Security Issues - rubric Technologies and methodology of security systems
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Technologies and methodology of security systems
Petrov V.E., Abasov M.M. - The program of psychological prevention of interpersonal conflicts on public transport pp. 1-8


Abstract: The paper is devoted to the possibilities of and approaches to the psychological prevention of interpersonal conflicts on public transport. The authors pay special attention to the need for the improvement of passenger service quality, decrease of the number of complaints about transport services, and provision for the fail-safety of public transportation. Among the methods of “driver-passenger” relations development the authors offer to improve the psychological work with public transport drivers. The authors develop and test the program of psychological prevention of interpersonal conflicts on public transport consisting of four two-hours’ long lessons. The lessons should be held in the form of seminars-trainings combining the discussion of topical issues of driver-passengers interaction, and training activities containing the typical problem situations which drivers encounter during their work. The psychological prevention program efficiency has been assessed during the experiment with the control and experimental groups. The validity of the results has been verified with the help of a “Student’s” t-test. Thus, the psychological prevention allows the drivers to acquire new experience, to form the skills of conflict-free communication in problem situations, to develop the skills of behavior control. The authors suppose that it will improve the quality of passenger service in the sphere of public transportation and enhance the road safety. 
Novak K.V., Vinokurova Y.S. - The method used to study the potential effectiveness of external skeletons as parts of tactical gear of military personnel pp. 1-10


Abstract: The quantitative description of external skeletons’ features doesn’t provide the unambiguous understanding of effectiveness of their use. The preliminary assessment of their effectiveness can be carried out on the base of operations research method (mathematical modeling of bilateral military operations). For this purpose, the modeling research, used to study the potential effectiveness of external skeletons, has been developed; it is based on analytical description of the process of bilateral military operations with the help of Lanchester-Osipov equations, in which the results of interaction between the fighting units on each stage are considered not as random, but as equal to their average. The research methodology includes the operations research method, mathematical modeling, system analysis, military cybernetics, the reliability theory and human factors engineering. The authors develop the mathematical support for the modeling research complex, used to study the potential effectiveness of external skeletons, based on Lanchester-Osipov equations. The results of mathematical modeling prove the necessity to develop external skeletons, designed for military use, in order to improve the effectiveness of military operations of armored infantry units. 
Sobolev V.E. - Military cybernetic systems with the high-frequency perception of information pp. 1-6


Abstract: The article considers the physical principles, underlying the perception of visual information by the human sensory system, in relation to the problem of the speed of perception and interpretation of this information by the brain. The author shows that the physiological peculiarities of the human sensory system restrict the ability of a person to observe the high-speed physical processes. The author notes the dependence between the frequency of interpretation of external information by the brain and the subjective perception of time by the person. The article shows that the intensification of the frequency of processing the incoming information leads to the actual slowdown of all observed processes. The author considers the examples of the subjective perception of the passing of time by a person. This problem is considered from the position of physics and the information theory. The article considers the philosophical aspect of this problem in the context of the constructivist concept and the problem of the observer’s role in quantum mechanics. The author demonstrates the potential possibility to create military cybernetic systems able to perform the high-frequency perception and interpretation of visual and other types of external information. The article shows that the advantage of such cybernetic systems over a human will be especially significant in observing high-speed physical processes and detecting attacks of high-speed weapons. 
Kharitonov V.V., Seregin S.F. - Ergonomic shortcomings of cabins as flight safety risk factors pp. 1-11


Abstract: The research subject is the problem of ensuring optimal conditions of interaction of people and aviation equipment in the interests of safe exploitation. This problem has recently aggravated. The need to eliminate ergonomic shortcomings of cabins and scrutinous ergonomic engineering of cabins for the purpose of increasing the number of aircrew errors caused by ergonomic shortcomings of cabins, has determined the need to study ergonomic aspects of evolution of cabins of front-line aircrafts with a focus on the shortcomings of early stages of life limits of cabins of modern and advanced aircrafts.The research methodology combines the methods of system analysis, aviation ergonomics, aviation equipment testing and designing, historiography and source study. The authors conclude that with the complication of aviation equipment and the ways of using it, the information display system becomes more important for a pilot, and the variants of glass cockpits of advanced aviation equipment have unacceptably large number of shortcomings, determined by insufficient engineering of the concept of cabins arrangement at the early stages of the life limit of aviation equipment. 
Kuzmenko A.O. - Maritime Space Surveillance System That is Based on Ranking of Information Sources pp. 1-12


