Modern Education - rubric Knowledge and understanding
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Knowledge and understanding
Sadekov R.R., Boiko N.V. - Some Features of Conducting a Screening Examination Using a Polygraph pp. 39-45



Abstract: In their work, the authors consider issues related to the peculiarities of conducting special psychophysiological studies using polygraph devices during the personnel selection for work and service of persons in respect of whom polygraph specialists use complex technologies of screening checks, allowing, based on its results, to obtain an objective picture of the presence or absence of circumstances preventing entry into service and employment in law enforcement agencies of the Russian Federation. The current approaches of specialists to conducting polygraph testing according to the tasks of the initiators are studied, the most important practical developments in this area are considered, allowing to effectively organize the work of personnel departments when hiring candidates for service. In the study conducted, the authors consider important components of complex procedures for professional personnel selection of candidates for work. The methods of screening have been studied, the requirements imposed by employers to specialists of personnel apparatuses and services aimed at preventing the employment of persons with restrictions or actual circumstances have been analyzed, which prevent entry into the service, including the law enforcement agencies of the state. Attention is paid to the methodological and tactical and technical requirements of the organization and conduct of the polygraph examination procedure, taking into account the competent and professional compilation of thematic questionnaires, tests, which in turn allow to identify fraud attempts with maximum accuracy during the procedure of passing special polygraph examinations.
Abramov R.A., Sokolov M.S., Khalatenkova E.Y., Zhigarev K.S. - Decreasing corruption of higher education in private colleges pp. 67-78


Abstract: The subject of this research is the private educational facilities. The article shows the aspects of private educational facilities in the conditions of transformation of the education system. It is demonstrated that corruption is caused by decline in the quality of education and emergence of a number of educational facilities which set their main goal to be making profit without mediating social response. Russia’s structure of private education is seen as a branch of the educational market, which recently started to take the vector of institutionalization. The period of establishment of the image component is viewed as an applied aspect. The authors used the following methods: analytical for identification of the structure of place and role of private educational facilities; economic and statistical for the analysis of financial and economic component of the functioning of higher education facilities; as well as structural for determination of corruption in the private education. The scientific novelty of the research lies in determination of the main causes of corruption phenomena in private education, which include the decline in the quality of the research work, lack of opportunities on modernization of technical base and narrow-specialized disciplines in preparation of personnel for the highly competitive labor market with the minimal knowledge necessary for the formation of a competitive specialist.
Galimullina N.M. - General cultural competencies within the system of preparation of the Bachelors in technical sciences pp. 75-86


Abstract: The author examines the substantive foundations of the competence approach in education, its role in increasing the quality of education in Russia, as well as interconnection with the practice-oriented approach. Special attention is given to the history of implementation within the methodological practice and determination of essence of the notion of “competence”. The article analyzes the typology of competencies based on the project “Tuning Educational Structures in Europe” and federal state educational standards in higher education. The author studies the target designation of the general cultural competencies and their place in preparation of the Bachelors in technical sciences. The research is based on the comparative analysis of the content of federal state educational standards of higher education of the Bachelor’s degree in technical sciences. The article contains the result of students’ survey on the demand of general cultural competencies in the process of preparation of the Bachelors. The author explored the general cultural competencies of the new educational standards of the Bachelor’s program, as well as gave characteristics to the key pedagogical methods and mechanisms of establishment and assessment of the quality of preparation program for the Bachelors in technical sciences with consideration of the competence approach requirements. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to formulate the general cultural competencies of the students as an important component of development of the communicative, legal, and economic preparation of a specialist for becoming an efficient member of a labor union and society as a whole.
Mayer R.V. - The Physical Field concept and peculiarities of its application in formation of the scientific worldview in students mindset pp. 75-81


Abstract: The object of this research is the process of studying the gravitational, electromagnetic and other physical fields. The goal is to analyze the formation of the “physical field” concept, which is the core of conceptual field incorporating the “gravitational”, “electric”, “magnetic”, “electromagnetic”, “nuclear forces” and others, from the perspective of didactics and cognitive linguistics; determine the imagery-perceptual component of the concept, its structure and key cognitive qualities; examine the specificities of their representation of the courses of “Physics”, “Concepts of Modern Natural History”, and “Natural Science Worldview”. The following methods were used in the course of this research: 1) analysis of the definitions of concept, determination of the key cognitive qualities; 2) studying the sensual and visual image formed in a student’s mindset; 3) semantic and cognitive analysis of academic texts; 4) building of the semantic model. The result of quantitative analysis of the various textbooks established that the conceptualization of “physical field” first and foremost suggests the examination of the following cognitive qualities: “physical field – form of matter”, “gravitational field”, “field of gravity”, “electric and electrostatic filed”, “magnetic field”, “electromagnetic field, and “field worldview (concept, theory)”.
Nikulin A.A. - Relevant issues in realization of students independent work: theoretical-methodological bases pp. 95-103


