Security Issues - rubric Informational support of national security
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Informational support of national security
Abazov K.M. - Using Modern Information and Communication Technology by International Terrorist Organizations pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of the research is information and communication technology that can be used by today's international terrorist organizations for their purposes. The author of the article focuses on the main means that are used by today's terrorist organizations on the Internet: propaganda (including radicalization, recruiting and terrorist instigation), financing (crowdfunding and others) and computer attacks. The authors also analyze the main documents (conventions and resolutions) of the Council of Europe and United Nations Security Council. To analyze the problem, the author has used the systems approach and comparative methods as well as analysis of international law documents. To make conclusions, the author has used the method of synthesis. The scientifiс novelty of the research is caused by the importance of fight against international terrorist organizations for many states and countries. This problem cannot be solved by each country individually, without cooperation and mutual efforts. To solve the problem, the author suggests to create legal mechanisms and sign an international treaty that would contribute to fighting against terrorist organizations in the cyber space. 
Karpov G. - Identity of Migrants as the National Security Factor (the Case Study of Africans Residing in the Great Britain) pp. 1-24


Abstract: Today's West is facing transformation of migrants' identity as part of migration processes and socio-political changes. Incomers often develop identity that do not correspond or even contradict to the rules and traditions of the host society. Over the last decade the Great Britain has been encountering the problem of migrants' identification as a nettlesome and important issue for both indoor and outdoor security of the country. In this article Karpov analyzes the identify of Africans who migrated to and reside in the Great Britain today. He focuses on historical prerequisites of their identity, ideological and philosophical basis thereof, common features of all African migrants and specific features of individual African diaspores. The main research method used by the author is the historical review. Karpov has also applied analytical, statistical and comparative methods combined with the elements of synthesis and value-based approach. The scientific novelty of the research is caused by the coverage and depth of the research. The key features of British Africans' identity include collegiality, religiousity, aloofness and desire to preserve languages and culture of their motherland. African diaspores living in the Great Britain have their own opinion on what is legal or illegal, right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate. Some communities may be even hostile towards one another and the English community. According to the author, the British government themselves created conditions for the development of such specific features of migrants in the colonial and post-colonial eras. Taking into account the reducing number of the native population, the Great Britain is now facing a serious challenge. 
Ovchinskii A.S., Shmonin A.V., Toropov B.A., Vasil'ev F.P. - Criminal environment of digital world as a threat to cybersecurity pp. 9-15


Abstract: This article attempts to broaden the modern representations on criminal environment existing in the conditions of globalization and digitalization of virtually all spheres of human and social life. Special attention is paid to the reference frame of current criminal activities. The authors examine the conditions and factors associated with extensive development and proliferation of information technologies and accompanying the emergence, advancement and self-organization of criminality. Positive foreign experience in the area of counteracting cyber threats and criminalization of cyberspace is reviewed. The authors lean on the achievements of Soviet criminology and scientific representations of the criminal environment. Systematization and generalization of the traditional criminological perceptions on criminal activities in light of the current trends in the area of total informatization of the society allow describing and getting deeper understanding of the essence and structure of modern criminality on the new methodological level. This in turn, creates theoretical and methodological platform for the development of measures on counteracting criminal cyber threats.   
Malitsky K.T. - Indexes of Security and Socio-Political Tension and Their Visualization Software pp. 13-31


Abstract: In this article Malitsky analyzes approaches of various organizations and structures to the research of social, economic and other spheres of social life by defining their indexes and dynamic patterns that are sometimes used by state authorities in the decision making process. The author analyzes activities performed by survey centres, and indexes and indicators used by them as well as their approach to development of such indicators. The author also touches upon the data accumulated and annually published by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service on development of regions security indexes. As a result of his analysis of the methods and grounds of the state authorities' decision making process in the spheres of social and economic development as well as evaluation of the socio-political situation in the Russian Federation constituents, the author makes a conclusion about existing problems in the sphere of systemic study of the social tension in the country's regions. The author of the article focuses on the process of visualiztion of Russia's regions indicators and whether it is possible to create a special software that would operate on the basis of a selectable platform of geo information systems and certain criteria. In his research Malitsky provides the results of his calculations based on one security model and software prototype. 
Yablochkin A.S., Koshkin A.P. - Peculiarities of the national policy of information security in the conditions of globalization pp. 16-31