Abstract: Development of a maritime space surveillance system require from state authorities to make a reasonable choice of sources of information. The subject of this research is the surveillance system structure that allows to observe sea vessels. Providing that there is a great number of approaches to control over sea vessels that are based on both complex information systems and individual technical means, when selecting sources of information it is necessary to take into account functions that are to be performed by systems or means to observe and control over sea vessels. In particular, to select sources of information it is necessary to consider the performance of control functions by surveillance system elements. The research methodology is based on theoretical and empirical methods, in particular, structured fnctional approach, methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, comparison, literature analysis and performance analysis. In this research the author offers his own method of ranking information sources for maritime space surveillance. The method offered by the author has certain benefits compared to existing ones, in particular, the method allows to take into account not only technical parameters of information sources but also efficiency of control over maritime space of the Russian Federation. The method also allows to compare information sources with different structures and principles of operation as well as heterogenous incomparable technical features. The method also enables to consider the state of a surveillance system being used in which a ranked information source may be imbedded.
Mitin A.Y. - Armed Confrontation Modeling. Experience of the Foreign States pp. 1-9


Abstract: The article is devoted to the development of the simulation modeling of military actions based on the USA army experience. In his research Mitin has discovered that various kinds of modeling have been used to gain practical experience in managing military subdivisions since ancient times. With the developing mathematics and computers, simulation and modeling have reached a new level. The researcher demonstrates that at the present time simulation is actively used by the USA as part of their armed military training. The USA uses standartized solutions which ensures compatibility of all systems at all levels of management. In his article Minin discovers the problem from the point of view of systems evolutionary approach by studying and generalising accumulated experience in the use of simulation systems by the USA army. The experience analyzed can be used to develop Russian information technologies to support the management of military forces during armed confrontation including that to defeat attack of critically important facilities and to substantiate relevant solutions. 
Sivakova T.V., Baluta V.I., Karandeev A.A. - Integral approach towards assessment of antiterrorism security of the objects pp. 1-14


Abstract: The decreasing relevance of the problem of terrorism threats, as well as the expansion of possibilities and areas of manifestation of the activity of terrorists, require attention on improving the quality of counter-terrorism, including the immediate organization of the system for physical protection of the objects. Efficiency assessment is one of the elements in designing such systems. For the most part, the modern methods of conducting such assessment are quite sizeable and labor-consuming; the numerical value of output parameters, as all else being equal, differ significantly and cannot be collocated with the level of admissible risk of a particular object. This article offers a simplified approach towards efficiency assessments of security systems by means of territorial zoning based on small amount of input parameters. The scientific novelty of the presented methodological approach consists in unary (as a counterbalance to vector) assessment of security indicator, which allows using this approach for creation of instruments of automatic optimization of deployment of equipment for detecting unauthorized intrusion and countermeasures to unauthorized exposure (including strike munitions) for ensuring maximal protection of the target object.
Vladimirova T.V. - On the value of new mobilities for security. pp. 9-23


Abstract: The article concerns new social mobilities within the framework of information security guarantees as practices.  A social subject guaranteeing information security, is the subject, who on one hand provides protection of information and protection from information, and on the other hand he  develops orientation in the outer information environment, since his resources should be renewed in  the conditions of mobile social environment. At the same time renewing information resources of a subject takes place with growing intensity according to the growth of intensity of information streams, which, in turns leads to more and more outdated information.  In such a condition mobility practices may be interpreted as security practices.  Theoretical and methodological basis for the studies includes social, philosophical and sociological theories. In particular, the ideas of mobility sociology by John Urry, the theory of object-centered sociality of Karin Knorr Cetina. The new mobility practices, which now form network and stream morphology of the social world are viewed by the author as general practices of information security guarantees.  The idea of their organization is partially revealed through the term of channels, tunnels and streams (J. Urry). The author notes that  the new mobilities need to be understood and used as practices of information security guarantees for national forces in the condition of growth of streams and networks.  The substantial aspect of the new mobilities is high intensity of communications, as expressed by the speed and variety of interactions.  It is noted that a characteristic features of new mobilities is objectivation of relations or the appearance of the object-centered sociality (K. Knorr Cetina).
Shumov V. - Sovereign development indexes of the largest countries pp. 10-21


