Physics of biology and medicine - rubric Биофизика
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Zenchenko T., Breus T. - Possible Causes of Instability of Reproduction of Heliobiological Results pp. 4-25



Abstract: One of the main reasons why the existence of the effect of the influence of space weather on living organisms has caused skepticism among representatives of academic science for many years is the insufficient, according to the criteria of modern physics, the stability of the reproduction of the heliobiological effect. Signs of instability are the strong variability of the characteristics of the results obtained: amplitude, time lag, and even the sign of the effect. The paper formulates and substantiates the hypothesis that this instability is primarily due to methodological reasons: existing approaches, traditional for physics and biology of the XX century, are poorly suited for the study of a complex multilevel system of solar-biospheric connections. Using concrete examples, it is shown that new methodological principles, both already included in heliobiological research in the last 10 years, and newly formulated in this work, can significantly reduce the percentage of unexplained non-reproducible results. It is shown that it is necessary to take into account such specific features of the heliobiological effect as the individual nature of the reaction to space weather, the dependence of the effect on the phase of the cycle of solar and geomagnetic activity and on the sampling scale of experimental data, taking into account the possible contribution of meteorological factors, as well as the existence of different types of response of the biological system at different time scales.
Keywords: heliobiological effect, rhythmic biospheric processes, solar activity, geomagnetic field, heart rate meteosensitivity, cardiovascular system, human magnetosensitivity, heliobiology, space weather, solar-biospheric connections
Shaev I.A., Novikov V.V. - Effect of Weak Alternating Magnetic Fields on Neutrophilic Granulocytes: An Analytical Review pp. 26-43



Abstract: This article discusses the main achievements in recent years in the study of the biological effects of weak and super weak low-frequency magnetic fields, either variable or combined with constant ones. Considered are neutrophil granulocytes activated by chemical stimulants or intact when the magnetic fields affect isolated cells, blood, and whole organisms. The methods include recording changes in ROS concentration levels (the most noticeable effect of exposure to a weak magnetic field), priming index, calcium homeostasis, proliferative activity, immune status, and the influence of various chemical agents on these indicators. The leading methods in this field are fluorescence spectrometry and chemiluminescence analysis. The experimental results indicate the biological effectiveness of this physical factor, the specific effect of which depends on the type of biosystem, its functional status, the environment, and the parameters of the fields themselves. The data obtained can have applied significance in magnetotherapy, immune response optimization in various diseases, acceleration of tissue regeneration and repair, and increasing the body's resistance to infections. They also can have academic significance as they help identify the primary field acceptors and magnetic targets and their localization in the cell, study relationships with signal cascades, build models of biological signal amplification pathways, and find biologically significant frequencies and field amplitudes.
Keywords: calcium homeostasis, respiratory burst, NADPH oxidase, neutrophils, reactive oxygen species, free radicals, combined magnetic fields, weak magnetic fields, alternating magnetic fields, chemiluminescence
Binhi V., Rubin A.B. - On the quantum nature of magnetic phenomena in biology pp. 44-73



Abstract: The review discusses the microscopic mechanisms of the action of weak magnetic fields on organisms. Magnetobiology distinguishes between magnetoreception, i.e., the effect of a magnetic field on specialized receptors, and a nonspecific response that develops without such receptors. The nonspecific effects of weak magnetic fields are highly general and universal: they occur in all organisms. Often these effects are disguised as the result of the action of uncontrolled random factors, appear as an increased scatter of measurements, and accompanied by low reproducibility. The nature of nonspecific magnetic effects, as is shown in this review, is related to the quantum dynamics of the magnetic moments of electrons, magnetic nuclei, and, possibly, rotations of molecular groups. Among the most substantiated is the spin-chemical mechanism, first of all. Its known low sensitivity to weak magnetic fields can be increased by including spin-correlated radical pairs in the enzymes that catalyze biopolymer processes, e.g., ribosomal ones. We show that research on the effects of significantly weakened magnetic fields compared with the geomagnetic field on cellular processes has prospects for various practical applications. The mechanisms proposed to explain nonspecific effects, but turned out to be untenable, are listed.
Keywords: radical pair mechanism, spin chemistry, kT problem, molecular mechanism, nonspecific effect, random effect, hypomagnetic field, weak magnetic field, magnetobiology, quantum effect
Hore P. - Magnetic sensor based on DNA pp. 74-78



Abstract: The following article, offered to the reader in Russian translation, was written by a famous English scientist, Professor Peter Hore coordinates research abroad in the field of spin-chemical mechanisms, which are believed to underlie the ability of some animal species to navigate in the Earth’s magnetic field and use the geomagnetic landscape in seasonal migrations. P. Hore, a Fellow of the Royal Society, is a British chemist. He is a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford and fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. P. Hore is the author of many research articles and textbooks, primarily in the area of NMR, EPR, spin chemistry, and magnetoreception during bird migration. Original article in English is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes. This translation is an unofficial adaptation of an article that appeared in an ACS publication. ACS has not endorsed the content of this adaptation or the context of its use. The translation into Russian has been made by V. Binhi in accordance with the terms of the License and is as literal as possible.
Keywords: magnetoreception, retina, spin chemistry, cryptochrome, magnetic compass, DNA repair, photolyase, magnetobiology, quantum biology, radical pair mechanism
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