Abstract: Currently, there is certain tension between the concept of transparency of state administration and the need for protection of socially important information. The article examines which types of information are protected by the government for the reasons of national security, as well as which arguments are used in this regard. As a results of studying national strategies in the area of information security, it becomes clear that the governments seek to restrict the information flows due to various reason, which at times do no align with the type of political regime in the country. Content analysis of the Russian and foreign legislative acts is provided. The research results testify to the fact that the democracies alongside authoritarian countries may restricts same types of information problems. The policy and political decision depend on multiple actors, as well who has most influence at the moment, which most often leads to gradual changes in the state information policy and mechanisms of its implementation.
Gritsan A.V. - Media Culture Transformation Threats Against the Rapid Growth of Information Volumes and Global Spread of Information and Communication Technologies pp. 19-29


Abstract: The present article is devoted to global transformations of media culture as a result of the growing media space and standartization of cultural images. The author of the article deines actual threats to national security that result from ongoing changes. The author pays special attention to the process of diversification of information flows and prevailing role of western goods on the world information market. Gritsan describes specific features of such tendencies and changes in modern Russia. The aim of the research is to define prerequisites, causes and particularities of the media culture crisis as well as associated threats. The methodological basis of the research involves the value analysis method, anthropological and structural functional analysis, and general research methods. The results of the research prove the concern regarding global transformation of media culture that promote consumer style of life. The author of the article summarizes opinions on current changes in the media culture, gives an evaluation of the modern period of information space development and focuses on the relevant position of Russia on the matter. This article presents an interdisciplinary research that has important practical results. The results of the research can be used by state authorities to develop efficient media policy. 
Lebedeva E.V. - The role of information and psychological component within the structure of information security of the Russian Federation pp. 20-26


Abstract: The research subject of the article is Russia’s information policy; the research object is its psychological component within the structure of Russia’s information security. The author formulates and solves the following research tasks: to analyze the official documents related to information security of the state; to consider the developments in the sphere of Russia’s foreign policy from the position of psychological resources application. The research methodology contains the system approach allowing the author to assess the dynamics of the psychological component’s impact on the system of Russia’s information security. The historical and comparative method, analysis, synthesis, and the logical method help to study the subject field as a complex of all processes, phenomena, and tendencies in the light of their peculiarities and specifics. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the most important developments of Russia’s foreign policy since the early 2000s from the position of use of psychological resources, and in the assessment of Russia’s contemporary information policy. The author’s conclusions about the possibilities of the psychological component’s impact on the state’s security are significant. 
Akopov G.L. - Hacktivism in the process of information and political conflicts. pp. 24-32


Abstract: Politically opinionated hackers were activated due to the tension in the political situation in Ukraine.  The author studied the activities of the hacktivists in the process of opposition between the West and Russia. In the Internet community the actions of computer hackers are more and more often of political character, and they may serve as significant means of influence upon the information processes for the purposes of political extremists and informational political raiders. It is very important for the information guarantees of national security to take into account the possible "cyber-warfare" threats, if the "cyber-terrorist" groups controlled by the intelligence services or extremist organizations of various types.  The methodological basis for the studies  are predefined both by its character and by the conceptual approach and scientific position of the author. Special attention is paid to the content analysis of the mass media. The defining research principles include objectivity, systemic character, comprehensive study, historicism.  The means of information opposition in political conflicts and local wars exist and they actively used and the real threats of cyber-wars arise.
Baltaev R.K., Lunegov I.V. - The algorithm of data embedding and retrieving from stationary digital images, resistant to passive steganoanalytic attacks pp. 24-35


