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Modern Education

The ontological argument as the methodological basis of the considered problem of cosmism

Khalilov Riza Alikhan Oglu

Doctor of Philosophy

Dean of the Faculty of Psychology, Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Psychology

AZ 1143, Azerbaidzhan, g. Baku, ul. Dzhavida, 133






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Abstract: The article is devoted to the content of the theory of cosmism and its conceptual and methodological foundations. The analysis of the content of the works of foreign cosmists and their role in the world, philosophical, cultural and pedagogical science is given. The evolution of mankind has faced many crisis phenomena and negative consequences of their existence. Their impact on the world should be studied not only on the scale of the planet, but also in outer space. The balance between the negative and positive vector of the existence and development of our humanity remains quite fragile, which makes it inevitable to turn to the basic concept of "cosmism". This study reveals the content of the above concept, including the concept of "Russian cosmism", characteristics of the cosmic worldview. The main difference between foreign cosmism and Russian is shown. The concept of "human transformation" in the context of the philosophical and pedagogical direction, the concept of space pedagogy (pedagogy of cosmism, cosmopedagogy), methodological principles of the anthropocosmic concept of education are analyzed in their connection with the modern education system. An important methodological advantage of the pedagogy of cosmism is the consistency of the tasks set, the methodological educational principles included in it. The key and most promising methodological principles of cosmism for the modern education system are identified, which are reflected in cosmopedagogy and are its obvious advantages. The development of the child's cosmic self-consciousness, corresponding to feeling and intuition, must be taken into account in the content of modern education.


ontological argument, cosmism, cosmic outlook, cosmopedagogy, noospheric education, modern education system, humanity, space, the quality of world relations, russian cosmism

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.


A few years ago, the concept of cosmism was invariably taken in quotation marks as an approximate, almost metaphorical formation. Today, cosmism has already been thoroughly strengthened in its rights, has found its rightful place in the cultural heritage. Cosmism is often understood as a whole stream of culture, including not only philosophers and scientists, but also poets, musicians, and artists. Lomonosov, Tyutchev, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Scriabin, and Roerich find themselves in it... In Russia, since the middle of the last century, a unique cosmic direction of scientific and philosophical thought has been maturing, which was widely developed in the XX century. Among his number are such philosophers and scientists as N. F. Fedorov, A.V. Sukhovo-Kobylin, N. A. Umov, K. E. Tsiolkovsky, V. I. Vernadsky, A. L. Chizhevsky, V. N. Muravyev, A. K. Gorsky, N. A. Setnitsky, N. G. Kholodny, V. F. Kuprevich, A. K. Maneev. Russian Russian religious renaissance thinkers V. S. Solovyov, P. A. Florensky, S. N. Bulgakov, N. A. Berdyaev also have a line in their philosophical heritage that is close to the pathos of the ideas of Russian cosmism. This refers to the declension in Russian Orthodox philosophy, which N. A. Berdyaev called "cosmocentric, seeing divine energies in the created world, turned to the transformation of the world" and "anthropocentric... addressed to the activity of man in nature and society" 1. It is here that "problems about the cosmos and man" are posed, an active, creative eschatology is developed, the meaning of which, according to Berdyaev, is that "the end of this world, the end of history depends on the creative act of man" 2. To avoid illegal and immeasurable expansion this philosophical trend is possible if we immediately identify a fundamentally new quality of the world attitude, which is its defining genetic trait. This is the idea of active evolution, i.e. the need for a new conscious stage in the development of the world, when humanity directs it in the direction dictated by reason and moral sense, takes, so to speak, the helm of evolution into its own hands. Therefore, it may be more accurate to define this direction not so much as cosmic, but as actively evolutionary. For active evolutionary thinkers, man is still an intermediate being, in the process of growth, far from perfect, but at the same time consciously creative, designed to transform not only the outside world, but also his own nature.

Since the middle of the twentieth century, in modern science and practice, as well as abroad, special attention has been paid to the content of the theory of cosmism and its conceptual and methodological foundations. It should be noted that access to most of the works of representatives of this scientific field was opened only about fifteen years ago. The richest layer of philosophical, historical, cultural and pedagogical thought, thus, remained poorly studied and not fully in demand for almost more than a century. The analysis of the content of the scientific works of foreign cosmologists allows not only to come to an understanding of their role and place in the world and philosophical, cultural, historical, pedagogical science, but also to enrich with new ideas the practice of social existence and the education system of the country, which is undergoing radical transformations today.

