Security Issues - rubric Internal threats and countermeasures
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Internal threats and countermeasures
Plotnikov V.A. - The risks of cluster policy pp. 8-24


Abstract:  The subject of the research is cluster policy as a set of measures taken by the public authorities and aimed at the formation and development of clusters in Russian economics. The author shows that government regulation of the economy by means of the clusters approach is a logical result of development of the modern market economy and its regulation by the government. Special attention is paid to the revelation of the risks of cluster policy and their systematization according to their composition. The author shows the connection of risks with the cluster policy efficiency. The research is based on the dialectical approach, understanding the contradictions as a driving force of development. The author uses the methods of comparative, retrospective and systems analysis. The paper reveals the tendency of transformation of the phenomenon of market competition in modern conditions. The author shows that it is a combination of elements of competitive and cooperative relations, and clusters are one of the forms of institutionalization of such contradictory relations. Due to the fact that clusters serve as the poles of economic growth it is necessary to develop and realize the special government policy – the cluster policy. The author explains the thesis that cluster policy is based on the indirect instruments of regulation which is connected with the conflict of interests of its subjects and objects. The author offers the classification of the main risks of cluster policy. It is offered to differentiate three groups of risks - those connected with the external environment of a cluster functioning, with the activity of the cluster’s subjects, and with the work of public authorities. 
Sokolov M. - Theoretical and applicative aspects of fight against corruption: Russian and foreign experience pp. 15-26


Abstract: The author of the study considers theoretical and applicative aspects of preventing and fighting against corruption both in Russia and abroad. The research object is the system of relations between public authorities, business, and society in combating corruption. The research subject covers the processes of development and introduction of new instruments and mechanisms of preventing corruption. Special attention is paid to the experience of combating corruption in the BRICS countries, and to the issues of effective use of information and telecommunications technologies in this sphere. The research methodology is based on the analysis of international studies, and the ratings of organizations involved in the system researches of fight against corruption.  The synthesis of practices of legal regulation in this sphere, and the detection of the basic corruption origins in foreign states, the detection of the negative socio-economic, political, and ethical consequences, endangering the state’s sustainable development capacities, are the basis for the development of recommendations about forming intolerant attitude towards corruption in the society. Bearing in mind that, being an integral part of social life, corruption adapts to its development and acquires new forms, the novelty of the paper lies in studying the problem of forming a complex understanding of this phenomenon in the society, and detecting the new directions, mechanisms, and instruments of combating corruption. 
Andreev A.F., Yagolovich I.I. - Comparative analysis of legal regulation of anti-terrorist operations in Ukraine in 2014 and the measures of the constitutional order and legality restoration in the Chechen Republic in 1994 pp. 27-42


Abstract: The research subject is the legal grounds and the procedure of application of government coercive measures using armed forces for the purpose of the country’s territorial integrity provision, the case of the legislation of Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The author studies the constitutional and legal models of armed protection of the state territory from internal threats for the purpose of differentiating legal regulation of forms, means, and methods of activities of armed forces determined by the peculiarities of national legal systems taking into account the states’ obligations in the sphere of international humanitarian law. The author applies the following research methods: analysis, synthesis, the concrete historical, system-structural, formal-logical, theoretical and prognostic methods, and the legal provisions interpreting. The scientific novelty of the study is conditioned by its contribution to the development of the theory of law of armed conflicts and the science of constitutional law. The author concludes that the actions of the illegitimate Kyiv regime, whose actual authority applied only within the bounds of Kyiv, were aimed at the protection of the regime itself and its legitimization in the southeast regions of Ukraine via enforcement. Unlike the Ukrainian conflict, the actions of Russian authorities in the Russian territorial subject – the Chechen Republic – were aimed at the preservation of territorial integrity of the Russian state with due regard to the right to self-determination. 
Shumitskaya E.V. - Threats to domestic security of Bulgaria and Romania pp. 32-40