Abstract: The research subject is the steganographic methods of information protection. There are two key ways to protect information – cryptographic and steganographic. Cryptographic methods conceal only the contents of the transmitted information. At that, the fact of transmission of the codified data can draw the attention of an intruder who can use the successful cryptographic attacks, aimed at the loss of confidentiality. Steganographic methods hide not only the contents of the information sent, but also the very fact of sending. Steganography and cryptography are complementary methods, which, used together, can significantly increase the safety of the transmitted data. Therefore, it is necessary to develop not only cryptographic, but also steganographic methods of data protection, which should be resistant to the detection of the process of sending. The research methodology contains the passive methods of analysis of detection of the information, embedded in the image, including statistical and visual methods. The novelty of the study consists in the development of the steganographic system of data protection on the base of the proposed original algorithm of embedding the information by the coverage of the image block in lines and columns. The authors demonstrate that this steganographic system maintains its resistance to passive steganoanalytic attacks when the blocks up to 24x24 pixels are covered, and with this coverage degree it is more resistant than the standard and the advanced steganographic methods based on the direct spectrum broadening. 
Zaitsev A.V. - PR-management and dialogic communication management: from theory to practice pp. 25-32


Abstract: The research subject is the problem of management of the dialogic model of public relations in the sphere of political communications between state and civil society. The author considers the main clusters of dialogue, which help passing from conflict types of discourse to more constructive types of communication. Special attention is given to the topicality of this problem from the position of the Public safety doctrine (2016). Dialogic communications help make Russia’s public policy mutually beneficial. The main research methods are the system approach, discourse-analysis and social risks management. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the need for targeted management of public relations on the basis of differentiation of dialogic interactions and establishment of trust relationships between all the participants of communication. This dialogic PR-technology will help increase the level of public safety and harmonize the sphere of public policy. 
Emel'yanov A.S. - The Cassandra Effect in the Process of Fast Decision Making: Logical Semantic Interpretation pp. 25-46


Abstract: The academic literature describes the process of making fast decisions in situations of uncertainty as alogical and with irrational mechanisms of decision making. The same tendency can be discovered in works by D. Kanemman, A. Tversky and R. Tyler. However, today the question about the influence of the logical form of language (disinformation, logical probability or logical contradiction) on the decision making process has not been answered. The aim of this research is to discover the relationship between semantic disinformation and making fast or slow decisions. The authors have conducted two experiments for this purpose. In the first experiment they analyzed the influence of the volume of semantic disinformation on the process of fast decision making. In the second experiment they analyzed the influence of semantic disinformation on the process of slow decision making. In his research Emelyanov has used the methods of statistical processing of data (unilateral variance analysis, correlation and regression analysis) as well as logical semantic analysis of the informational content. The following hypotheses have been made and proved in the course of this research: 1) there is a negative correlation between logical competence and mechanisms of classical rationality in the process of fast decision making; 2) there is a positive correlation between the time of decision and the level of logical competence of respondents in the course of the slow decision making. The results of the research demonstrate the heuristic and behavioral mechanisms of two types of decisions in situations of uncertainty as well as help develop tools for processing the semantic informational content. 
Komarov A.A. - Legal regulation of the Internet for the prevention of crimes against children pp. 28-48


Abstract: The object of the research is the range of social relations emerging in the process of ensuring sustainable moral development of children in the Russian Federation.The subject of the research is the influence of information and communication technologies on young people. The author studies the computer technologies influence on children and describes the examples of foreign approaches to the regulation of freedom of information exchange by means of the modern telecommunication technologies. The article studies the particular examples of foreign legislation, aimed at the prevention of offences involving modern means of communication.  In order to solve the tasks of the research, the author applies the set of methods of the contemporary science. The author applies statistical analysis of the information about the condition of social relations, involving children, in the Internet. He uses the comparative method for the systematization of methods of legal regulation, applied in the Russian and foreign lawmaking. The main result of the work is the systematized set of ideas about the methods of legal regulation of social relations, involving children, in the Internet in various countries of the world. The author outlines the ways of legal regulation of the national segment of the Internet in Russia; offers the ways of international cooperation on the issues of mutual legal assistance in the sphere of Internet law. 
Baranov V.V. - Regarding the Question about Improving Information and Methodological Support of the Department of Internal Affairs' Activity in the Process of Psycho-Linguistic Examination of Texts Related to Extremism Countering on the Global Computer Network pp. 30-35