The relevance of the problem of cosmism

The relevance of this problem persists at the beginning of the XXI century, when humanity, on the one hand, continuing its evolution as a population with growing intelligence, scientific knowledge applied for the benefit of the inhabitants of planet Earth, the progress of developing technologies, at the same time, on the other hand, faced multiple crisis phenomena and negative consequences of its existence and influence on the surrounding world, while not only on the scale of your planet, but also outer space. This crisis is caused by the consequences of the spontaneous centuries-old development of civilizations that have succeeded each other with devastating consequences, and in the context of the problem of human existence with the crisis of everything that exists, but, above all, of man himself. At the same time, the balance between the negative and positive vector of the existence and development of our humanity remains quite fragile and is increasingly shifting in the negative direction, which cannot but cause concern for a person as a rational being.

If, in the context of the above, we are talking about another trend in the existence of our humanity, then it should be associated with the common unity of man, nature and the cosmos as inseparable particles. In Vernadsky's terminology, this implies the transition of the biosphere into the noosphere. This new concept, which was introduced by the scientist into scientific circulation in 1926, was characterized by him as a special natural and social formation having a cosmoplanetary character [1, p. 23]. In this regard, the humanistic paradigm has been actualized in world science and practice for more than a century, the dominant spiritual and moral component, the freedom of the individual, developing the nature of its activities. These trends directly affect both the educational system and pedagogical science both world and Russian in its continuous genesis.

However, it should be noted that positive transformations in society, unfortunately, proceed rather slowly (which is characteristic of the evolutionary nature of changes), and in addition, often haphazardly (due to the complexity and versatility of processes). Therefore, a radical change in this area is possible only after significant changes in the worldview of the modern generation both adults and, especially, the younger ones. It is impossible to solve such a task and achieve a radical change without the application of appropriate targeted educational and educational influences on the formation of a progressive worldview, a new quality of advanced consciousness, starting from the earliest stage of human (child) development.

At present, state authorities as representatives of the state, society, and the education system in various countries of the world, including Azerbaijan, have prepared a sufficiently fruitful ground for transformations in the field of education and upbringing of the younger generation, proclaiming the basic principles of the orientation of education to the personality of a person, his humanistic character, the priority of free development of personality and universal values, which In particular, the provisions of the Law "On Education in the Republic of Azerbaijan" and other program and conceptual documents and normative legal acts defining the strategy of modernization of the educational system and its innovative development for the next 5-10 years have been reflected in domestic practice.

Methodology and analysis of the study of the problem of cosmism

It is the philosophical and pedagogical direction of cosmism, in our opinion, in the context of modern transformations of society and the education system, in this regard, can be considered as a conceptual and methodological basis for the changes being carried out, since its goals and objectives, theoretical justifications, as well as methodological principles that will be considered in our work further, including through the interpretation of the main terminological components and concepts of cosmism, they directly correlate with the principles established at the state and scientific level as the mainstream of the development of domestic and world education as a whole.

Turning to the terminological apparatus of the problem under study, it is necessary to consider the main definitions that we will continue to operate with in this study, and clarify their content and the author's understanding. In this regard, it is necessary first of all to note the fact that the very basic concept of "Cosmos", which underlies the philosophical and pedagogical direction we are studying, has been used and interpreted quite comprehensively in terms of content since ancient times, being reflected in the framework of the ideas of polycosmism, macrocosmism in the scientific works of such thinkers as Plato, Heraclitus, Herodotus, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, Calippus, etc., the mythological cosmogonic worldview of ancient Egypt, ancient Sumerians, ancient Hindus, Indians, in ancient Chinese mythology, such an ancient mystical current of Islam as Sufism, etc.

Derived from the basic concept, the term "cosmism" as the name of a scientific direction became widespread much later. In Russian science and practice, this, in particular, happened in 1960-70. This situation was caused by natural-historical reasons and is associated with the first human flight into space and the active exploration of the space of the Universe. Great interest in the scientific works of K.E. Tsiolkovsky during this period also intensified attention to the works of his contemporaries, followers in the development of cosmic ideology, as well as predecessors both scientific figures and innovative teachers, extraordinary figures of art and religion, natural scientists who analyzed the problems of cultural and spiritual evolution, formed conceptual, methodological and ideological fundamentals of cosmism at various historical stages of formation (V.I. Vernadsky, A.L. Chizhevsky, V.F. Odoevsky, B.C. Soloviev, N.F. Fedorov, P.A. Florensky, N.G. Kholodny, S.A. Arrhenius, N.A. Berdyaev, S.N. Bulgakov, F. Tyutchev, V. Bryusov, A. Bely, E.P. Blavatsky, Y. Baltrushaitis, K. Balmont, M. Tsvetaeva, V. Ivanov, D. Merezhkovsky, A. Scriabin, N.K. Roerich, A. Benois, K. Somov, M. Vrubel, K. Petrov-Vodkin, P. Filonov, etc.), which allowed us to talk about such a direction, as "Russian cosmism" [2]; [3, p. 14].