Abstract: The research object is the characteristics and factors of development of societies and states. The research subject is the creation of the model and indexes of sovereign development of the key states. The article demonstrates the model that takes into account the following indexes: population size, territory size, and social technologies. Instead of the difficult-to-calculate and difficult-to-evaluate innovation index, the author offers the social technologies index consisting of three indicators: urbanization, GDP per capita, and population size growth rates. The author applies the natural-science approach and mathematical modeling. The author enumerates the key 20 countries in the descending order of the sovereign development index: China, the USA, India, Russia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Mexico, Australia, DR Congo, Nigeria, Argentina, Iran, Pakistan, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, Egypt, the Republic of South Africa, Turkey. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the application of publicly available statistical data for the calculation of the sovereign development indexes of countries covering long periods of time. 
Shumov V.V., Malitsky K.T. - Evaluating the Levels of Security and Socio-Political Tension in Russia's Regions pp. 10-23


Abstract: Today there is a growing threat to Russia's national security both from the side of certain states and blocks (sanctions, trade wars, NATO placing their forces close to Russian borders, etc.) and traditional threats such as illegal migraton from other countries, cross-border crime, etc.). Slow pace of economic growth, social stratification and other factors have a negative influence on the society and make it necessary to study the levels of security and socio-political tension in Russia's regions. Thus, the object of the research is the social, ethnic and economic processes in different regions that influence the security and socio-political tension therein. The subject of the research is the model of security and  index of socio-political tension in regions. To analyze security processes, the researchers have used systems approach, complex approach, historical approach, regional statistics and social research methods (rating and indexes) as well as mathematical methods to evaluate parameters of the model. The modeling results complete views of specialists in the theory and practice of security. The researchers also compare the results to research data in related areas (mathematical models of tension in regions, life quality rating, human development index). It is recommended to apply the research results in the sphere of management and government to create scenarios of socio-political development, to timely discover threats to national security and substantiate measures aimed at ensuring national, state, social and other kinds of security. 
Monakhova M., Putintsev G., Mazurok D., Porfirev A. - Algorithm of localization of a corporate information and telecommunication networkТs area with abnormal behavior pp. 13-24


Abstract: The research object is an information and telecommunication network. The research subject is the algorithms of detection and identification of information safety incidents of information and telecommunication networks of modern companies. The purpose of the study is to develop algorithms of detection of information safety incidents in corporate information and telecommunication networks. The authors describe the method based on the comparison of the reference configurations of information and telecommunication networks with the factual ones. Unauthorized change of configurations and external interference in the work of a corporate information and telecommunication network cause the instability of work of its elements, and threaten information safety. The authors use the theory of graphs and the methods of discrete mathematics and mathematical statistics. The article contains the algorithm of identification of a corporate and telecommunication network’s area with abnormal behavior, and the example of its program realization, and raises the problem of importance of timely and reasoned localization of a corporate information and telecommunication network’s area with probable information safety incidents. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the development of the model of an information safety incident and the algorithm of localization of a corporate information and telecommunication network’s area with abnormal behavior. The authors formulate the algorithm of localization, which helps reduce the time of an information safety incident detection by approximately 15% and identification – from 5 to 10%. 
Ermakov S.V., Bondarev V.A. - Dangerous, extreme and emergency situations in ship navigation pp. 13-22