Abstract: In his article Baranov focuses on the main problems that may arise in the process of psycho-linguistic examination (or primary expert evaluation) of texts related to extremism countering on the global computer network and offers his own solutions of these problems. In addition, the author also reveals the main aspects of improving information and methodological support of the Department of Internal Affairs' activity in the process of aforesaid examinations. The author offers measures and ways of improving the methodological basis of all kinds of judicial expertises which will allow to raise the quality of professional activity of linguistic experts and considerably reduce the number of extremism cases the Department of Internal Affairs is now burdened with. 
Kobets P.N. - On the need to struggle against the key factors, promoting dissemination of extremist ideas in social networks, as an element of national security provision pp. 36-45


Abstract: The article contains the analysis of the key factors, promoting the dissemination of extremist ideas on the Internet, and the measures, which could help struggle against them. Special attention is given to the study of the circumstances and consequences of use of information technologies by extremist criminal groups. The author studies the problems of use of social networks by extremist groups for revolutionary propaganda, recruiting, training, fundraising, communication and target-setting for a strike. The research methodology is based on the elements of social networks analysis. The author also uses various general scientific approaches and ways of logical cognition: analysis and synthesis, abstraction, modeling, the formal-logical approach, comparative and express analysis. The author concludes that extremists use social networks for various purposes: firstly, for communication with other criminal groups and individual supporters of such ideas; secondly, for dissemination of ideas through direct recruiting of potential participants of extremist activity or manipulation of collective consciousness. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the author’s conclusion that despite the active struggle against extremism on the Internet, the question of its effectiveness is still open. To successfully solve the task of struggle against extremism, the whole range of complex measures should be taken, including effective social policy, formation of a well-thought system of political education for young people, creation of a socio-oriented legal system. This study can be used as a theoretical source and as a guide for action. Its results can be used by law-enforcement agencies for the struggle against extremism in social networks. 
Kamenetsky E.S., Basaeva E.K. - On the one method of predicting an irregular change of power pp. 38-47


Abstract: This article examines the potential precursors for an irregular change of power (coup, revolution, impeachment, etc.) for the purpose of its possible forecasting. It is assumed that several years prior to an irregular change of power, tension of the elite should increase. The elite tension is assessed by public tension using the previously developed mathematical model. The latter is determined using the normalized homicide rate as an indicator. The article examines 14 cases of irregular change of power in the eleven countries. Identical values of the constants of model were applied to all countries for more detailed forecasting formalization. In ten out of fourteen cases, the estimates of tension of the elite obtained by the proposed method, demonstrate noticeable increase (by more than 10%) in five years preceding the change of power, or two significant run-ups n tension of the elite over same five years Implementation of such approach allowed to accurately predict an untimely change of power in 71% of the considered cases The proposed method, along with other existing methods, may be valuable for predicting the political crises that are highly likely to end in the irregular change of power.
Surma I.V. - Common information space of the CIS: 20 years later pp. 41-58


Abstract: The object of the research is the problem of formation of the Common Information Space of the CIS in the light of the recent events in Ukraine and Moldova. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the main factors, impeding the creation of the current Common Information Space of the CIS and the use of the Russian language as the main integrative factor in solving the problem of creating a single information field. The author notes that the current level of integration in the information field of the post-Soviet space is still low and is not in line with the objectives of protecting national security of the newly independent states. Based on the results of the comparative and the content analysis, the author considers the mechanism of information influence, which combines three functional levels: external, internal and technological. The main conclusion of the study is the idea that the existing geopolitical situation in the world and in the post-Soviet space, connected with the transition from the global model with a single center of power to a decentralized global model, requires a revision of the outdated and not fully implemented Concept of forming the information space of the CIS.
Kostin A., Zhigulin G. - Efficiency assessment model of the information protection system of the remote financial document management system pp. 55-61


