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Police enforcement
Akopdzhanova M.O. - The theoretical and practical aspects of socially dangerous entrenchments criminalization pp. 1-5


Abstract: The problem of socially dangerous entrenchments criminalization criteria is very urgent for the modern penal science and lawmaking. The development of penal lawmaking conceptual base is of a big importance for the international community, as it determines combating crime effectiveness. As the criteria of criminalization, the author considers theoretical substantiation of social danger of particular actions, which are based on the analysis of law enforcement activity, including the investigative practice. This article considers the existing international standards of the entrenchments on the citizens’ rights criminalization, which determine the grounds of the existing conceptual base of combating crime. The methodology of the research includes the complex of the general scientific and the special methods of the objective social and legal reality understanding in the area of the research: the methods of analysis, synthesis, systematization and generalization, the formal logical method, the statistical and sociological methods. The article studies and analyzes the theoretical and practical grounds, the Russian and international standards of socially dangerous entrenchments criminalization. The findings of the research can be used by the law enforcement bodies, possessing the right of law making initiative, by students, postgraduates, and others interested in jurisprudence. 
Molyanov A.Y. - International law and the use of means of restraint pp. 1-18


Abstract: The article considers the problems related to use of means of restraint by security forces of the Russian Federation in the light of its commitments in the sphere of use of weapons of war, use of force and firearms by security forces. Security forces are mainly armed with the weapons which are adopted by their states’ armies, i.e. the weapons of war. It is noted that the collective bodies of the international community call the states upon for arming their security forces with the weapons, allowing use of force differentiating and not wounding severely. The methodology of the research is based on the up-to-date achievements of epistemology. The author uses the general philosophical, theoretical, and empirical methods (dialectics, the system approach, analysis, synthesis, analogy, deduction, observation, and modeling), the traditional juridical methods (formal-logical), the methods, which are used in sociological research (the statistical method, expert evaluations, etc.), and others. The analysis of international normative legal acts in the sphere of weapons of war creation and restriction of use, specifically the particular kinds of conventional weapons, and their use by security forces during the performance of their duties, had shown the necessity of further development of normative acts, enhancing the order of creation and use of non-lethal weapons. 
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