Abstract: The subject of this research is the main security concerns of Bulgaria and Romania. The author believes that the biggest threat for these countries presents the challenges of domestic security, turning particular attention to corruption and out-migration of population. The article examines the European policy called to improve the situation in Bulgaria and Romania, methods of counteracting the aforementioned issues on the national level, as well as analyzes the causes of failure of anticorruption policy in both countries. The authors lean not only on the reports of political institutions, but also analyzes the statistical data. The conclusion is made that the rapid implementation of laws alongside procedures and institutions of the European Union did not give rise to the establishment of an effective legal and institutional framework in the countries in question. Measures of pressuring and incentivizing used by the European Union also have not yielded significant results. In the area of security and justice, the European integration of both countries had a greater impact on the rates rather than the quality of transformation.  
Zherebchikov D.P. - Crimes against the state and public order in the towns of Tambov province of Russia in the late 19th Ц the early 20th centuries pp. 59-79


Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the categories of crime in the Russian Empire of the post-reform period of the late 19th – the early 20th centuries – crimes against the state and public order, including a wide range of illegal deeds. The article considers the most widespread crimes against the religion, the state and the society, which had taken place in the provincial towns of Tambov region, namely, various official malfeasances, crimes against the public order and morality, coinage offence and crimes against the Orthodox faith and the church. The methodology of the research is based on the synthesis of the main modern history approaches (microhistorical analysis, local context, gender specificity), and is of a multidisciplinary character (sociology of deviant behavior, historical psychology). The author concludes that the level of dissemination of crimes against the state and public order was higher in towns than in villages; the legal culture and the legal conscience of citizens was influenced by the traditional law within the traditional behavioral guidelines. 
Zelenkov M. - Dysfunctional factors of religion as a source of extremism pp. 66-77


Abstract: The subject of this research is the dysfunctional factors attributable to religion as a social phenomenon. Based on the results of studying the role of religious worldview in the past and current confrontations between different confessions in the history of human civilization, the author sets a goal to determine and substantiate the religious factors, which manifestation carries destructive consequences for the society. The theoretical framework is comprises of the works on extremism and religious topic, results of sociological surveys, and statistical data. Special role is assigned to analysis of the text of Holy books of the traditional confessions of Russia, as well as practical examples of manifestation of religious extremism. The author leans not only on the unified, but also alternative theoretical approaches and on conclusions. Application of the historical and systemic methods allowed tracing the occurrences of religious extremism throughout the history of humanity. Gnoseological potential of sociological methods of quantitative and qualitative research allowed adequately interpreting the practical examples of religious extremism in the world. The author also uses the method of content analysis of the Holy religious books and mass media. It is concluded that each world and national religion has a number of dysfunctional factors, which under the influence of certain external and internal conditions upon their adepts, may form intolerance towards the representatives of other religion and manifest in the extremist views and actions.
Shabunova A.A., Dement'eva I.N., Egorov V.K. - The general and the particular of the regionТs social stability (Vologda oblast case-study) pp. 110-158


Abstract: The subject of the research is protest moods of Vologda oblast inhabitants as a potential threat to social stability. The article presents the dynamics of protest potential in the period of 2000 – 2014 and the peculiarities of protest moods in various socio-demographic and income groups of population. The authors analyze socio-economic and socio-political factors determining the formation of protest moods. The authors define the conditions for social tension decrease and prevention of latent dissatisfaction spill over into disorders and disturbances. The research is based on the data of a regular public opinion monitoring held by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences on the Territory of Vologda oblast since 1995.The surveys are carried out 6 times p.a. Each survey covers 1500 respondents in Vologda and Cherepovets and in 8 regions of the oblast. The authors come to the following conclusions:-         The average protest potential of Vologda oblast inhabitants in 2014 was 19%-         Risk groups include the population aged 30-35 and older from the poorest 20% of the population, inhabitants of Cherepovets. The protest potential of these categories exceeds the average rate of the oblast;-         The main determinants of a potential protest activity in the region are the negative socio-political moods caused by the disapproval of the authorities’ actions; socio-economic indicators reflecting the inhabitants’ dissatisfaction with the material conditions and the general economic situation in the country and the region; social well-being of the population which includes social patience and emotional and psychological condition;-         A low but stable level of protest potential in the region has a reserve of “combustible” material which bears a potential threat to social stability of the regional society.The regular studies of many years allow the authors to conclude that the main precondition of social tension decrease, prevention of latent dissatisfaction spill over into disorders and disturbances, and, thus, provision of social stability is the optimization of public authorities of all levels (federal, regional, municipal), enhancement of their efficiency in the solution of socio-economic problems and in the control over the implementation of the principle of equal protection of the law.One of the main sources of these goals achievement is active cooperation of the state and the society through the mediation of social sciences: economics, political science, social psychology, history and sociology. With government order sociological researches can provide all branches of state authority with reliable, timely and sufficient information about the processes in different spheres of social life.Empirical sociological researches are one of the most efficient ways of social tension detection and measurement. The study of public opinion of regional population gives the opportunity to ascertain the general and the local factors and reasons of social tension, to reveal the powers of various social subjects, to point out the actions and events encouraging escalation of social tension in order to find possible ways and mechanisms of its regulation and management. The novelty of the research lies in the use of the data of a long-term, regular and complex monitoring of public opinion by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of Russian Academy of Sciences, which is one of few institutions carrying out sociological researches on regional level. The present study provides continuous time series which allow analyzing the specificity of public moods in regional society. 
Vasnetsova A.S. - Armed criminal action: evaluations, characteristics and the questions of prevention pp. 115-136