Abstract: The research subject is the terminology, which is used to describe the situations in ship navigation, which can be harmful for life and health of people, property (cargo and ship) and environment.The research object is theory and methodology of the risk of emergency situations in ship navigation. The authors consider dangerous, extreme and emergency situations, their definitions, features and interrelation. The study is based on legal and commonly used definitions and those acquired in the process of studying. The research methodology is based on terminological system analysis, which is applied to each definition and the whole conceptual framework (terminological system). The authors detect commonness, difference and correlation of notions defining the situations, which occur in the process of ship navigation and are characterized by the presence of danger. In other words, the authors systematize the terminology. The most common term is dangerous situation, which is only determined by the presence of danger. An additional feature of extreme situation is a human factor. The level of extremality of the situation is determined by the probability of an accident and emergency situation. The research results supplement the theory and methodology of emergency situations risk management in ship navigation. They can be used for generalization of effective procedures of management on the basis of prognostication and minimization of human factor in ship navigation safety. 
Panenkov A.A. - Criminological approaches towards the problems of fighting terrorism and its financing, specific features of prosecutor control. Some propositions on optimization of fighting terrorism and its financing based upon scientific studies. pp. 17-135


Abstract: In this article the author based upon the scientific studies of 2010-2012 discusses the criminological study methods and approaches towards fighting terrorism and its financing, specific features of prosecutor control. He makes some propositions on optimization of fighting terrorism and its financing based on international experience.  It is noted that it is important to be disillusioned in respect to fast solutions of the problems regarding fighting terrorism and its financing in Russia. It is important that the political leaders of the Russian Federation use criminological approaches to fighting terrorism. The studies held in July 2012 show that it was not impossible to block foreign sources and channels of financing terrorism in the Republic of Ingushetia.  Blocking both internal and external sources of financing is currently a key goal and problem for all of the law-enforcment bodies and special services in Russia.
Tsezar D.A., Shumov V.V. - The Model and Mechanism of Resource Allocation for Combating Acts of Violence in Maritime Space pp. 18-27


Abstract: The subject of the research is the management of resource allocation for combating acts of violence in maritime space. Counteraction of acts of violence in the maritime space of 'international shipping community', quite a new term on the political and economic arena, is performed taking into account the factors typical for aggressive social environment, battle principles and psychological qualities of the parties. The present research is based on the analysis of approaches to prevention of force acts using the models of battle, conflict technology and game theory. The authors also focus on the search for the most optimal resource allocation. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research includes laws and principles of the military science, statistical, formal law and mathematical forecasting methods, discourse analysis and systems approach. The results of the research is the proof of efficiency of implementing battle and game models by military units as part of their service activities aimed at prevention and repression of acts of vilence as well as the algorithm of managing the resource allocation as part of counteraction to acts of violence in martime space. 
Dement'ev V.E. - Justification of the conceptual framework of a protocol-based protection of information and telecommunications network pp. 19-29


Abstract: The paper proposes a conceptual framework forming the grounds of the protocol-based protection of the information and telecommunications network. The purpose of this article is to develop theoretical foundations of the protocol-based protection. Based on a review of the existing descriptions of vulnerabilities and approaches to assessing the security of information and telecommunications networks and the known types of threats the author identifies their contradictions and shortcomings. The author proposes the classification and the definition of the concept of a protocol-based impact, gives some examples of such impacts and the main definitions revealing the essence of this concept. Analysis is the main research method. The author considers the shortcomings of the definitions of the existing normative documents. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the study considers the new class of vulnerabilities and the related threats to the information and telecommunications network. The proposed definitions help describe the technological peculiarities and the existing features which will hereafter allow dividing its protection into the information and the technological ones. The results of the study can be used for the further development of theoretical foundations of the protocol-based protection of the information and telecommunications network. 
Bashkova E.P., Dzengelevskii A.E. - Research of the possibility of application of the means of efficient client data management in a credit organization for the purpose of fulfilling regulatory requirements pp. 19-29