Turning to the basic concept of "cosmism", it should be noted the ambiguity of its interpretation, which persists at the moment. In particular, in the "Newest Philosophical Dictionary" by V.A. Kondrashov et al. (2008) one can find the following interpretation of its content based on the origins of the concepts of prakosmism. Cosmism is understood as a philosophical worldview, which is based on knowledge about the Cosmos (from the Greek word "kosmos" translates as "organized world") and ideas about a microcosm similar to the macrocosm, as well as about a person as a "citizen of the World" [4, p. 92].

Abstracting from reference sources accumulating theoretical knowledge for a certain period of development of a particular scientific direction, let us turn to the potential of modern science, which is still characterized by discussion on the issue we are considering. For example, V.I. Zorin, S.V. Smirnov, relying on the systematization of scientific works reflecting the evolution of the conceptual foundations of cosmism as of the beginning of the XXI century, define it as the predominance of the universal over the individual, a special attitude and worldview, as well as the features of reflective consciousness in the unconditional assumption of the organic unity of everything with everything, including ch. with the universe, predominance [2, p. 81]; [3, p. 14]. The key characteristic in this definition, in our opinion, is a reflective category that distinguishes a passive subject from an active subject, creatively transforming this world in search of harmony and unity with the surrounding reality.

Examining the content of the above concept, it should be noted that the concept of "Russian cosmism" at the same time seems to us a much more specific definition. For the purpose of argumentation of this position, we will refer to the most characteristic opinions of researchers. So, in particular, in the opinion of O.M. Mikhaleva, which we fully share, the concept we are studying can be characterized as a kind of socio-cultural phenomenon formed at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries in Russia. This phenomenon covers several aspects: pedagogical, ecological, sociological, philosophical [5, p. 23]. We emphasize that it is precisely in this characteristic, which determines the diversity and complexity of the scientific phenomenon, which has a special scientific value for our work, that, in our opinion, its methodological merit lies.

Continuing the analysis of the terminological component, it should be noted that the distinctive characteristic of the Russian scientific school of cosmism is an absolutely new "quality of world attitude" (worldview) as one of the most important conceptual structures. Referring to its content, it can be defined as the idea of active evolution, that is, the need for a qualitatively new conscious stage of the development and evolution of the world, when humanity redirects it to where morality and reason suggest [6, p. 4]. Once again, we emphasize that consciousness, evolutionism and activity are the key characteristics of the definition, the explanation of which we will give a little later in our study. At the same time, it should be emphasized that Russian cosmism does not exist in isolation from the global scientific tradition [3, p. 14]. There are also foreign versions of the philosophy of cosmism: Germany A. von Humboldt ("Cosmos") and L. Klages; France A. Bergson, P.T. de Chardin; England - A. Whitehead; America S. Alexander, etc. Regardless of the directions (theological, natural-scientific, aesthetic, etc.), Russian cosmism is characterized by the interpretation of man as a rational being, consciously and creatively transforming himself and the world around him, representing a stage of evolution, whose future is predetermined by the cosmic worldview in the union of reason and nature [3, p. 15]. This understanding led to the projection of such key methodological principles into the pedagogy of cosmism:

- the principle of continuous development of cognitive and creative abilities;

- the principle of the revival of a lifestyle characterized by sensuality and spirituality;

- the principle of restoring people's natural connections with nature and the surrounding world;

- the principle of expanding the worldview of the individual to the cosmic level [3, p. 15].

The cosmic worldview has its historical roots based on essential ideas formulated at various historical stages of human development, starting with the Eastern and ancient philosophical traditions. Despite certain differences in interpretation, based on this basis, European scientific thought has made a significant contribution to the formation of the soil for the modern cosmic worldview, which is reflected in the works of outstanding scientists, philosophers, poets, artists, musicians [4, p. 502].

