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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 02/2016
Contents of Issue № 02/2016
Horizons of psychology
Litvin A.V. - Opposition and Unity of Human and Geographical Space pp. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of the research is the relations between human and geographical space. This is an interdisciplinary subject, therefore it is studied by the Earth sciences, on the one hand, and human sciences, on the other hand. As an Earth science, geography focuses either on the influence of human on the geographical spaces or the influence of space on human. As a human science, psychology studies either reflection of space by human or construction of space by human. These scientific concepts oppose human and geographical space. Based on the results of the theoretical analysis, the author demonstrates limits of existing concepts. This limitation is eliminated by the author offering the principle of the unity of human and geographical space. This principle is a particular case of the unity of the subjective and objective. Based on the principle of the unity of human and geographical space, the author offers his own concept of the mental geographical cover that describes interactions between human and geographical space. The key term in this concept is the mental geographical map as a special mental structure as the result of the reflection of space and regulator of human activity in geographical space. 
Professional psychology
Pukhareva T.S. - Psychological Safety and its Role in the Professional Development of the Person pp. 9-19


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the psychological safety of the person in terms of professional development. This paper presents the analysis of the conceptual approaches to the problem of psychological safety of the person and theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of psychological safety of the person in terms of his/her professional development. Psychological safety is viewed as an integral psychological phenomenon which is experienced as the feeling of being protected against external and internal threats and guarantees the optimum performance of the person. Special attention is paid to the question about the role of psychological safety in the constructive professional development of the person. Theoretical and methodological basis of the research includes fundamental principles of personality psychology and developmental psychology, basic theoretical provisions of the activity approach to personal development, ideas about psychological relations of the person, conceptual approaches to the analysis of the phenomenon of psychological safety and ideas about the professional development of the person. The author's contribution to the topic is caused by the fact that on the basis of theoretical analysis she attempts to define the functions of psychological safety of the person as a determinant of constructive professional development and underlines the terms that define the state of psychological safety of the person in the professional sphere of his/her activity. It is noted that as the feeling of being protected against external threats, psychological safety provides behavior aimed at constructive solutions to life's challenges. It is stated that psychological safety of the person initiates his/her activity in the professional environment, is a prerequisite for professional self-realization, provides efficiency of personality and his/her self-organization in the labor, promotes the preservation of professional identity, is a personal resource that allows to save the optimal status of the individual in the labour, and provides a positive functioning of personality in the profession. At the end of the article the author concludes about the important role of psychological safety in the process of constructive professinal development as well as about multiple aspects of the problem of psychological safety and prospects for further research of psychological safety in scientific and practical studies of the psychology of professional development. 
Psychology and pedagogics
Klyatis A.E. - Peculiarities of the Education Environment at Orphanages in Different Countries pp. 20-30


Abstract: In his research Klyatis emphasizes the importance of creating safe and developing education environment at orphanages. The researcher demonstrates that external conditions have a direct influence on children's mental and physical development, their main abilities that are essential for maintaining successful interactions with the surrounding world and, consequently, full involvement into the education process. At orphanages the key negative factor of the education environment is the phenomenon of deprivation that influences practically all sides of life and directions of children's development while they stay at orphanages. In order to provide a better insight into the education environment of abondened children, the researcher analyzes experience of foreign states in creating favorable conditions at orphanages. The author of the article emphasizes differences in organizational approaches, public evaluation and legal component of the system of raising orphans in different countries of the world. Based on the example of one Russian boarding school, the author provides a description of typical features of Russian orphanages. The author also analyzes the concept of education environment taking into account international experience. The purpose of the research is to summarize latest data and to make an objective evaluation of orphanages in our country. The author proves the insufficient development of the system of orphans' up-bringing in Russia compared to the practical experience of other countries. At the end of the research the author concludes about the need to inquiry into the possibility of the crucial reformation of the Russian institutional system of raising orphans. 
Psychopathology of the mundane
Ovrutskiy A.V. - Psychology of Consumer Addiction pp. 31-38


Abstract: The article is devoted to the psychological aspects of consumer addiction. The author outlines psychoanalytical, behavioral and cognitive approaches to analyzing consumer behavior. According to the author, the general feature of the psychological approach to consumption is the analysis of consumer process as being predetermined by personal and socio-psychological phenomena. The importance of the topic is conditioned by the growing number of so-called consumer neuroses as a result of the development of the new consumder society and transformations of modern personality. In particular, the latter includes the systemic fragmentation of consciousness, new 'mosaic' and clip-like perception and worldview and multiple personality disorder (MPD) as a new nosological entity. The researcher analyzes a psychological-evolutionary classification of consumption types including introjection, assimilation and projection. Ovrutsky considers the following to be consumer additictions: oniomania, 'collectors' fanaticism', drug abuse, alcohol abuse, tobacco addiction, Internet addiction, gambling, cleptomania, and pathological collecting. In his research Ovrutsky provides a general description of the consumer society and modern consumer. The researcher has used psychological methods to analyze consumer addictions. The results of the research demonstate that effective application of psychological methods to the analysis and treatment of consumer neuroses implies consideration of a wider socio-economic environment of personality disorders. Meanwhile, descriptive and explanatory schemes used in psychology give us a hope that they can be successfully applied to the process of humanization of personality and society in general. The main conclusions are the following. 1. Psychological studies of consumer addictions go beyound methodological borders of behaviorism and today's 'psychology of consumption' exists within the frameworks of neopsychoanalysis and cognitivism. 2. The psychological-evolutionary classification of consumption types based on the neocognitivist model has a high level of heuristicity and can be applied to diagnostics and treatment. 3. The general vector of the ontogenetic development of consumption goes from the introjective type of consumption to assimilative and projective types of consumption, thus following the general pattern of the development of consumption in phylogenesis. 
The unpredictable
Golovanova T., Belova M.V. - Gender Aspect of Psychological Defence Mechanism in a Family and Marriage pp. 39-52


Abstract: The present article is concerned with the problem of gender relations in a family. In addition, the authors also examine the problem of compatibility in a marriage whcih is still an important issue for both theoretical and practical psychology. The authors outline the problem of gender and sex-related stereotypes. They also touch upon the questions of management in a family and satisfaction with the marriage in case of presence/absence of this or that psychological defence mechanism. Special attention is paid to the gender aspect of psychological defence mechanisms in the family and marriage. On the basis of the comparative analysis of men and women some interrelations between satisfaction with the marriage and use of psychological defence were revealed. For example, it was revealed that men use the following mechanisms: "Rationalization", "Denial" and "Regression". Such mechanisms as "Projection" and "Compensation" were found in a group of women. The aforesaid gender differences in the use of psychological defence mechanisms were analysed not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively. It is possible to state that psychological defence mechanisms used by spouses influence family relationships. 
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