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the problem of effective use by credit organization of the own client data due to their heterogeneity. The object of this research is the client data of a credit organization. The subject is the possibility of application of the means of efficient client data management in a credit organization for the purpose of fulfilling regulatory requirements  The main goal of this work consists in the analysis and formulation of recommendations with regards to modification of client data model, as well as improvement of quality of client data by means of data management based on the DAMA-DMBOK body of knowledge in the context of the key areas of data management. The article reviews the key areas of data management and the methods of application of rules and recommendations of each of them to the data management process of the credit organization. The relevance of this article is substantiated by legislative requirements pertaining to monitoring of services provided for private and legal entities from the sanctioned territory. The scientific novelty consists in application of data management knowledge to the relevant issue on the need for automatic determination of territorial affiliation of the client in order to comply with the requirements of normative legal acts. The research methods are content analysis, structural analysis, and modeling. The main conclusions consist in recommendations for modification client data model of the bank, namely methods and principles for expanding the data model using standardized data parameters, which significantly improves the quality of data. The implementation of such recommendations would allow a financial organization to reduce the risks associated with payment of fines and revoke of licenses due to noncompliance with the regulatory requirements.
Chirov D.S., Hripunov S.P. - Intelligent methods of tactical situations recognition in the context of autonomous use of military robotic systems pp. 22-34


Abstract: The paper considers the problems of tactical situations recognition in the context of autonomous use of military robotic systems. In the opinion of most Russian and foreign experts, arming of troops with autonomous military robotic systems, equipped with reconnaissance assets and weapons, can significantly increase the effectiveness of conduct of operations and reduce depletion of ranks. The absence of an effective mechanism of tactical situations recognition in the context of the environment that is hard to formalize is one of the key deterrents to the creation of autonomous military systems. The authors suggest applying logical and linguistic methods and their neural network realizations, particularly, the multilayer perceptron, to solve the mentioned task. The modeling results demonstrate that the use of neural network realization of logical and linguistic methods of recognition, based on the multilayer perceptron, allows using such methods in the on-board computer intelligence of a military robotic system for the recognition of tactical situations. The use of the multilayer perceptron helps significantly speed up the process of the new knowledge processing, since in order to create the new system of tactical situations recognition it is necessary to merely correct the learning sample and retrain the multilayer perceptron; it takes less time than the formation of a new logical samples group by a group of experts. 
Gribanova-Podkina M. - Construction of a model of threats to information security of an information system using the object-oriented design methodology pp. 25-34


Abstract: The research object is the project of the system of information security of an information system, which includes the development of the model of threats, and the related issues of the current state of an information system assessment and recommendations about the improvement of information protection. The paper considers the approach to the construction of the model of threats based on the use of the object-oriented design model. Such approach involves active use of UML-diagrams when describing the conceptual model of threats to information security, the ways of these threats realization, and threats realization and protection scenarios. Within this approach, using the UML language and Enterprise Architect tool, the author develops and describes the object-oriented model of threats to information security for a distributed information system. This model can be embedded into the documents of information security of an information system. The developed models of threats and scenarios will help information analysts and information security specialists to interact more effectively to protect information systems against information security threats. 
Belov P. - Methodological Aspects of Health and Environment pp. 28-39


Abstract: The article is devoted to the framework of concepts and terms and tools of systems research as well as improvement of health and environment which is today well known as 'technogenic safety'. The subject matter of the research is a complicated system which the author called 'environmental manufacturing' and includes industrial facilities and transportation infrastructre, i.e. those man-machine systems that continuously exchange energy, substance and information with atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as peoples, animals and plants inhabiting them. To describe the foresaid aspects of health and environment, the author has followed the deductive axiomatical method and used energy-entropic concept and classification of real dangers. To describe the contents and basic terms, principles and the best methods of researching and ensuring health and environment, the author has used the systems approach and logical conslusion. Conceptual and methodological results of the research include the following: a) energy-entrophic concept and basic classification of real dangers; b)object, subject and basic principles of health and environment; c) the basic research methods of the systemic organization and improvement; d) the structure, target, goals and basic indicators of the system are not only original but also constructive because they correspond to the nature of things.
Shumov V. - National security model and the analysis of global processes of integration and disintegration pp. 29-97