Abstract: This article examines the theoretical-methodological bases of the relevant issues in realization of students’ independent work in the context of modern society. Based on the analysis of scientific works dedicated to the problems of realization of students’ independent work, the author made an attempt of their classification according to the elements of the structure of independent activity. The goal of this research is to determine the principles that serve as a foundation for development of the model of students’ independent work, which would meet the requirements of the modern society and allow considering the problems emerging during its implementation. The scientific novelty lies in the author’s substantiation of the possibility of establishment of the model of students’ independent work, which dialectics of elements reveals the problems of realization of the students’ independent work and its causes. The main result consists in justification of need and possibility of establishment of such model of the students’ independent work that is capable of determining the strategy and direction of the pedagogical model of students’ independent work aimed at solution of the particular tasks at the subsequent stages of research. Such model can be titled as “problem model”, because it allows a researcher to comprehensively discern the problematic area of the object at hand.  
Pecherskiy Y.I. - Peculiarities of implementing the model of formation of competencies in resolving the professional and personal conflicts during preparation of the Bachelors of Education pp. 109-117


Abstract: The subject of this research is the peculiarities of implementing the model of formation of competencies in resolving the professional and personal conflicts that emerge during preparation of the Bachelors of Education; while the object is the students of a pedagogical university. The author examines the essence of the professional and personal conflicts alongside specificities of realization of functions within the structure of the professional and personal conflict, describes the conflictological competences in the area of resolution of the pedagogical conflicts, as well as determines the peculiarities of application of the system-activity approach. In the course of this work the author used the axiomatic and hypothetic-deductive method, inductive method, modelling and interpretational-descriptive method. The author explores the structure and content of the model of formation of competences on resolving the professional and personal conflicts in the context of preparation of the Bachelors of Education, as well as the levels and criteria of the formedness of competences pertinent to resolving such conflicts. In conclusion, in is underlines that the process of formation of skills aimed at resolving the professional and personal conflicts among the Bachelors of Education is realized through the educational and cultural impact of the university pedagogues based on the system-functional approach. The scientific novelty consists in the author’s original model on formation of competencies aimed at resolving the professional and personal conflicts among students of pedagogical university, which specifies and complements the existing theoretical developments in the area of conflictology and pedagogy.
ALEKSANDROVA N., LAMANOVA L. - Professional activity of pedagogues: theoretical and practical aspects of research pp. 156-173


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modern professional activity of pedagogues of the higher and vocational education facilities. The goal of this work is to determine the peculiarities and changes within the professional activity of pedagogues of higher education. The authors examine the activity of pedagogues from the perspective of integrational processes – a simultaneous insurance of executing major functions of pedagogical education (development of public and socio-professional relations within the education environment). The integrative methodology allows detecting general initial theoretical and practical requirements towards the research of types and conditions of the pedagogical activity, as well as their competencies. The authors determine the priority types of activity that should be established within the system of advanced training. The characteristics of the activity of pedagogues as a systematizing element of the process of forming a competitive professional, as well as the statistical data on the practical study of the pedagogical activity are being presented. The area of implementation of this research is the development of theoretical positions of professional pedagogics and the practice of professional education (creation of pedagogical instrumentarium for self-evaluation of professional activity, development of documents for certification, implementation of changes into the education and professional standards of pedagogues).  The scientific novelty consist in the fact that in the course of studying the various aspects of activity of modern pedagogues, a special attention was given to the integration of types of activity, and the qualities of pedagogues and the surrounding environment.
Rozin V.M. - One of the mechanisms of formation of creativity and vision of new reality pp. 161-171


Abstract: The article examines one of the mechanisms of creativity. It puts forward the following hypothesis: the existential problems of personality find their resolution in the new vision, which is initially incomprehensible and unacceptable, but then, being understood, or in other words, interpreted and conceptualized, and thus becomes clear. For confirmation of this hypothesis, the article analyses the three cases, discusses the notions of vision, reality, and existence, as well as applies the author’s concept of dreams. Creativity begins with the intersubjective situations and subjective problems; in addition to the search and realization of certain methodology, it suggests the new vision, conceptualization, and a number of other procedures, and ends with the existence and detection of the new reality. At the same time, the following methodology was being applied: posing of the questions, case analysis, distinction of the examined phenomena, and construction of notions. As a result, the study was able to demonstrate that the important mechanism of creativity consists in the existential problems, which are solved by the person through inventing the schemes.  Based on them, establishes the new vision of reality alongside understanding of what is happening, which initially seems paradoxical.
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