Abstract: The article considers the issue of armed criminal actions and their prevention. The author informs about a wide range of problems which the theorists and practical persons face with in the sphere if armed criminal actions prevention. This kind of crime is considered by the author as a distinct and the most dangerous one, with its own specificity. The author suggests the classification of kinds of armed criminal actions. Special attention is paid to the issues of armed crimes prevention and the legal regime of weapons trafficking. The author uses the results of study of criminal cases on armed criminal actions. The methodology of the research is based on the methods of transition from abstract to concrete, construction of hypothesis, the system-structural analysis, the historical method, comparison and dynamical and statistical methods.The scientific originality of the research consists of the fact that armed criminal action is presented as a detached system-structural phenomenon. The author singles out its types and groups in a certain historical situation. The research provides the most probable variants of development of the criminal situation connected with armed crimes. It suggests preventive measures against armed crimes and weapons trafficking. 
Chirkov D.K., ., ., . - Rural crime in Russia: modern tendencies and countermeasures. pp. 155-222


Abstract: The article substantiates the topicality of the problem of studying crime in rural areas, which is defined, on one hand, by complicated character of criminal situation in villages, and topicality of problems of organizing countermeasures against crime and its prevention, and on the other hand, by the lack of studies of the criminological issues in the sphere of rural crime. The number of cases involving death or grievous harm to health of village people by criminal attacks is especially alarming to one studying rural crime.  The number of deaths of people due to crime in rural areas in Russia remains the same in last three years, and it is over two times larger than the same criterion for the city crime, and one and a half times larger for causing grievous harm to health of people. The authors of the article point out the complicated character of criminal situation in the villages. The tendency for the lesser registered crimes in the rural areas in 2009 to 2012 does not reflect the real situation, since it is artificially formed in last several years by lowering statistical data. In this article the authors analyze the situation and tendencies in rural crime. The methods employed include following from abstract to specific, systemic structural and comparative analysis, historic method, dynamic and statistical methods, as well as specific sociological methods for the evaluation of rural crime. The scientific novelty is due to establishing the fact that the level of rural crime is higher than city crime.  Additionally, the crimes in rural area become especially troublesome due to the scale and amount of deaths of village people and causing grievous harm to their health.  The number of deaths of people due to crime in rural areas in Russia remains the same in last three years, and it is over two times larger than the same criterion for the city crime, and one and a half times larger for causing grievous harm to health of people.
Volokh V.A. - Migration Policy: Readmission as an Efficient Instrument of Illegal Migration Management pp. 255-270
Abstract: Over the past few years the migration issue has become a stable and usual priority in the agenda of the global community. Illegal migration, i.e. entry and stay in a country in defiance of the established order, remains one of the most nettlesome issues of modern times. It is illegal migration which comes to the first place among other challenges and threats today. Obviously, it is impossible to handle the situation using the old approaches. The author of the article suggests new efficient methods of interstate interactions for the purpose of returning illegal migrants to their native land. The author also describes the main mechanisms of readmission and analyzes the modern state of the institution of readmission in the Russian Federation. The author also underlines the main factors necessary for implementation of readmission responsibilities and suggests further ways of developing this institution. Based on the author, readmission is an efficient instrument of illegal migration management that would contribute to the national security. 
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