Abstract: The article is devoted to national security and the related processes of integration and disintegration of states and political alliances. The author develops the security model defined through the dichotomy of values of development and preservation, cooperation and competition. For the purpose of the model assessment and verification the author uses historical, statistical and analytical data characterizing the security of states and alliances of states and regions: the population size and structure, socio-economic characteristics, innovation index, etc. The author uses the methods of mathematical modeling, mathematical statistics, historical data about the development of states since 1500, and the systems and natural scientific approaches. The security model gives the opportunity to solve several practical tasks:1. To assess security of China, Russia and the USA for the period from 1500 till 2009. The author shows that social transformations in the society and the state take place when the preservation rate decreases below 0,5 – 0,6.2. To calculate the security of the European Union according to three scenarios: creation of a commonwealth, a federation or a unitary state. The author supposes that recently the EU has reached its growth limits (and even exceeded them). Its sustainable existence is provided by means of translation of the part of military and political sovereignty to the EU by the USA and the passivity of other geopolitical actors.3. To calculate the security of the Eastern European Union (unification of 9 states around Russia). With any form of unification the Union will be a sustainable construction. This assessment does not contradict the historical development of Russia. 
Shumov V. - Analysis of the function of victory based on experience of strategic operations of the Great Patriotic War pp. 30-39


Abstract: The object of research is the combat and military operations. The subject is the dynamic models of combat operations and functions of victory in the conflict. The first combat model was developed by M. P. Osipov in 1915 based on the analysis of military battles for the hundred-year period. He was first to formulate the principles of combat operations modelling. In recent decades, the economists also joined the analysis of conflicts (contests and auctions). The goal of this work lies in analysis and unification of the two indicated approaches, and provision military leadership with quantitative grounds for decision-making in preparing to the combat operations. Leaning on the statistical analysis of offensive and defensive strategic operations during the Great Patriotic War (forces and means of the parties by the beginning of operation and its outcome), the author verifies the original expansion of conflict model – the function of victory in combat operations and assesses the parameters of the form of model. The scientific novelty of consists in establishing a close connection and dependence between the two approaches to combat operations modeling: based on dynamics of the averages (classical approach) and modeling with the use of conflict functions (econometric approach). The advanced function of victory in combat operations is easy to use and complies with the provisions of military science and the theory of combat potentials.
Belozerov V.V. - About the Cognitive Model of Managing Safety of Heavily Trafficked Facilities (the Results of Investigation of the Fire that Happened at Turgenevsky Shopping Center in Cherkessk) pp. 35-62


Abstract: In his article Belozerov presents the results of a comprehensive expert audit of the fire that happened at Turgenevsky Shopping Center in Cherkessk and resulted in over 1.5 billion roubles of damage. The researcher underlines that the safety levels of heavily trafficked facilities (HTFs) are set in the design and checked by the state or non-state expertise that issues a construction permission. In the course of construction, functioning and modernization of HTFs the observance of safety requirements is controlled by different supervisory agencies (architectural, fire-protection, energy agencies, etc.) and this is the very point when the safety level is often reduced significantly. Thus, Belozerov offers the concept of cognitive synergetic system of HTF safety management under the aegis of Russia's Prosecution Office. The results of analyzing violations of safety requirements committed by both HTF heads and supervisory agencies  demonstrate that the main causes of such violations are, firstly, the variety of supervisory agencies and the absence of interaction between them; secondly, a great number of contradictory requirements, guidelines and rules regarding the matter, and the fact that regional governments try to set forth individual regulations and mandatory requirements in addition to standard Technical Regulations. 
Tikhanychev O.V. - Autonomous robotics: on the problem of control over modifiable algorithms pp. 36-47


