Police and Investigative Activity - rubric Foreign police forces
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Police and Investigative Activity" > Rubric "Foreign police forces"
Foreign police forces
Kikot'-Glukhodedova T.V. - Functioning of the System of Internal Security in the Mechanism of Government of the USA pp. 37-46
Abstract: The article is devoted to the legal and organizational grounds of functioning of the system of internal security in the mechanism of government of the USA. Police is taking up the leading position in the system of internal security there. It is also noted that a typical feature of the American system of intenal security is a traditional usage of elements and parts of the US armed forces. The system of internal security consists of the two levels, the federal level and the level of federative constituents. An important feature of police activities in the USA is the fact that police of states and cities does not have a strict hierarchy system. The authors of the article describe the main tasks of police agencies at US states. Regional police organizations perform decentralized activity. The National Guards suppress domestic disturbances in time of peace. In case the local authorities cannot manage extreme situations on their own, they ask for federative support. In Russia the national system of internal security has been developed based on democracy principles and national peculiarities of our country. 
Tinyakova E.A. - How Errors are Analyzed in American Criminological Practice pp. 45-52


Abstract: The subject of the research is erroneous judgements in American judicial practice that were massively represented during the online course of the University of Pennsylvania. The objective of the research is to provide a critical analysis of American criminology for international cooperation and exchange with Russian criminologists. Special attention is paid to the analysis of erroneous evidence of witnesses, questions of criminological psychology, and review of the basic terms related to dealing with witnesses in American criminological practice. The author emphasizes the importance of social consequences of erroneous judgements. The research method used by the author is the analysis of the University of Pennsylvania's online course 'Proved Innocent: Erroneous Judgements', T. Robichaud's lectures as well as lectures of other American experts who have been invited to participate in the course, tests and assignments. The scientific novelty of the article is caused by the fact that the author analyzes the quality of services rendered by criminological agencies as well as adjudication of the aforesaid cases which contribute to crime prevention, establishes more distinct limits between criminological elements and society. According to the author, cooperation of investigators from different countries in the process of international crime detection requires exchange of experience and skills which leads to a successful investigation. 
Dudin P.N. - Law Enforcement System of Quasi-States of Northeast China During the Japanese Occupation: Organizational Bases and Legal Regulation pp. 57-69


Abstract: Hereafter, the authors attempt to determine the place of law enforcement agencies in the general system of authorities of quasi-states established in the territory of the northeastern provinces of the Republic of China in the 1930s-1940s. The state system of Manchukuo as the first among similar political formations and the experiment intended to become a visual demonstration of the correctness of the course chosen by the occupation authorities is the object of the study. The subject of the study is the law enforcement system of the kvazi-states of Northeast China on the example of Manchukuo as a "pattern state." The authors of the article give a general description of the state system, determine the authorities that carried out law enforcement activities, analyze their status, the order of formation, functions, and relationships with other state structures. The peculiarity of the law enforcement system was that the administrative division of the quasi-states of Northeast China was not homogeneous: provinces (aimaks, etc.), provinces and cities with special status were taken as independent units. In summary of the article, the authors come to conclusion about the effectiveness of the created system, which ensured the presence of occupation forces on the continent and the smooth functioning of the state apparatus.
Tinyakova E.A. - Why American Investigation Experience be Useful for Russian Criminal Reality (the Case Study of the On-Line Course 'Proven Guilty? Social Science about False Charges' of the University of Pennsylvania, USA) pp. 63-70


Abstract: The object of the present research is the fragments of American criminal investigation technique to be compared by Russian specialists. The subject of the research is the method of criminal investigation, particularly interrogations, in American criminal practice. Special attention has been paid to false confessions and the reasons leading to them. They may be due to professional competence of investigators, criminal personality, close and distant criminal surroundings and the use of the data and information in court. The author considers the role of language in criminal investigation in detail. American criminal reality has special characteristics such as multi-ethnicity, high percent of coloured population sometimes with historic aggrevation, a lot of immigrants. These factors cause rather stern criminal policy in US that may be useful for Russian criminal reality. The methods of research included listening to the lectures of the on-line course from Pennsylvania University by Dr Tim R. Robicheaux, studying examples of criminal cases, doing quizes. The main conclusion is that the material of the article can be useful both for making criminal investigation more tense and objective and for crime prevention. Language manipulation may be a strong criminal instrument in addition to facts, still language leads to discovering facts. The author's goal was to emphasize the role of language manipulation during investigations taking into account American experience and creating prospects for Russian experts in criminology. 
Mantsurov A.Y. - Fundamentals of the cadres work in the people's police of the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China. pp. 90-103


Abstract: In this article the author evaluates specific features of organization of the cadres work in the people's police of the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China, and, more specifically, the normative legal basis regulating the service and professional training in the people's police of the MPS of the PRC. The service in the MPS of the PRC is well-paid and prestigious, and the competition for the positions in the police is great. Special attention is paid to working with the cadres in Chinese police.  There are many programs for training and advanced training of the staff. The Chinese police officers regularly take study trips to the European and North American states.  The service in the MPS in the PRC is considered to be very prestigious, and the police are respected and trusted by the population.  The police salary is comparable with the incomes of medium-scale businessmen or medium-range state officials.  The Chinese policemen  value their positions in the police, and cases of violation of service discipline or corruption are exceptionally rare.
Admiralova I.A., . - On the issue of compliance of the CSTO states legislation on human trafficking with the international acts. pp. 90-95


Abstract: The article contains comparative analysis of the legislation of the Collective Security Treaty Organization states regarding human trafficking, illegal migration and international acts. Most of the victims of human trafficking are women and children. Current international legal documents recommend prohibiting any such acts and to establish responsibility for them in every state, which had signed the document. The legislation of all Member States of the Collective Security Treaty Organization corresponds to the generally recognized international standards. The authors refer to the significant amount of norms of international law reflected in the legislation of the Collective Security Treaty Organization Member States. Almost all of the national legislations of these states recognize as aggravating circumstances for the crime of illegal migration "situations, which threaten, or might threaten life or security of migrants", and "related to inhuman or degrading treatment of migrations, including for the purpose of exploitation".
Solomatina E.A. - Legal regulation of police activities in foreign states. pp. 104-118


Abstract: The article concerns legal and organizational problems of formation of police structures in a number of industrially developed states. It is noted that in the process of formation of police structures, there appeared a complex of problems due to objective and subjective factors. Nevertheless, many foreign states have manage to form efficient police forces.  Historical value of education and police activities as an independent state institution at the time was due to the fact that it was one of the strongest and most efficient instruments for the formation of centralized statehoods in the largest states of continental Europe of that time: France, Austria, Prussia, Russia.  The armed forces are rarely used for protection of public order in everyday life of a democratic state. The police activities in the modern democratic states are defined by two main models of its organization: Continental European model, and the Anglo-Saxon model.  The legal guarantees of anti-terrorism activities provide the basis for the efficient fight against domestic crimes, and for the interaction for the purpose of fighting international terrorism.
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