Security Issues - rubric External aspects of national security
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Security Issues" > Rubric "External aspects of national security"
External aspects of national security
Kosorukov A.A. - Chinas Strategy at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Going Global pp. 31-69


Abstract: The questions related to the interaction between China and other countries as part of foreign policy relations and, first of all, the USA, are considered. The author believes that China’s foreign-policy strategy is a complex and multi-level phenomenon which consists of the global, national and intra-national levels, on each of which certain typical of China determinants are in action. The authors acknowledges that China, while actively building up its aggregate national power, in its foreign-policy strategy is objectively starting to lean, to a greater extent, on the determinants of the global level seeking to transform the modern architecture of international relations to fit with its interests by making such architecture more multi-polar. The research methodology includes using the multi-tier approach within the theory of international relations, the works of neoclassical realism which focus on the determinants of the intra-national level during the development of the country’s foreign policy. The scientific novelty of the article is in the introduction into scientific use and application of the theoretical works of neoclassical realism, integration of the determinants of the global, national and intra-national levels hen explaining the formation of the foreign-policy strategy, analyzing China’s foreign-policy strategy using the tools provided by neoclassical realism and the theory of foreign-policy analysis.
Girnik E.S. - Reconstruction of frontier statistics of the Roman Empire pp. 33-54


Abstract: The research object is military and frontier activity in the Roman Empire. The research subject is frontier statistics. The Roman Empire left us classic examples of valour and courage in countering threats on the Empire frontiers about 20 000 km long. The article presents qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results of this activity. The author is the first to calculate the density of troops (legions) per a kilometer of a border in frontier provinces of the Roman Empire; substantiates the principles of distribution of legions on the boundaries of the Empire. Using historical and system approaches, with regard to the frontier security theory, the author reconstructs the frontier statistics of the Roman Empire. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that though foreign and Russian scholars are interested in the methods of states borders protection, the issues of frontier statistics and its influence on state defense haven’t been studied in detail yet. 
Girnik E.S. - Development of Cross-Border Statistics in the European Union and USA pp. 36-56


Abstract: The object of the research is the cross-border policy and cross-border activity of the European Union and USA. The subject of the research is cross-border statistics. Each state (or union of states) develops and puts into practice different approaches, techniques and technologies to ensure cross-border security. This experience is reflected in cross-border statistics and needs to be reviewed to select the best practical methods and technologies that can be useful for CIS and Eurasian Economic Union member states. The main methods used by the author to write the article include description, comparison, analysis, generalisation and synthesis. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the researcher classifies cross-border statistics of the foreign states. The author focuses on fundamental principles of official statistics in the foreign states, describes different approaches to statistics organisation that allow to raise trust of the society towards state authorities and their activity in the cross-border and domestic security fields. The author also describes conceptual and practical approaches to technologies and methods of keeping cross-border statistics records when planning domestic and cross-border security by the foreign states. Based on the analysis of the foreign states' experience, the author offers a conceptual model of cross-border security for the CIS and Eurasian Economic Union member states. The author also suggests to use a mathematical calculation method to assess the level of protectoin of state borders when latent flows come through. 
Senichenkov P.D., Shumov V.V. - Modelling Coordination of Citizens' and Organisations' Activity Aimed at Protection of State Borders pp. 40-50


Abstract: The object of the research is the coordination of activity of citizens and organizations aimed at protection of state borders. The subject of the research is the mathematical substantiation thereof as well as the mechanisms of management. Coordination of activity aimed at protection of state borders means coordination and harmonization of functions and actions of the volunteer people's organization members (people's guards) and self-government authorities. The mathematical substantiation implies evaluation and calculation of financing of peoples' guards as well as fines. For mathematical substantiation of the reward-and-fine system in peoples' guards, the authors of the article has applied the theory of fuzzy contracts as ell as lmodels of socio-information influence. For the first time in the research of coordination of activity of citizens, organizations and authorities that protect state borders the authors have applied the theory of fuzzy contracts that assumes that efforts of both parties are non observable. Calculations demonstrate the the reward-and-fine system takes into account both the level of efforts and due diligence of a peoples' guard member and factors and economic situation in a particular region. 
Kosolapov N.A. - Soft power of the Republic of Poland in the context of its foreign policys eastern vector forming (the case of Ukraine and the Republic of Belarus) pp. 43-55