Abstract: The subject of this research is the application of autonomous robotic systems of various designation. The object of this research is the algorithmic problems emerging in this area, namely the problem of control over security of algorithms. The study is carried out on the basis of implementation of robotics in military sphere. The analysis of peculiarities of the modern military operations demonstrates that one of the aspects of revolution in military science is the battlefield robotics. However, its realization generates certain issues in legal sphere, related to algorithmic support of the autonomous system. The manifestations of such problem consist in critical use errors, divided by the experts into the errors of first and second grade. The main cause of these errors is the software functionality of the autonomous robotic system. If the consequences for conventional armament are predictable, and the responsibility for their results is determined, the situation in case of implementation of military robots requires solution. Application of the general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis allow examining the main aspects of current state and prospects of the problem of algorithmization with regards to implementation of autonomous systems. The article synthesizes articulation of the scientific tasks aimed at solution of the problem of division of responsibility between the developers and users of similar system in terms of development and testing of the algorithms of their implementation.
Antushevich A.A., Minakova P.S., Zyazya A.V., Poddubnyi A.M. - The assessment of energy capacity of the municipal solid waste landfill pp. 36-45


Abstract: This article examines the energy capacity of the municipal solid waste landfill in the town of Partizansk, Primorsky Krai. The landfill was launched in 1975. The landfill has a monsoon-type climate with warm, humid summers and cold winters with little amount of snow. The services are provided to 45,646 people. The morphological composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) stored on the landfill consist of recyclable paper, glass, polymers, textiles, ferrous and nonferrous metal, food waste, etc. The authors provide a brief characteristics to the landfill; examine biogas yield, component composition of landfill gas, and average composition of biogas; determine specific density of biogas per year. The article calculates the maximum single and gross emissions of pollutants, average specific values of harmful emissions, annual and maximum single amount of landfill gas. Assessment is given to the theoretical energy value of municipal solid waste landfill. The energy capacity of municipal solid waste landfill and its economic efficiency are indicated. In the course of technical calculations, the number of nonrenewable energy resources (coal, oil, natural gas), which can be saved if replace energy carriers with landfill gas is determined. The analysis of using MSW as the renewable secondary energy resources demonstrates the growing role of this source in energy saving and capacity for reducing environmental pollution due to collection and disposal of biogas.
Shumov V. - The systemic approach to boundary security modelling. pp. 39-66


Abstract: The boundary security is analyzed within boundary studies, its object of study is boundary processes, boundary systems, and boundary influences.  This article includes evaluation of approaches towards boundary security modeling from the standpoints of systemic analysis, system science, operation studies.  The article contains three parts.  Part one is devoted to the structure of boundary studies, and its main characteristics, such as norms and principles of boundary activities, functions of boundaries, boundary policy and boundary means, threats in boundary areas, types of boundary influences, etc.   In the second part it is shown that complicated boundary processes may be modelled with the use of hierarchy and chains of models. The author studies 13 modelling levels starting from the physical and geographic level and finishing with the goal-setting level.  The modeling chains are based upon general and specialized cycles of activity and administration.  The last part provides for modeling methods in the sphere of boundary security. Rephrasing William Ashby, one may state that real process models of boundary security guarantees should be no less varied than the variety of real administrative situations. Due to this fact, the model should be multi-level and they should correspond with universal and special cycles of administration and activities.
Pogodina I.V., ., . - The multilevel approach to definition of optimum indicators of regional security based on economic-mathematical modeling pp. 55-80
Abstract: Substantial differentiation of regional development, non-uniformity of domestic innovative territory, unsatisfactory criminal situation and bureaucratic thresholds substantially limit implementation of a modernization of the state. Therefore, an adequate estimation of functioning social and economic systems is necessary for the solution of the specified problems from a standpoint of use of their internal and external capabilities. The offered technique for defining  an integrated indicator allows to make multilevel calculation of  potential of constituent subjects of Russian Federation, and then on the basis of mathematical processing of the results to form the model characterizing a complex parity of de-facto and optimal regional security.
Shumov V. - Network Structures for the Integration and Disintegration of Political Actors (on the Example of EU Countries) pp. 56-77


