Sociodynamics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Sociodynamics" > Contents of Issue 05/2021
Contents of Issue 05/2021
People and work
Trinadtsatko A.A. - Official and unofficial employment of visually impaired people (on the example of Khabarovsk) pp. 1-34

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.35590

Abstract: The object of this research is visually impaired people as an invariant of disabled people of discredited stigmatype. The subject of this research is the employment of visually impaired people of working age, members of the Khabarovsk local organization of All-Russia Association of the Blind (VOS). The goal of this work is determine the level of official and unofficial employment of visually impaired people and the factors affecting it. The author notes that despite positive changes taking place in the Institution of employment assistance for people with disabilities, the representatives of nosology of the disabled people with discredited stigmatype are still being discriminated in the job market, finding jobs in their close social circle or working in places that are not adjusted to their needs. It is established that visually impaired people are actively engaged into the sphere of social and labor relations, the great majority of them have work experience in the status of a visually impaired person in jobs that are not adjusted to their specificities. People with disabilities more often are employed officially. Social and labor integration of people with health limitations first and foremost depends on their level of education, qualifications and work experience, as well as on the age of being registered as a disabled person. The key motive for employment is the need for broadening social interactions. The novelty of this work consist in revealing the structure of official and unofficial employment of visually impaired people in accordance with disability groups, age, level of education, and other characteristics, as well as in outlining the factors, conditions, and motives that affect the their employment status, and obstacles for their promotion. The scientific relevance of the acquired results consists in expansion and specification of a range of issues that require closer joint attention of the members of the project, academic, and practice-oriented communities, as well as in highlighting the key aspects of employment assistance for people with disabilities of discredited stigmatype.
Morality and politics
Popova O. - Commodification of the living: regulatory problems of commercialization of biomaterials in the process of development of genomics pp. 35-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.33498

Abstract: This article explores the normative problems of commodification of biomaterials in the process of development of genomics and genome medicine. It is demonstrated that in the era of advanced biocapitalism, when the relations between capital, knowledge and life become of particular importance, biomaterials undergo an economic turnover, are viewed as the objects of property and patent law, becoming the source of gaining profit. This results in the conflicts associated with the protection of rights of the individual, whose body is the source of biomaterials. In the context of consideration of the practices of commodification of biomaterials, the author reviews different modes of relations between the individual, science and society, with the characteristic to each of them articulation of the priority of personal or public good. The article provides the ethical analysis of incidents caused by the development of genetic technologies within the framework of the mode of confrontation between the individual and science, altruistic and compensatory modes, and mode of protection of civil rights. The conclusion is made that the developing processes of commodification require finding balance between the rights of the state and the interests of individuals, public good and personal values. The right to control own biomaterials and genetic information, voluntary and free transfer of biological materials, observance of biosafety and medical confidentiality – all these problems of the development of genomics require constant ethical monitoring in each specific case of using biomaterials.
Social studies and monitoring
Akhmedova A.R., Bazhenova N.A., Gorshunova E.E., Kalinina Y.A., Kuzhim N.V., Chudova S.G. - The factors of interethnic tension in higher education environment (based on the materials of a sociological study in Altai State University, Barnaul) pp. 49-61

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.35769

Abstract: The subject of this research is the factors of interethnic tension in higher education environment. The object of this research is interethnic tension in the educational environment. Detailed attention is given to socio-psychological, conflictological, and sociological approaches towards studying the interethnic tension. The author examines the manifestation of interethnic tension, namely the factors that may aggravate it in the higher education institutions. The following factors are explored: social adaptation of students in polyethnic educational environment; ethnic stereotypes; cultural differences between students belonging to various ethnic groups; biased attitude of the participants of educational process on ethnic grounds. The conclusion is made that such factors as ethnic stereotypes and cultural differences of students are present in Altai State University; the need for social adaptation of students in polyethnic educational environment and  biased attitude of the participants of educational process on ethnic ground manifest rather insignificantly, although pose a potential threat to interethnic relations in the university. The author’s special contribution consists in formulation of practical recommendations for the administrative departments of Altai State University aimed at reducing the likelihood of the emergence of interethnic tensions in the educational environment; as well as in proposal of measures to prevent the occurrence of inexplicit factors.
Popov E.A. - Environment as a sociocultural phenomenon pp. 62-72