Abstract: The research object is soft power of the Republic of Poland. The research subject includes the peculiarities and the scope of Poland’s soft power, and its conceptual essence. The author considers the theoretical grounds of “soft” influence, and the main definitions and contradictions within this discourse. The author considers the projection of soft power in the light of the traditions of relations of Poland with its eastern neighbours. The author carries out the brief analysis of the current balance of power in this region and the concepts of mutual relations with the eastern neighbours. The author applies the general logical methods and the methods of the international relations science, such as the functional and the historical. The author analyzes the scope of soft power of the Republic of Poland, studies the censuses results in the countries in question, and defines the spheres where Warsaw had achieved significant success in the promotion of its image. The paper considers the issue about the necessity to carry out this type of policy as the sole approach to the implementation of the eastern vector of Poland’s foreign policy. The author concludes that in the recent 25 years the Republic of Poland has achieved significant results in “soft” policy application. The author proves that the “soft impact” of Warsaw is based on the policy of historical impact, and is considered in the context of Poland’s obligation to disseminate democratic values and European ideology. The author notes that the EU membership is an important vector defining the active policy of Poland aimed at its image promotion in the eastern direction. 
Grachev B. - Stability factors of integration associations pp. 62-69


Abstract: The paper reveals the factors determining the existence and functioning of an integration association, which is considered as a political system. The research subject is the political system of an integration association. The author considers the issues of the integration theory and detects fundamental characteristics of such a type of international political objects as economic integration associations. The paper characterizes the research methodology and contains a brief description of functional elements of the political system of a state and the ways of their interaction. The author analyzes and systematizes the factors determining the existence of an integration association. The research methodology is based on the key provisions of the structural-functional analysis of Gabriel Almond, the elements of David Easton’s system theory, and the neo-functional approach to the study of integration processes. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the detection, description, and systematization of the factors determining the existence of an integration association from the position of probability of their transformation and the degree of impact on it. The author’s conclusions develop the methodology of integration studies and the comparative approach in the political science in general, help study the stability of supranational political objects, and can serve as a basis for political prognostication and such objects management. 
Perov E.V. - Theory and analysis of social conflictogenity of a society. pp. 67-141


Abstract: The changes in economic and social institutions, political system and mindset of the people of Russia is accompanied by tensions at various levels of social organization. The combination of tensions of social, mental and social-psychological character, which are capable of causing conflicts in the society in some circumstances, can be jointly viewed as social conflictogenity of a soeciety. The social conflictogenity contains intertwined objective and subjective conflictogenic factors, and it is a meidum link between a sustainable social structure and developing social conflicts.  In order to develop measures for lowering the social conflictogenit level, there is need to diagnose it, including social conflictogenic monitoring, and uncovering the causes of its level.  The offered diagnostic method for establishing social conflictogenity allows to define dynamics of general markers, characterising the level of social conflictogenity in a state or a particular region, and to uncover the causes of growth of social tension in a society. This method was tested on materials from Russia. 
Sazonova K.L. - "How to Stop Worrying and Start Living": the Impact of anti-Russian Sanctions and Countermeasures on the Contemporary International Law pp. 78-108


Abstract: The presented article is focused on the most debatable international law issues which have arisen from the introduction of a full "package" of sanctions of international organizations and certain states against the Russian Federation, and also in connection with the realization of anti-Russian countermeasures last year. Anti-Russian sanctions and counter-measures significantly enriched the case practice of international interaction in this sphere, having given a new impulse to doctrinal assessment of problems in this sphere.The author uses both comparative and legal methods, and also a method of interpretation of legal norms. The conclusions and cause-and-effect relations, as well as conceptual generalizations were made by means of the logical method.On the basis of the analysis of anti-Russian sanctions and countermeasures, the author offers some conceptual theses. First, the author notes that the term "sanctions" can be used, at least, in three various contexts. Secondly, it is possible to note that the present doctrine of international law doesn't have a clear understanding of the differences between sanctions and counter-measures, which leads to serious confusion. Thirdly, the questions connected with sanctions and countermeasures of last year considerably strengthened doctrinal differences between the Russian and western schools of international law, and also caused the most essential changes in the configuration of the contemporary system of international law since the end of the "cold war". Besides, the author notes significant terminological difficulties of the considered sphere, which also led to the emergence of new phenomena and terms, which may be subjected to a further doctrinal assessment.
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