a special psychosomatic connection between psychic experience and physical state of an individual. In conclusion, Samokhina analyzes the importance of the psychosomatic factors for contemporary medicine and psychology. 
Maykov V.V. - Primordial psychotherapy: ancient practices of care of the soul in modern time pp. 19-42


Abstract: An object of research are humanitarian sources of psychotherapy. The question is raised what in human culture played a role of psychotherapy before emergence of psychotherapy in the XIX-th century? Genesis of the modern psychotherapy which sources can be tracked in ancient practicians of the care of the soul is considered. The task to find such practices, the most steadiest and developed, and to understand as well as why they work is formulated. The analysis of work of world famous psychotherapists and their statements about essence of psychotherapy was a preliminary basis of research. The method and methodology of research are based on M. Foucault's genealogical approach, ideas of psychotopology by M. K. Mamardashvili, and author's development of "a computer metaphor" and cartography of the heros journey. The main contribution of the author to the subject of research is the preliminary typology of historical subjects to which basic practices of the cares of the soul are correlated. The received results are yielded by new opportunities of understanding of sources and essence of modern psychotherapy from the point of view of the modern humanities, first of all, psychology, anthropology and philosophy. The concept of primordial psychotherapy and 12 ancient practices of the care of the soul is introduced and described, and it is shown how these practices are present in the modern popular directions of spiritually-oriented psychology and psychotherapy.
Pershin Y.Y. - Archaic Mind in the Space of Military Meta-Action: Activation 'Keys' pp. 19-31


Abstract: The object of the research is the phenomenon of archaic mind, archaic vision, perception and understanding of the surrounding world. The subject of the research is the manifestation of the archaic mind in modern conditions of military meta-action which include intelligence and counterintelligence activities in various forms of their manifestation. In such an extreme situation, today's human often spontaneously actualizes the vision of the world and the situation similar to the vision of the world by an archaic person. The problem of the study is the theoretical elaboration of some psychological “keys” which in practice can contribute to the system activation of the archaic consciousness in a situation of military meta-action. The author of the research uses general philosophical and research methodology, in particular, methods of theoretical research, elements of the system-functional, structural-functional and hermeneutic approaches, and comparative-historical method. He also applies the system-communication approach as well as a reconstruction of the understanding of military meta-action from the point of view of the archaic mind. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that psychological “keys” necessary for the activation of archaic consciousness are considered in the space of military meta-action to which the author refers intelligence and counterintelligence activities. The author proposes the theorization of archaic death perception which guarantees the systematic (not spontaneous) targeting of the actor-participant of the military meta-action to the chronotope of archaic mind, and also corrects his behavior in a given chronotope. In addition, the work presents the author's definition of information coming from the analysis of its perception and work with it from the side of archaic mind.
Pershin Y.Y., Cherevkova T.N. - Archaic mentality and postmodernism. Case study: Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) of the Australian Armed Forces pp. 20-45


Abstract: The object of this research is the archaic mentality as a latent component of the collective and individual consciousness of military personnel of the Special Airborne Service Regiment (SASR) of the Australian Armed Forces. Archaic mentality is examined for determination and clarification of essential characteristics that manifest in the line of duty and execution of combat tasks by the military personnel of the regiment. Such explication of the archaic contents of mentality is facilitated by certain training regimen of military personnel of the units of Special Operations Command that include specific “keys” for activating archaic mentality. The research is structured on the comparative analysis of worldviews/world relations, methods and patterns of constructing reality, behavioral psychology in the archaic and postmodernist paradigms of the specialists/operators of the Special Air Service Regiment (SASR). The conclusion is made that any army unit, one of which is  the Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) of the Australian Armed Forces, is an archaic structure in its essence, with the corresponding collective consciousness, behavioral psychology, and a way of constructing reality. The modern social dynamics and transformations sometimes contain postmodernist attractors and catalysts of postmodernist way of thinking, behavioral psychology, and construction of reality. These characteristics can clearly influence the archaic military structures, although are not capable to make fundamental changes to the essence of these organizations. In the context of substantial (if possible) degeneration of the archaic social structures (including consciousness, way of thinking, and behavioral psychology) into postmodernist, their essence would be lost, and they would no longer fulfill their functions.
Spektor D.M. - Motivation, subjectivity and temporal interpretation pp. 26-41


Abstract: The subject of the study is represented by the ratio of (treatment) motivation and "time" in its non-physical, psychological treatment. The study develops the idea of the need to move the psychology of non-critical borrowed from other regions of ideas about the nature of time (biographical, historical, social), and the development of the psychology of its own analytical views based non-biased analytics psychological substance (primarily, "motivation"). The study also focused objectives rethinking is closely associated with the "motivation" of psychological realities, in particular the "expediency" and "subject", "subjectivity" and "emotion".The research method based analysis and reconstruction of the concepts of "past", "future" and their treatment in the moment-now in its psychological interpretation.The scientific novelty of the research is to develop new ideas about the nature of time; those outlined previously in studies linking "unconscious" with a structural dispensation text (J. Lacan), and with the last imputation (text) own temporal structure. However, these intentions have not found a system fault in the nature of biographical time. The solution of this problem requires a new return to the "nature of time" coming from the revision of the nature of motivation (emotions). An attempt of this "information" and presents the text of the article.
Spektor D.M. - Machines that Create People or the Third Way of Psychology pp. 27-42