Continuing the analysis, it should be pointed out that the concept of "cosmism" actualizes a whole conceptual spectrum of terms: "immortality", "death", "life", "projectivity", "project", "cosmos", "noosphere", "man (of the future)", etc. [7, p. 23]. In particular, the concept and methodology of cosmism, according to researchers, has such a distinctive feature as projectivity, which is reflected in such a process as "anthropological activism" [8, p. 33]. The basis of the anthropocentric value orientations of Russian cosmism is the humanistic paradigm and its key values (the uniqueness and individuality of the human personality, its freedom in determining the meaning of its own being, the meaning and form of its life; human life as the highest value; the value of man as an integral part of nature and the surrounding world, the result of evolutionary change; the idea of mercy, humanity, existence in harmony with the surrounding world, the integrity of which is not violated by human activity and satisfaction of his needs; the idea of human happiness, the idea of immortality; building life and society in the spirit of reason and free search, through the use of human abilities for the benefit). These values, as T.A. Ionova rightly notes, suggest a rather deep evolutionary process for the transformation of a person's moral and spiritual being [8, p. 33].

A comparative analysis of foreign and Russian cosmism shows that their main difference lies in the fact that in the latter of the listed, the concept of life acts as the fundamental semantic core, as opposed to the concept of the cosmos. In fact, it is "life" that unites absolutely the entire spectrum of Russian cosmists' semantic images into a single methodological conceptual field: "immortality", "death", "active evolutionism", "anthropocosmism", "ethical ontology" receive a qualitatively different dimension here in comparison with foreign versions of this direction [8, p. 34].

Let us dwell in more detail on such a fundamental concept as "human transformation" in the context of the philosophical and pedagogical direction we are studying due to the fact that it is of particular importance for reforming the modern education system and training a "graduate of the future", a new person, a new specialist and, at the same time, taking into account the terminological ambiguity of the concept "transformation" in philosophical, cultural, historical and other kinds of plans. In this regard, we note that the actualization and solution of the problem of human transformation is organically traced both at the conceptual and methodological level in the theory of Russian cosmism (V.I. Vernadsky, N.K. and E.I. Roerich, K.N. Wentzel, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, etc.), in which ontological and anthropological ideas are synthetically integrated, formed during the evolution of cosmism and the genesis of Russian philosophical thought. The solution of this problem, from a methodological point of view, is based in the works of Russian cosmologists on such ontological and value ideals of Russian philosophy historically formed in the course of scientific evolution as mystical realism, pantheism, eschatology, intuitionism, conciliarity, combined with a scientific approach, ambivalence of understanding of man and the idea of his responsibility to the universe [9, p. 7].

In this regard, it is natural that representatives of cosmism, especially its Russian school, put special emphasis on the development of such important issues as the formation of the younger generation in a new educational environment, modernization of the existing foundations of the education system, moving away from its conservatism towards an innovative type of thinking, the creation of new forms, types and types of educational institutions in a variety of solved their tasks and goals of training the "man of the future", the creation and testing of new technologies and forms of implementation of the educational process, the new conditions of the educational environment, the justification of new requirements for the training and activities of a teacher in such conditions, etc. In this regard, the philosophy of cosmism reveals an inextricable relationship with the pedagogy of cosmism that logically follows from it. Another important terminological concept that requires consideration in the framework of our scientific research. Therefore, cosmism should be considered not so much as a philosophical system, but as a pedagogical one. The pedagogy of cosmism is not confined exclusively to solving problems and meeting the needs of the current generation, its conceptual and methodological foundations are promising and predictive, being focused largely on future generations. It is from this understanding of the concept of "cosmism" and the correlation of these two components that we proceeded in this study.

Let us dwell in more detail on the content of the concept of cosmic pedagogy (pedagogy of cosmism, cosmopedagogy), which in the domestic direction of cosmism is associated with the name of the Russian teacher-innovator, representative of the theory and practice of free education K.N. Ventzel, who in the 1920s-1930s was engaged in the creation of this innovative scientific and educational direction. The goal of "cosmic education" was formulated by him as "the development of cosmic self-consciousness" [10, p. 220]. In accordance with this, the methodology of the pedagogical process was based on the principle that presupposes "free creative interaction of teacher and student" in the spirit of cooperation and mutual understanding, active promotion of new knowledge as opposed to mentoring and the forcible imposition of knowledge and a certain point of view on the world around us and human existence. From this, according to the researcher, the mission of the teacher as a conductor of knowledge logically follows, which consists in helping the student to realize the commonality of his life with cosmic life, their inseparability and the active participation of the child, from an early age, in the development of cosmic aspects [11, p. 25]. The realization of this mission presupposed the need for extremely careful and conscious support of the child on the path of such an active knowledge of the Universe and himself as a part of it, his teaching skills of self-knowledge and self-development.

