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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Psychologist" > Contents of Issue № 03/2015
Contents of Issue № 03/2015
Inner world
Berezina T.N. - Understanding and Recognition of Mental Images of the Highest Order pp. 1-32

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2015.3.15431

Abstract: In her article Berezina analyzes the phenomenon of understanding and recognition of visual information contained in the mental images of the highest order. Berezina bases her research on the previously established model of images - integrators of different orders according to which evident information is generalized irrespective of verbal, forming more and more becoming complicated educations. In model it is claimed that images of the first order - photographic images, the second order – classical secondary images; the third order – the generalized images, images of the fourth order – spatial similar educations; images of the fifth order – nonverbal standards of moral, philosophical, mathematical generalizations. Understanding of images of the highest orders is considered in the context of the psychosemantic theory of consciousness by V.F.Petrenko to become conscious, they have to be built in system of the relations with values of the language thesaurus. However, according to the author's assumption, images of the highest orders – polimodalna, also include not only generalized figurative, on and audialny information, in other words, possess the sounding; sounding can be presented by the incoherent sounds generalized by parts of words, and also mechanically imprinted by phrases. According to classical representations, the understanding occurs when the word connects to image, this situation in article is supplemented with a condition that the original understanding occurs if the imprinted pervosignalny soundings as a part of images of the highest orders at least partially coincide with soundings of words by which this category is defined.
Modeling the unconscious
Subbotskiy E. - The invisible reality: Consciousness in the mirror of magical thinking pp. 33-67

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2015.3.14198

Abstract: The paper assesses the hypothesis according to which the human mind is the ability to simultaneously live in two types of reality: perceived everyday reality and invisible magical reality. At some point around 100 thousands years ago, humans develop the idea that there exist another world, in which spirits of dead ancestors dwell. They also discover that ancestors’ spirits have unusual properties: they can be invisible; they never die, can read people’s minds and feed on the vapours from burning sacrificed animals. Having made these discoveries, humans had a new look at their own everyday world and were surprised that this world is designed very differently from the world of ancestral spirits. That was the “moment” when human consciousness as we know it was born: the ability to view the everyday reality as if “from the outside.” This ability of “reflective thinking” gave rise to new forms of behaviour: voluntary behaviour and creative thinking. Creative thinking helps to produce new and more powerful tools for hunting, labour and communication. Sometime around 30 thousands years ago creative thinking helps to invent a new way of communicating with gods and spirits – communication, which was mediated by signs and symbols, such as cave paintings or bone sculptures. At the same time, or shortly afterwards, people started using symbolic means for purely utilitarian purposes, for example, for memorising the number of killed animals or manufactured clothes items. Subsequently, symbolic reality gives birth to written language and mathematics.But the emergence of consciousness, along with many achievements, brought about psychological problems. The main of these problems was to keep the everyday and the alternative magical realities apart. In order to make this possible, there appeared in humans a specific new psychological mechanism: the “realities distinguishing effort (RDE).” It took millennia for the RDE to achieve the level of perfection it has in modern humans. Like the work of the heart, the lungs and other organs, the RDE in modern humans is automatized and unconscious.Novelty: (1) For the first time the phenomenon of consciousness is interpreted as derivative from the belief in magical reality; (2) Distinguishing the RDE psychological mechanism is a new feature as well. Conclusions: (1) consciousness emerged as the human ability to simultaneously dwell in two distinct types of reality: the perceived everyday reality and the invisible magical reality; (2) consciousness gives rise to the new psychological abilities: voluntary behaviour and creative thinking; (3) creative thinking helps to invent new means of communicating with gods – symbols and signs, which subsequently turn into written language and mathematics; (4) the necessity to maintain the borderline between everyday and magical realities brings to life a new psychological mechanism: the “realities distinguishing effort” (RDE); (5) in the course of human history, the RDE becomes unconscious and automatized; (6) disturbance of the RDE in modern humans manifests itself in such forms as hallucinations (i.e., in schizophrenia patients) or religious radicalism; (7) recent psychological studies discovered that traces of the early humans’ belief in supernatural magical reality persist in the minds of modern rational individuals.
The range of emotional experience
Sheremeteva N.N. - Perception of Vocal Music and its Influence on a Person pp. 68-88

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2015.3.15360

Abstract: The article is devoted to research of psychological aspects of influence of vocal music on a mental condition of the person. As an object of research the perception of vocal music, and object the people perceiving music acts, whose mental state changes. It is shown that music influences a functional condition of the person, his moral state, activity, cognitive processes. Influence of a vocal component of music is allocated, psychophysiological mechanisms of a vocal are analyzed, the head resonator as the most important physiological mechanism of formation of a vocal is described, formation of a voice by means of the head resonator is considered. Existence of distinctions in perception of the vocal which passed through the head resonator and not a past is noted. The main method of research – the theoretical analysis of modern and classical literature and theoretical interpretation of the obtained data in psychological aspect with allocation of a role of the vocal passed via the head resonator. In article it is shown that the main component of vocal music – a singing voice, and it is exclusively well influencing for the listener only in that case if the performer completely sees off it via the head resonator. It is also shown that the singing voice passing through the head resonator of the singer can be used for regulation of functional conditions of the person and what exactly such voice, promotes improvement of work of the person and it can be applied to prevention of emotional burning out of professions like "people - people", and also to prevention of other professional deformations.
Professional psychology
Fedotova N.A., Boreiko A.D. - Stressors of Journalism: Research Results pp. 89-101