Abstract: The research subject is the remote financial document management system. It has been introduced in 2013 to replace the former electronic document management system. It is necessary to analyze this system in order to detect threats and construct a model, which would take into account the system’s protection and its ability to resist security threats. This model should take into account many vulnerabilities and the obstacles, which in an ideal information protection system completely isolate all the threats. The authors use the formal information protection model, which includes five sets helping calculate the system’s efficiency. The scientific novelty consists in the consideration of efficiency assessment of the information protection system in the remote financial document management system. The authors construct the graphs modes of the information protection system, which takes into account its vulnerabilities. The authors define the elements of efficiency assessment of the information protection system of the remote financial document management system and demonstrate the formula of efficiency assessment. 
Popov V.V. - Information as a factor of influence on the political life of a society (socio-cultural aspect) pp. 68-97


Abstract: The subject of the research is "information". This notion is a base for the modern civilization development. In a modern global world information is an accelerant of political, social, and economic processes, it causes worsening of socio-political relations in countries and regions. The amount of conflicts has risen in the information age, they are widely covered in the Mass Media, and fine a broad response among various social strata. A huge information scope undermines social structures and transfers the conflict into the manifest stage. The war of all against all develops in the society. In this relation the essense of "information" notion gains the key importance for the definition of measures of the social and state security system. The methodology of the research is based on the system approach. The study of information is possible only providing the use of the concepts of certain scientific fields. The main conclusions are made on the base of inductive and deductive methods. The main results include the identification of dependence of a society on the forming information flows oriented to particular consumers. Information doesn't have any energy or volitional meaning, it only transmits the event and its interpretation, and the receiving subject adds all the rest - the resourses, the will and the force, and becomes the physical bearer, the executor and the retransmitter of this information. In fact, a serious political crisis can be organized without any expenses, using only the right aspect of information. Information is especially sharp in terms of religious contradictions. Religious contradictions heighten political, social and economic problems. 
Chvyakin V.A. - Medical and pedagogical training of population for actions in emergency situations pp. 68-75


Abstract: The subject of this research is the system of measures for scientific substantiation of medical and pedagogical training of population for actions in emergency situations. The author examines such aspects of the topic as the scientific substantiation of measures of medical and pedagogical training of population aimed at the development of rational behavior in emergency situations. Attention is focused on the need for elaboration of questions for ensuring active and appropriate behavior of people affected in order to preserve their own lives and health. Readiness of the person depends on their ability to prepare for rational actions under the aggravated external circumstances. Research methodology leans on the determination theory of medicine, which serves as a platform for studying multiple vectors of emergency medicine. The scientific novelty of this work consists in substantiation of the medical-pedagogical approach as the basis of a complex of preventive measures for increasing capacity of life support in the context of factors of extreme determination. Such training is complies with methodology of rendering medical assistance to the population in the conditions of emergency situations; and is a part of such measures as conduct of special tactical trainings (preparation of equipment and gear; simulation of the flow of suffered and injured, skill training on rendering aid; examination of reliability of the shelter, effective interaction with different services, etc).
Vladimirova T.V. - On the social nature of the term "information security" pp. 78-95


Abstract: The author connects the topicality of defining information security with the specific features of modernity.  On one hand, the author analyzes the traditional definitions of information security. On the other hand, she evaluates the security challenges in the modern society through the prism of growing intensity of information streams and outdating information. The author offers to develop the understanding of information security from the standpoint of sociological knowledge.  She provides an approach towards structuring the information environment as well as to the attitude towards information security in its broad and narrow meanings.  In the broad sense information security of a subject is regarded as security in the conditions of actual social reality (in the conditions of real society). In the narrow sense information security provides guarantees of social practices in the information environment in the conditions of growing intensity of information streams and outdating information
Vladimirova T.V. - On guaranteeing information security in the cyber-space. pp. 132-157