It should be emphasized that K.N. Wentzel considered the upbringing of a child as a representative and integral part of the Universe to be fundamental in relation to other tasks, a kind of "starting point" in the methodology of cosmism and cosmopedagogy. He divided the implementation of this most difficult task into logical stages, insisting on the active position of the student and recommending starting small. First you need to teach the child to perceive himself as part of a small corner of nature. Then this "corner" gradually needs to be expanded to the size of the entire planet. And only after that, the transition in the education of the student to the conscious acceptance of himself as part of the macrocosm and the formation of his creative, active position on this scale is possible. The student's consciousness, due to adequate educational influence, had to be ready for the transition to creative creative activity in the conditions of "the solar system, ... a boundless system of universes covering the entire boundless Cosmos," the researcher emphasized, referring to the most important principle of the sequence of education and upbringing, which is of particular relevance today in the modern educational process [12, p. 90].

Speaking about the active, creative position of the child, N.K. Wentzel considered every person from early childhood as an unconditionally free person who, within the framework of the model of his continuous development, should strive for self-improvement and contribute to the perfection of the Cosmos [Archive, f. 23, op.1, d. (ed. chr.) 27, p. 50]. The result of the activity of such a model of creative development of a person and his consciousness "is truth, goodness and beauty" [13, p. 51]. In accordance with these justifications, the most important task of a teacher is to realize and accept these truths by himself, as well as to assist his pupils in realizing the above ideas [14, p. 20]. K. N. Wentzel considered the cosmic worldview and cosmic pedagogy as a means of educating morality and high spirituality of a person [14, p. 26].

It should also be noted that, unfortunately, the 24 rules of cosmic pedagogy, cosmic self-education, systematized and substantiated in N.K. Ventzel's work "Rays of Light on the path of creativity" (1937) [15], have remained unclaimed both in theory and methodology of Russian pedagogical science. These rules act as a strategy for implementing the model of creative development of a person and his creative, free consciousness, defining the creative work of an individual on himself as a means of self-development of a person, the disclosure of his universal abilities, gaining "power over himself", "liberation" as opposed to "power over others", the development of his own creative potential, integrated into the space of the Cosmos as part of his creative power [15, p. 115]. The fulfillment of the rules formulated by the scientist, according to his plan, makes it possible to achieve a state in which "a person acquires a harmonious ability to "feel into the processes of life" [15, p. 116].

The work of the researcher "The Religion of Creative Life" (1922) was also out of the field of view of pedagogical science, in which he revealed the idea of the cult of a single creative humanity as a whole and the cult of the child as a creative personality and part of humanity and the Universe [16], and the provisions of which, in our opinion, are of particular relevance today due to the priority a creative approach to the educational process, approved by international educational programs and the requirements of the graduate's competence development [17], as well as a new generation of Federal State Educational Standards of Russia [18].

Continuing to talk about the methodology of cosmopedagogy in an ontological context, it should be noted that the most coherent methodological system in this context can be found in the works of one of the leading Russian cosmologists K.E. Tsiolkovsky, who combined the program of transformation of nature, space with the school project, giving an individual understanding of the content of education and its goals in this key as "realization of the opportunity to learn to live" [19, p. 327]. Having made a digression, it should be noted that the competence-oriented methodological paradigm of modern education, which replaced the knowledge one, also strives to implement this task, which once again actualizes the prospects of turning to the pedagogy of cosmism in modern conditions of modernization of the education system.

K.E. Tsiolkovsky considered it necessary to develop a "cosmic point of view" on the fate of life and mind in the universe during the educational process among students [20, p. 347]. At the same time, the scientist also adhered to the theoretical and methodological foundations of free education. His system of cosmic education included the following structural components, suggesting continuous work on the development of the child as a microcosm in several directions (corresponding in the current conditions to such methodological approaches in the education system as comprehensive, research and development):

- physical direction (development of dexterity, endurance, dexterity, strength; strengthening children's health);

- mental direction (development of the ability to search for the necessary information, think logically, isolate the main facts from the information; formation of analytical abilities and the ability to remember important points);

- spiritual direction (development of moral qualities; assimilation and application of ethical and moral norms; development of the ability to sympathize and empathize) [21].

It should be noted that K.E. Tsiolkovsky's educational model pays special attention not only to the education of the cosmic worldview of the student, but also to the cosmic worldview of the teacher, his self-development. According to the scientist, in order to become a teacher, a person must be advanced in the knowledge of the Universe, strive for perfection, be different. high worldview. Only such a teacher will be able to educate children in creative thinking, the ability to defend their values and beliefs from early childhood [21, p. 328].