Abstract: The subject of the study is the subject of psychology in the larger relationship. In the context of general doubt that a mind presents a subject of psychology, the study determines the subject in the sphere of motivation as a sensory-conscious and institutional mechanism, the leading subsystems of which are faith (religious institutions), power (political organizations), and duty (economic institutions). The author introduces the mentioned to psychology as pre-conscious leading motives, the structure of which determines (is determined) the architecture of the external and inner world, and, first of all, their appeal. The study reconsiders the regard of faith, power, and duty, in which patterns the deep reconstruction of their origin occurs, in the course of which it regains its prime unity (syncretism). The scientific novelty of the study is due to the establishment of the third way of psychology, which means moving beyond the traditional alternative sensuality/consciousness towards institutes which motivate a person: the spiritual, political, and economic ones. The treatment of collectivity (in accordance with stressed motives) and the treatment of motives (inside the collectivities) determine a new path for psychological institutions. 
Yurov I.A. - Sergey Rubinshtein: Dialectical Materialist and Humanistic Psychology pp. 37-84


Abstract: Object of research is the analysis of theoretical positions of S. L. Rubenstein as founder of dialectical materialist  and humanistic psychology in Russian science. Positions and theoretical views of S. L. Rubenstein are considered in historical aspect: from panegoism in the thesis before creation of fundamentals of dialectical materialist psychology and existential (humanistic) psychology. It is noted that a number of prominent representatives of humanistic psychology (M. Heidegger, L. Binsvanger, J.-P. Sartre, R. May, V. Frankl) considerably repeated and then continued consideration of existential psychology, basics which were already covered by S. L. Rubenstein. The research method - the analysis of the published works of S. L. Rubenstein, A. V. Brushlinsky, K. A. Abulkhanovoy-Slavskaya, S. Kyerkogor, M. Heidegger and other existentialists as the Main conclusions of the conducted research is convergence of foreign and domestic works on dialectical materialist and humanistic psychology and in this regard the dialectic equivalency of the principles of determinism and indeterminism, unity of consciousness and activity, unity unconscious and activity, disjunction of consciousness and activity, authenticity and nonauthenticity and some other is approved.
Shchuplenkov N.O., . - Subjectivity as the Integral Mental and Philosophical Characteristic of Human pp. 51-82


Abstract: In this article the term "subject" is understood as the person, the carrier of such qualities as autonomy, a protivopostavlennost to the world as to object, self-determination, activity, internal integrity and indivisibility. Strictly speaking, such understanding is fair only for the European new temporary model of the subject, only within which became possible "subject" and attributing to it values habitual to us today. In medieval outlook couldn't appear neither such category, nor similar interpretation of the person.Compliance of Cartesian interpretation to current trends of philosophical thought is disputable also: after all already I. Kant the "Copernican turn" introduces considerable amendments in this model. In early works of the nonclassical period of philosophizing the Cartesian model of the subject is exposed to sharper criticism. And, at last, the statement for "death of the subject", for the first time explicitly formulated by M. Foucault in work "Words and things. The archeology of the humanities" (1966) and become some kind of slogan of post-modernist philosophy, raises a question of refusal of the category "subject". So, each historical era "creates" the own subject, filling with new meanings the same Cartesian category "subject". Moreover, in " a bed" this category we try to squeeze also ideas of the person, for example, eras of Antiquity or the Middle Ages.Thus, the category "subject" only with great reserve can be used for the characteristic of other eras or cultures. However, if we also can't call rightfully, for example, the Christian of an era of the Middle Ages "subject" in modern sense, whether we can claim, what it at all didn't possess to some extent "subject qualities"? Obviously, isn't present – perhaps, it would mean that he wasn't also a person. Thus probably it is necessary to talk not about insolvency of the category "subject" in general, but it is rather about transfer of research interest from the static category "subject" fixing concrete historical type of "subject", on the category expressing a certain quality – "ability to be the subject". And this quality can already be to some extent inherent in the person of any historical era. In this role the category "subjectivity" also can act. Such approach will allow to reflect rather correctly historical dynamics of the category "subject", designating not "subject", but degree of expressiveness of a certain quality in different historical in different cultures.The statement about that somebody possesses quality "subjectivity", doesn't give any instructions on that, about the subject in what understanding there is a speech. If to accept an assumption that subjectivity is the immanent characteristic of the person, and its form (types, paradigms) can change in historical and geographical prospect, it can be presented as variable, nominally inherent in any culture or an era, but actually accepting different values.
Kabanova K.V. - Traditions and their role in the development of family and society pp. 72-80