Abstract: Growing intentsity of information streams and the fast outdating of the information form new threats and challenges, whie multiplying the existing ones. The risks and threats are formed by the presence/absence of the information  and growing speed of outdating of the information. The society and its subjects form new social practices for self-preservation, including those in the virtual cyber-space. Such social practices are called network practices of information security guarantees. Their specificities form the object of the said study. The studies of the network information security practices are related to the analysis of the networ character of modern communications, analysis of the social networks, network principle of organization of the cyber-space. It includes the problem of information security guarantees through the prism of virtualization of social processes.  The author also uses the theory of network socialization, demonstrating the links between the social practices and communications in the conditions of various intensity of social interaction. Novelty of the study is due to uncovering the specificities of the security practices in the Internet. The security practices in the Internet are defined by their functional meaning, and not by the place, where the actors are situated.  The normal social practice involves formation of personal micro-networks. The security practices are due to the cloning quality of the elements of network and their variability.  Various forms of limiting social areas in the Web provide for various security practices, which correspond to the institutional space, areas of private and situative interaction, sphere of social network with its "relative sociality" and the "anti-social" streams (D.V. Ivanov). Information security may be guaranteed with the practices of cultivating the "temporal gaps" and (or) practices of "overcoming the gaps" in information protection and protection from the information. Normal security practices include "freedom of risk" and "comfortable security". Cyberspace is regarded as an area for "comforable anomia", where comfort is guaranteed by peace and security of the body, anonimity of the subject.  The situation of "confortable anomia" of the actor causes excess of information and growth of the "rapture"  between virtual and actual  matters, influencing the relative character of the network security practices. Network information security practices are due to the "burden of mobility". As a theoretical and methodological perspective for the studies of the term, the information security is interpreted as speed, knowledge and game, where game is protection of information and protection from the information.
Zhukov G. - Program for calculating a probability of failure-free operation of the system of information protection pp. 138-143


Abstract: Electronic computers and information technologies are used in almost all areas of human activity. The object of the research is information. The subject of the article is protection of information. The problem of information protection is the assessment of the effectiveness of trouble-free operation of the system of information protection. In assessing the effectiveness of information security systems the three approaches are used: classical, formal, and experimental. Programming is actively used in information technologies, being the basis of infware of the national security. The author describes the program of calculation of a probability of failure-free operation of the system of information protection. The research methodology is based on object - oriented programming. The application program is developed in the programming environment Delphi 7. The author presents a new application which is of practical importance in computer-aided design. Dialog boxes in the program allow the user to interactively enter the initial data for calculation and automatically get the numeric values of a probability of failure-free operation of the system of information protection. The calculation program can be used in project activities, automating the computational process, in the operation of information security systems for assessing their effectiveness.
Slezin A.A., . - Military Propaganda in the Provinces in 1930's as a Tool of USSR National Security pp. 153-187
Abstract: Based on the supposition that the starting point of military propaganda was the national socialists' coming to power in Germany, the authors of the article studied provincial print media, scenarios of parades, demonstrations and different festive activities. Patriotism and deliberate creation of the 'image of enemy' are viewed as the main goals of the policy aimed at increasing the defensive capacity of the country. Based on the author, Soviet military propaganda for the purposes of increasing the country's defensive capacity was quite successful. 
Chirkov D.K., . - High techology crime: tendencies and perspectives pp. 160-181


Abstract: The article includes general criminologic characteristics of crimes in the sphere of telecommunications and computer information, the authors provide for the dynamics of development of such crimes for the period since 2009 to 2012 in comparison to the number of Internet users for the same period. In the latest decade the Internet became a virtual space, where people may express their ideas, get involved in social activities, etc. Currently the Internet networks play an important roles in our communications. We transfer money via computers, cash dispensers, and electronic payment system, we set the routes, look for good restaurants, find out what movie we should watch, and all of these actions depend on information technolgies. Many Internet users are attacked by cybercriminals. The above-mentioned problems are discussed in this article. The article may be useful for the officers of the law-enforcement bodies working with high-technology crimes.
Sedykh N.S. - Terrorism as a Part of Information and Psychological Threats of Modern Age pp. 182-212
Abstract: The article analyzes terrorism as an information and psychological threat. The author analyzes mass media as a discursive system and their role in social construction of the terrorism phenomena. The author suggests methods of studying peculiarities of information and psychological influence of mass media messages about terrorism for the purpose of organization of efficient information and psychological reponse. 
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