Within the framework of the system of space pedagogy developed by the researcher, it is possible to note the leading methodological principles correlating with the progressive views of the leading teachers of that period (N.I. Pirogov, K.D. Ushinsky and others):

- complete freedom in acquiring knowledge;

- the use of visual aids for a more productive perception of educational material;

- compliance with the measure of difficulty in the educational process (transition from simple to complex);

- the principle of the need to use interdisciplinary connections to improve the quality and depth of assimilation of knowledge, skills and abilities, the development of students' abilities;

- the principle of teaching students what is necessary for human existence (the choice of tactics of training focused on practice);

- the principle of creating comfortable psychological and pedagogical conditions for the student to realize active cognitive activity, express their own thoughts, opinions, assessments [20]; [21].

It should be noted that these methodological principles of K.E. Tsiolkovsky's anthropocosmic concept of education still remain relevant, which, in our opinion, requires their deeper study, interpretation and approbation in the conditions of a real pedagogical process.

A special concept within the framework of the theory of cosmism and cosmopedagogy is "giftedness", which in today's conditions is given special attention in the modern educational process of Russian and foreign educational institutions. In the ideology of cosmic pedagogy, which interprets people as "stars" with a certain intensity of "glow" (energy), the methodological principles of educating gifted children have been revised. In this regard, it is assumed that there are no ungifted children in principle there are only children whose "glow" has not found the necessary support [22, pp. 101-102]. To provide such support and independent development of each child, a supportive and creatively developing educational environment, by discovering in time and revealing his individual giftedness are the direct tasks of the educator, which are reflected in the methodology of cosmopedagogy. This environment should be provided with certain methodological tools that allow students to assist in mastering various ways and methods of activity for the development of creative individuality [23, p. 44].

Thus, based on the content of the main terminological concepts of cosmism (while we focus on the Russian direction of this trend) and the methodological guidelines of the concept of cosmopedagogy, we can conclude that they are based on the focus on the comprehensive improvement of each individual, starting from the moment of his birth and throughout his life, which is achieved through education, developing talents, support and disclosure of his creative potential, aimed at ensuring the harmony of his inner world, and through this his harmony with the outside world and the Cosmos. At the same time, it should be emphasized that an extremely important methodological advantage of cosmism pedagogy, according to researchers, which we fully share, is the systemic integrity of tasks, methodological educational principles included in it, in the light of which we are talking about the continuous process of developing a child's "cosmic consciousness", identifying and purposeful development of individual abilities that are the key to successful formation of the ability to self-development and self-improvement through internal creative creation of one's personality [24]. Among the most important and most promising methodological principles of cosmism for the modern education system, reflected in cosmopedagogy and acting as its obvious advantages, the following should be mentioned:

- the principle of communication with nature;

- the principle of having an ideal, a positive example;

- the principle of a practice-oriented, activity-oriented, actively educating environment;

- the principle of continuous improvement and self-education of the teacher and student;

- the principle of harmonious integration of different methods, forms and ways of cognition of the world, teaching these skills and abilities of a child from an early age;

- the principle of taking into account the original uniqueness and self-worth of the individual, the giftedness of each child, requiring adequate educational support;

- the principle of activity activity and creative work [24].

It should be noted that the above-mentioned methodological components fully meet the current development trends and realities of modern society, as well as strategies for the development of state policy in the field of world and Russian education.

The conceptual and methodological attitudes and ideas of cosmism today are reflected and further continued in the theory and methodology of noospheric education. Earlier in the paper we have already briefly dwelt on the content of the term "noosphere", which in the context of the cosmological works of V.I. Vernadsky, P.T. de Chardin is considered as "a stage of evolution of the biosphere coordinated with nature and the cosmos", the developing factor of which is "reasonable human activity", conditioned by his moral responsibility for the fate of the future of mankind [25, p. 215]; [26, p. 300]; [27, p. 112].

In this context, the content of the concept of "noospheric education" can be defined as a purposeful process of education and upbringing. The purpose of such education is to form thinking based on the conviction of the harmonious existence and unity of nature and man, responsible for the future results, consequences of activities and behavior of a creatively humanistic and creative nature [28, p. 22].

Since the 90s of the last century, echoes of noospheric education can be seen in such areas of personal education and upbringing as environmental education, spiritual and moral development of the student, based on the humanitarian competence paradigm and cultural and philosophical knowledge aspect [Pankrushina, 2004]. To a certain extent, echoes of noospheric education can also be seen in the educational content of such subject areas as biological, chemical, geographical sciences, the surrounding world, technology. However, this position seems to us extremely narrow, if we consider the broadest theoretical potential of cosmism and cosmopedagogy, especially their Russian direction, accumulated over centuries and based on the traditions of Russian philosophy, cultural studies, history and didactics, and because of this, it is certainly insufficient.