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2015.3.15284

Abstract: The subject of the research is the peculiarities of stressors and conditions of journlaism. The need to transfer information, emotional overloads, and ability to maintain superfluous, sometimes undesirable communication in the professional purposes, and irregular working hours, increase in responsibility for fast decision-making, and deficiency of time in the conditions of which the modern journalist works. Work in mass media leads to an emotional pressure which can negatively be reflected in a psychological state, the creative potential and level of professionalism of workers of mass media. In this research Beck Depression Inventory, Professional Life Stress Scale and the questionnaire reflecting specifics of a journalistic profession are used. Foreign and Russian researchers have the considerable theoretical and empirical material devoted to a journalism stressogennost as professions, in Belarus to studying of this problem field pay not enough attention.The main conclusions is that the conducted research allows to record a stressogennost of professional experiences and to designate the high level of intensity of a professional stress at journalists. However often they aren't ready to reflex and publicly to discuss professional stressor that it is possible to understand as an indicator of psychological trouble of representatives of this profession.
Psychology and pedagogics
Makarova M.V. - Coping Behavior of Students Depending on Their Level of Satisfaction With the Psychological Education Environment (The Case Study of the Moscow State University of Humanities and Economics) pp. 102-125

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2015.3.15383

Abstract: The actual area of studying coping behavior is the research of features of the identity of school students in their relationship with the coping strategy in the course of educational activity.The object of the present research is the coping behavior of students.The subject of the research is the coping behavior of students depending on their level of satisfaction with the psychological educational environment at an university. The research objective to study the coping behavior of students depending on their satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the educational environment at a university.The hypothesis  is the supposition that a more constructive coping strategy is usually used by the students who are more satisfied with the educational environment of a university. The following methods have been used: 1. The modified technique of determination of satisfaction with significant characteristics of the educational environment offered by I. A. Bayeva.2. The Coping Behavior Inventory developed by Richard Lazarus. 3. The Coping Strategy Indicator Inventory. The main conclusions of the conducted research are:The analysis of results of group with the low level of psychological safety of the educational environment shows that the following components entered the first factor: planning of a solution, positive revaluation, self-checking, acceptance of responsibility, floor, cognitive component. The distancing, flight avoiding, search of social support entered the second factor. The third factor included age, solution of problems and avoiding of problems.3 major factors peculiar to group which are highly appreciating the safety at university are revealed. The first factor included the following koping-strategy: positive revaluation, acceptance of responsibility, self-checking, search of social support, planning of a solution, distancing, flight avoiding. Entered the second factor confrontation (that is aspiration to behave aggressively and to answer actions respectively), a cognitive component, that is ideas of students of university, knowledge of it (it is expressed more at male respondents) and a behavioural component (consists in satisfaction with the specialty, future profession, the group, etc.). The third factor included the search for social support and the emotional component.
Eros and Thanatos
Altafova A. - Presumption Mortido pp. 126-163

DOI:
10.7256/2409-8701.2015.3.15099

Abstract: Today it is no more doubts that human mind has a death drive as Sigmund Freud first stated.  However in scientific and psychological community had a very contradictory attitude to this phenomenon. The reason of disagreement was the question about the nature the death drive that divided philosophers into the two main "camps" – supporters and opponents of the concept of an inclination to death as biological instinct. In the present article the critical analysis of the existing opinions is made and attempt to unite their most essential provisions in the uniform concept is made. Special attention is paid on practical aspects a mertvolyubiya and fight against it. In aspiration to comprehend the nature мортидо the author appeals to dialectics, focusing attention on the following contradiction: if the inclination to death as the prime cause of any evil (aggression, hatred, destruction of all live) is put in biological human nature, therefore, the evil has the equal rights for existence with good, however human experience disproves this statement. Having reached "the last questions" of philosophy, the author uses the hermeneutic method when analyzing the myth about the fall of man testifying that the evil (as the sin involving death) is result of freedom of the person over an instinct. The novelty of this article is caused by the fact that the author opens new – metaphysical – the horizons of the psychophysical phenomenon of an inclination to death which allow to bring harmony in theoretical base, having united in one concept of opinion, being in traditional representation by antagonists: on the one hand, is confirmed that the inclination to death has congenital character (what Freud spoke of), with another, - that it is not a biological instinct, but result of freedom over it (what Erich Fromm declared). In practical aspect a view of neurosis as the result of "personal fall" subjecting reductions many theoretical constructions gives the chance more deeply to get into its essence and to enrich ideas of the principles of work with it.
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