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.35679

Abstract: This article is dedicated to consideration of the environment as a sociocultural phenomenon. Emphasis is placed on the trend of changing the attitude towards environment from technological to sociocultural. Examination of the environment in such paradigm allows reconsidering the phenomenon from axiological perspective, which transforms the attitude towards environment, at times fundamentally. The article employs the analysis of secondary data of the conducted applies research, as well as the expert survey of specialists from the three neighboring countries – Russia, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. The following conclusions were formulated: the environment is perceived as universal and regional value that impacts the spiritual life of an individual and the society, thereby ensuring their spiritual security; 2) the adoption of managerial decisions in the environmental sphere should be associated with conceptualization of this phenomenon as sociocultural, which increases the degree of responsibility and importance of the environment for the intergenerational continuity of culture-bearers. The novelty of the work consists in substantiation of the need for paradigm shift in comprehension of the environment as a sociocultural phenomenon. The focus may move from the economic or ultimately ecological attitude towards environment to sociocultural.
The heritage of transformation
Kannykin S.V. - Revering religion, you would not approve of relentless running pp. 73-83

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.32955

Abstract: The subject of this research is determination of the peculiarities of competitive running in the medieval sociocultural situation. The relevance of this article is substantiated by the importance of cognizing the socio-historical context of desacralization of athleticism (and running as its component), as well as the grounds and manifestations of its transition into the sphere of secular, humanistically oriented bodily practices. The author sets the following tasks: compare the sacred and profane components of running athleticism in the Antiquity and the Middle Ages; identify of the reasons for desacralization of running in this period, as well as new manifestations and trends of transformation of its profane component. The methodological framework is comprised of the laws and principles of dialectics, analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and analogy. The author reviews competitive running from the perspective of binary opposition sacred/profane. The acquired results can be applied in social philosophy, philosophical anthropology, and philosophy of sports. The novelty of this research lies in identification of causes and consequences of the medieval desacralization of running and absence of institutionalization of running competitions; consideration of the peculiarities of running practices in the elite circles and commoners; examination of specificity of running competitions in the carnival culture; outlining the reasons of the applied use of endurance running in economic activity; as well as indication of the unique for theocentric Middle Ages humanistic orientation of running as a separate type of competition and the basis of athletic activity overall.
Anthropology and ethnogenesis
Kannykin S.V. - Endurance running as one of the factors of anthropogenesis pp. 84-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.32915

Abstract: The goal of this research lies in the philosophical perspective on critical analysis of the hypothesis advanced by the American biologists Daniel Lieberman (Harvard) and Dennis Bramble (University of Utah) on endurance running as one of the most significant factors of anthropogenesis. The article determines its strong and weak sides, as well as cognitive potential for further research in the sphere of anthropology. The hypothesis under review correlates with other rationalistic and evolutionary concepts of anthropogenesis, being considered as a means for clarification and substantiation of their basic provisions. The key research methods are analysis and comparison. The acquired results complement the labor theory of anthropogenesis with modern interpretation of natural science data. The area of application of the research results is the philosophical anthropology and philosophy of sports. The novelty of this work consists in philosophical comprehension of endurance running as a component of pre-instrument collective labor activity of the ancestors of modern man, one of the prerequisites for the development of abstract thinking, as well as a means of youth initiation and team bonding, which balances the gender differences in the process of adulting and procuring food by primitive hunters.
Political power
Barinov D.N. - Political power and fear: dialectics of interpenetration pp. 95-103

DOI:
10.25136/2409-7144.2021.5.33839

Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of fear as a phenomenon of political power and dominance-subordination relations. The theoretical-methodological framework for the analysis of correlation between fear and political power is comprised of the works of Russian and foreign philosophers and sociologists (O. Comte, H. Spencer, T. Parsons, N. Luhmann, E. Shils, A. S. Panarin, and other.). The author examines such phenomenon as the fear of punishment, the peculiarities of occurrence of fear in the conditions of total control over citizens under despotic and democratic political regime, in the situation of destruction of the government. Characteristic is given to the fears of politicians (personal fears, fear of losing power, fear of democracy). Based on the theoretical models along with attracted historical and statistical material, it is demonstrated that fear is an inevitable side effect of any power that tends to conservation of the existing model of relations between the government and society. The article provides a new interpretation of the idea of the supporters of psychoanalysis on channeling the fears of politicians onto the population. It is underlined that in the current conditions, it is not so much the fears of the political elite, as on converting them into a governing technique. The latter conceals the true concerns of the political elite, as well as displaces the moods of discontent and social tension, turning them into fear towards the objects developed in the information field.
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