Russian Russian education In our opinion, modern education needs theoretical and methodological development and deeper and broader approbation of the ideas of noospheric education (especially within the framework of the Russian direction of cosmism, corresponding to the traditions of Russian philosophy and pedagogy) due to its anthropocentricity and humanistic focus on the complex, fundamental, dynamic and sustainable development of man and humanity as a whole, in particular in a socially proactive manner, in line with the ideas of natural, socio- and cultural conformity, high spirituality and morality, humanity; preservation of the surrounding world and harmonization of relations with the surrounding reality, starting from a small scale (which corresponds to the modern concept of "small Homeland" relevant in pedagogy), to the global scale of the whole world and the Universe. Not egoistically centered, subordinating to its interests and needs, but creative and creative anthropocosmism as a methodological basis of noospheric education is a special value and a promising direction of development for the system of national education and the functioning of society as a whole. Its advantage is the implementation of a systematic approach and universal education, covering: evaluative, predictive, practical, intellectual skills that contribute to ensuring harmonious human relations with the surrounding reality on the scale of the Universe; knowledge about the noospheric ways of civilization development and the integrity of the world.

The concept of the noosphere and the methodology of the noosphere education of V.I. Vernadsky were developed in the works of B.C. Golubev, E.V. Girusov, A.K. Gorsky, A.D. Ursula, H.H. Moiseev, A.A. Onosova et al., who define the transition to the noosphere as the only way for the survival of man and humanity. At the same time, in the noosphere education, according to these authors, "the determining principle is primarily human activity" [29]. In the works of these authors, the dominant thesis of sustainable development sounds more and more clearly and persistently as "one of its stages and the formation of the noosphere will be a space society." Due to the relevance of this term in modern science and practice, we will consider it further in more detail.

Turning, in particular, to the educational field, it should be noted that today there are quite active discussions both in the scientific community and among ordinary representatives of society, acting as various participants and subjects of the educational process, about the "school of the future". The concepts of "school of the future", "graduate of the future", "specialist of the future" have already firmly entered the terminological apparatus of many educational institutions, conceptual and program documents, finding theoretical and methodological reflection in them. Although their content is not always interpreted unambiguously. And in some cases, it is generally not disclosed. At the same time, in accordance with today's trends of rapid scientific and technological progress, the digitalization of the economy and education, the development of the information economy, the "knowledge economy" as a new era of human existence, it is quite often talked about the school of the future as a digital school. However, sharing the opinion of I.A. Birich, we believe that, first of all, the school of the future is a school of sustainable and continuous development both at the individual and collective levels, which correlates with the methodological setting of cosmoanthropocentrism and the genesis of cosmopedagogy, noospheric education [30]. In this regard, the concept of "sustainable development", updated today in the most important international development programs of the United Nations [31] and program-strategic, conceptual documents of our country [32], requires substantial clarification in the context of the conceptual foundations of the theory of cosmism.

One of the most important methodological principles of the "sustainable development model", defining its essence (which can be projected into the list of modern competencies of an educational institution graduate) can be formulated as the responsibility of the human community for their own lives, and for the lives of others, and for the world, space, nature, the life of future generations, i.e. the ability to humanity should think about the living conditions for its descendants. In this space, education acquires a fundamental, prognostic, open, complex character, aimed at forming ideas about the unity of man, the world and the Universe [30, p. 58]. This principle requires the rejection of the values of egoistic existence, high spirituality, morality and responsibility, making special demands on the educational process.

The concept of noospheric education and sustainable development in today's conditions continues to be developed by modern scientists Sh.A. Amonashvili, N.K. Gavryushin, F.I. Girenok, T.P. Grigorieva, A.V. Gulyga, B.V. Yemelyanov, A.V. Ivanov, V.P. Kaznacheev, V.V. Kazyutinsky, V.A. Kozhevnikov, S.P. Kurdyumov, A.I. Subetto, V.N. Yagodinsky, N.V. Maslova, N.N. Moiseev, V.P. Pazilova, N.P. Peterson, O.G. Panchenko, B.G. Rejabek, S.G. Semenova, N.A. Setnitsky, G.B. Svyatokhina, V.V. Frolov, M.B. Khomyakov, A.V. Khutorskoy, L.V. Shaposhnikova, M.P. Shchetinin, Yu.A. Shkolenko, etc. Within the framework of their research, there is a rethinking of the content of the concept of "quality of life", already discussed above, as the creation of social opportunities necessary for the creative development of society and a person, when the human talent acts as an indicator of the quality of education and quality of life [30]. Education is understood by the above-mentioned authors as a universal, life-affirming form of the development of the world and the creativity of the Universe [30, p. 57].