Abstract: Insufficient economic growth rates, security problems, the expected exit of the UK from the EU prompt further research into the analysis of the processes of integration and disintegration of supra- and interstate entities. The paper presents a security model of the state, consisting of two components - development functions and conservation functions. The development function in the form of a three-factor power production function takes into account the population size of the country, its area, urbanization, gross domestic product per capita and natural population growth. The conservation function operates with variables such as: the share of the state-forming ethnos from the population of the country, the parameters of attraction and ethnic heterogeneity. The verification of the security model was carried out using the example of the EU countries. A model for the security of supra- and interstate political entities (unions) is developed, taking into account the degree of integration between individual countries (the share of state functions transferred to the Union). For the EU countries, an assessment of the heterogeneity parameter relative to the allied country, Germany, has been carried out. Shumov analyzes the network structure model that includes the geographic graph (combination of axes (states) and ridges (boundaries between states)) and sociopolitical graph (arcs are interpeted as the presence of sociopolitical connections). The author offers his definition of admissible coalitions and explains the rule of formation of socio-political network structures: political actors select coalition with the maximum security function. Shumov provides examples of formation of optimal coalitions. Using the network structure model, the author carries out an analysis of the processes of integration and disintegration in the European Union. As the European Union integration develops, disintegratoin processes are expected to reinforce in multinational states, or the states will have to leave the Union. 
Shchuplenkov O.V. - Methodological aspects of national security of Russia. pp. 60-110


Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of methodology of the national security problem in Russia. The specific features of the modern system of international relations is manifested via internationalization, globalization, growing tempo of global transformation processes, making it more and more complicated, contradictory and conflict-generating.  Activation of terrorism, the wish of a number of states to produce nuclear weapons and carriers, formation of new power centers, competition for the access to natural resources, competition between the social models, consequences of the global crisis make one worry for the fate of the strategic sustainability.  It is undoubted that there are positive changes, since the national security strategy  is closely connected to the National development concept till 2020 and it is closer to reality, than previous documents of 1997 and 2000.  The modern wars and armed conflicts may be caused by the following factors: economic  (such as uneven development, fight for the raw resources and markets for capital), political (such as political instability in various regions), military and technical (presence of new types of weapons, its quality and quantity markers), spiritual and religious (such as religious extremism, Islamic fundamentalism,  social and psychological personal ambitions).  The above-mentioned parameters make the issues of military threat and military danger more topical, and require more comprehensive evaluation.
Shumov V. - Analysis of integration and disintegration processes in the European Union pp. 60-76


Abstract: The insufficient economic growth, the security problems and the UK expected leaving of the EU incline to the continuation of the analysis of integration and disintegration processes in the European Union. The research subject is the assessment of the security level of the European Union. Through the dichotomy of the values of development and preservation, the author defines the function of the security of the state and the union of states. Based on the statistical data, the author assesses the security of the Union according to several scenarios. To analyze integration and disintegration processes in the EU, the author uses the system approach, historical and statistical data and mathematic modeling. On the base of the assessment of Russia’s security over the past 200 years, the author assumes that the decrease of the value of the preservation function below 0,5 – 0,6 creates the prerequisites for the possible dissolution or transformation of the state. The author formulates the formal tasks of the search for the optimal composition and structure of the European Union and gives the examples of the calculation of the rational composition of its member-states. 
Vladimirova T.V. - On an unified approach towards understanding information security guarantees. pp. 111-127


Abstract: Various approaches and study directions in the sphere of information security guarantees may be viewed through an unified methodological approach in the terms of social philosophical theory. Such an operation shall facilitate the further development of understanding of the social nature of the term.  We related information security guarantees to the understanding and administration of certain modern social practices, allowing to keep the information streams adequate to the world around both for the individuals and for the social systems, therefore, allowing for sustainability and comprehensive character of the situation for both an individual and a system in the situation of growing deviation/innovation as variative communications expressed by the growing intensity of information streams. Theoretical and methodological bases for the studies include sociological theories of A. Giddens, M. Castells, J. Urry. The author used the works of the Russian scientists in the sphere of information security guarantees. It is noted that information security guarantees are formed with the social practices and social structures. The said approach allows to develop the understanding of social aspects of information security, to see the specific features of security guarantee practices, to reveal the contradiction between the local structures and stream and network character of the information threats.  It is noted that the high intensity of communication of mobility practices is possible in the sphere of security guarantees thanks to security privatization.
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