Abstract: The subject of this research is the traditions and their role in the development of family and society. The article raises the problem of loss of cultural-historical and family values, conservation and passing on goal leis in following the process of transmission of cultural, historical and socio-psychological experience from generation to generation through traditions. The article provides the theoretical analysis of modern research in the field of traditions; examines the concept and structure of the phenomenon of "tradition" and its formation. Special attention is given to family traditions as one of the factors of socio-psychological security of a family. The novelty consists in summarizing the material on the topic, introducing the authorial version of the definition of tradition, and resuming the development of family traditions as a factor of stability and psychological security of a family. In addition to temporal component (succession in generations), the acquired results allow outlining the value component of the tradition. The conclusion is made that traditions are an achievement and value of any community, any civilization and culture; while family traditions, playing the role of sociocultural practice of security, pass on family experience to succeeding generations, stabilize and structure life, form positive family identity, are essential for social adaptation, and affect confidence in life of an individual.
Kryuchkov K.S. - Redefinition of ethics: on the internal ethics and ethical behavior pp. 81-89


Abstract: This theoretical article is aimed at concretization and analysis of ethics, including psychological ethics as a concept of personal and psychological concept. The author subdivides ethics into internal and external. The latter, in the author’s opinion, is the “external” norms and rules in relation to the actor (an individual), which are usually reflected in such external sources as laws, codes, codes of conduct. Internal ethics consists of the ethical attitude and ethical behavior. At the same time, ethics manifests to the “outer world” through the act. Ethical behavior is a manifestation of suprasituative activity (according to V. A. Petrovsky), since it puts a person in a subjective position, i.e "the cause of the own actions", neither fits into the framework of “here-and-now” goal setting nor satisfaction of the motive, goes beyond the boundaries of the basic "criteria of the situation". The experience is viewed as a mediating link between the attitude and the frame of mind, since it connects the knowledge of ethical rules, person’s representation of ethical rules (external ethics), and ethical "attitudes" as a component of internal ethics, the “attitude to oneself and the world" – the ethical behavior. As a vector for further research, the author suggests theoretical and empirical development of the concepts of internal ethics and ethical behavior (including their connection with other ethical and intrapersonal constructs – morality, motivation, etc.), as well as the concept of experience as a mediation of the inner into the outer.
Subbotsky E. - Planetarium of Miracles: Magic On a Visit to Metaphysics pp. 175-220


Abstract: In article the psychological phenomenon of penetration of structures of magic thinking, such as "partitsipation" and "a direct embodiment of thought in life", in the concept of modern physics and cosmology is considered. Psychological researches show that modern educated adults, at the level of subconsciousness, continue to trust in supernatural, and between magic and scientific thinking there is a deep communication. The magic thinking which is carrying out in unconscious in the form of symbols, is the generator of "creative combinations", and the scientific, conscious thinking selects from these combinations what correspond to objective reality. Criteria of such selection are experiment and a vpisyvayemost of combinations in the general context of available knowledge. In process of withdrawal from a macrocosm in micro and the megaworlds, criterion of empirical check which carried out earlier function of selection of the "correct" combinations from "creative garbage", disappears. There is only a criterion "to a vpisyvayemost in the general context of knowledge", and this criterion is much softer, than criterion of experimental check. As a result of such "softening" of borders between magic and scientific thinking, the unconscious belief in the supernatural gets into theories of modern physics. Novelty: (1) For the first time some concepts of modern physics and cosmology are considered in a context of the last researches of magic thinking in psychology; (2) The analysis of a psychological community between magic and scientific thinking which, under certain conditions, leads to penetration of designs of magic thinking into scientific theories is new also. Conclusions: (1) Some latest theories of physics of elementary particles and cosmology include concepts (for example, "dependence of the nature of elementary structures of a matter on nature of supervision", "confusion" or "the anthropic principle") which are related to concepts of magic thinking (such as "a direct embodiment of thought in reality" and "partitsipation"); (2) Between magic and scientific thinking there is a fundamental relationship. The magic thinking which is carrying out in symbols, delivers a stream of creative combinations of ideas, and scientific, carrying out in concepts, selects from this stream of combinations what realities correspond. Criteria of such selection are experiment and a vpisyvayemost of "a combination of ideas" in the general context of available knowledge; (3) At invasion of modern physics in the field of reality in which experiment is impossible (such as "the theory of all" or "a Universe origin"), selection of "acceptable" combinations from a stream of the ideas delivered by magic thinking, becomes less strict; (4) Thanks to this facilitated access to official science, the belief of the modern person in supernatural, hitherto stored in hiding places unconscious, gets into physical theories about the origin and structure of the Universe.
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