In our opinion, O.M. Korzhenko's remark that pedagogy, in which the process of raising children is considered from this position, is already innovative in itself, is quite correct [23]. In this case, pedagogy asks the question formulated by Sh.A. Amonashvili as follows: "Child! Do I have the right... to touch you if I am not filled in advance with the consciousness that you are boundlessness and uniqueness? ...realizing that you have a special mission for yourself and for people...? So I need a philosophical, and maybe a cosmic view of the child" [33, p. 10]. Such a methodological approach today clearly reflects the embodiment of such conceptual foundations of cosmism as the synthesis of various scientific directions, the synthesis of various methodological tools, forms and means of organizing the educational process, creatively developing and supporting the spirit of creation of didactic conditions and the creation of a comprehensive "science of life", as well as conciliarity: unity, interrelation of unique human individuals, the whole society, cosmic and terrestrial nature [23, p. 44].

A teacher who takes into account the "cosmic" aspect of his work in the methodology of the pedagogical process should always remember that children carry a charge of creating material and spiritual values from the moment they are born. They can create them, that's why they are born in order to create and create [33, p. 11].

There are echoes of such ideas in modern pedagogy, which are reflected in the development of various methodological approaches, methods and technologies: pedagogy of cooperation, personality-oriented, developmental, research, competence, creative approaches, etc.; determining the orientation of pedagogical processes for continuous learning and self-development. Currently, many teachers in the development of methodological foundations of the pedagogical process, often intuitively, follow in the footsteps of teachers-cosmists and philosophers, trying to realize within the framework of a personality-oriented, humanistic educational paradigm unfortunately, not yet fully the positive and not yet fully studied pedagogical potential of the scientific direction we are studying [23, p. 44].

In this regard, today there is a need not only to analyze the conceptual and methodological foundations of cosmism, to identify the terminological essence of the most important concepts of cosmism and cosmopedagogy, but also to turn to the study of the ontology of cosmism, which allows combining the accumulated potential of this scientific direction into a single pedagogical concept, which, being embodied in the current education, can turn into an effective complement to the new strategy for the implementation of the educational process in various educational institutions of the country and "sustainable development" in the context of education at the national level as a whole.


1. Based on the content of the main terminological concepts of cosmism and the methodological guidelines of the pedagogical concept of cosmopedagogy analyzed in the work, the author concludes that they are based on the comprehensive self-development of the individual, starting from birth, through the disclosure of talents and creative potential, the disclosure of creative creative energy aimed at harmonizing the inner world, and through this harmony with the surrounding world and the Cosmos. At the same time, an important methodological advantage of cosmism pedagogy, according to researchers, which we fully share, is the systemic integrity of tasks, methodological educational principles included in it, in the light of which we are talking about the continuous process of developing a child's "cosmic consciousness", identifying and developing individual abilities as the key to the successful formation of the ability for comprehensive and continuous self-improvement through the inner creative creation of one's own personality and to the perfection of the world.

Among the key and most promising methodological principles of cosmism for the modern education system, reflected in cosmopedagogy and acting as its obvious advantages, according to the author, it is necessary to highlight the a priori principle of having a positive example, ideal; the principle of continuous self-improvement of the student and teacher; the principle of taking into account the original self-worth and uniqueness of the personality, the giftedness of each child, requiring adequate educational support; the principle of creative work and activity activity of the individual; the principle of an actively educating, activity-oriented, practice-oriented environment; the principle of communication with Nature; the principle of harmonious integration of various ways, forms and methods of cognition of the world and teaching these skills to a child from an early age.

3. In the course of analyzing the ontological foundations of cosmism and cosmopedagogy, the author comes to the conclusion that the ontological argumentation of cosmism in all its diversity, especially Russian cosmism, is of particular relevance in the context of the modern development of pedagogical science and the educational system, being based on active and transformative, creative, activity-based evolutionary anthropocentrism, the assertion of the organic unity of Man, Humanity and the Cosmos, in defining the child as a unique Microcosm that is in a continuous process of selfdevelopment, comprehensive self-improvement and self-development through free creativity; in orientation to the active life position of humanity as a new conscious stage of development, defining education as a means of becoming a person - a conscious creator of a reasonable and harmonious future on the scale of the entire Universe.

The development of a child's cosmic self-consciousness, corresponding feelings and intuition should be taken into account in the content of modern education as a prognostically oriented mainstream and imperative, the potential of which is able to retain for today and future generations the image of "decaying being".

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