Security Issues - rubric Globalization and national security
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Globalization and national security
Zverev P.G. - Civil war in Liberia and peacekeeping in Africa pp. 1-23


Abstract: The article examines peacekeeping activities in Africa on the example of the UN cooperation with a number of African regional organisations – the AU (OAU), ECOWAS, and SADC. Special attention is paid to the peacemaking efforts of the international community to resolve the armed conflict in Liberia, which began in 1989. It is noted that after the “cold war” conflicts in Africa began to play a major role in the definition of the parameters and capabilities of the UN peacekeeping missions. Reasons of unsuccessful activities of UNOMIL in the 1990s, with an emphasis on its rivalry with the ECOMOG regional peacekeeping force are analyzed. The article presents the opinions of reputed researchers on the issues of peacekeeping in Africa. The purpose of this study is to determine the role and place of regional peacekeeping in the overall peacekeeping paradigm of the XXI century.The research is based on a combination of specific historical, comparative-legal, formal-legal and political-legal methods.The main conclusions of the research are the following: 1) there is a contradiction between the obligation of the UN to hold a leading role in maintaining peace and security in Africa and political realities that require regional organizations to play a central role in a number of conflicts due to the lack of the UN’s international political will, aimed at responding effectively; 2) peacekeeping of regional organizations and the UN is complementary, but the former need the strong political and financial support of its member States as well as of the international community. The novelty of the research is in the fact that it is for the first time in the Russian doctrine of international law the issues of African regional peacekeeping on the example of the Liberian conflict peace resolution are closely examined.
Rusanov V.V. - Multiculturalism crisis in the context of legal anthropology pp. 1-12


Abstract: The author of the article considers the crisis of the age of multiculturalism, the destructive effects of globalization, the failure of the West European model of public conscience and the state “melting pot” policy. The author analyzes the typologies of nationalism and criticizes the interpretations of liberal nationalism. The paper considers the ethnic and cultural unification on the territory of Europe and Russia. The author concludes about the difficulties of integration of representatives of various ethnic groups in the circumstances of deformation of cultural and legal values. Along with general scientific methods, the author applies the principles and methods of sociology of law, philosophy of law and legal conflictology. Analyzing ethno-cultural dimensions of legal anthropology, the author applies various theories of ethnic psychology, the methods and approaches of political, cultural and philosophical anthropology and ethnology. Special scientific methods of legal science are used for the analysis of the subject of legal anthropology from the position of comparative jurisprudence and formal-dogmatic comprehension of law. The main contribution of the author is the critical rethinking of the typology of nationalism and the constructive critics of the model of multicultural society and “melting pot”. The author comes to the conclusion about the importance of law as a social regulator, aimed at the creation of new psychological impulses of behavior, and the inefficiency of integration processes in the conditions of the modern globalization. 
Ledeneva M.V. - Globalisation and neo-colonialism: how to get rid of dependence? pp. 1-16


Abstract: The article focuses on the processes of globalization and the forming contemporary system of global neo-colonialism. The research subject is the range of economic relations, trends, and the mechanism of redistribution of elements of the national wealth between the countries of the world economic vanguard and periphery. The author considers the methods of redistribution of elements of the national wealth from the neo-colonies to the metropolitan countries. Special attention is paid to the position of Russia in the system of global neo-colonialism. The author offers the ways to save Russia from neo-colonial dependence, suggesting the measures for preventing the national political elite from falling under the influence of the foreign subjects, the main instruments of preservation of the national wealth, and the measures of modernization of the economy. The author applies the theoretical concept of the world-system theory. The author applies the cognitive capacities of the dialectical method within the reproductive, evolutional, and systems approaches to the study of the processes of globalization. To substantiate theoretical provisions and argue the conclusions, the author applies the methods of the subject-object, comparative, and level analysis. The author concludes that in the process of globalization, the system of global neo-colonialism has formed, which involves the countries of the centre and the periphery. The author reveals and describes the modern methods of redistribution of elements of the national wealth between the countries, and offers the ways of getting rid of neo-colonial dependence. 
Zelenkov M., Chemezov N.A. - Dichotomous approach towards poverty and education as sources of terrorism in the XXI century pp. 1-16


Abstract: The subject of this research is the dichotomous approach towards assessment of the impact of poverty and education level of the society upon the growth in the number of terrorist acts in modern world. The author sets a goal based on the results of study of two counterpoising views on the role of the poverty and education levels in the efficiency casting future recruits of terrorist organizations, determine and substantiate the key factors that produce destructive consequence for members of society, including possibility of involvement into terrorist activity. The theoretical base consists of accumulation of scientific works on analysis of the interconnection between the socioeconomic trends and terrorist activity, as well as result of social polling and statistical data. Methodological frameworks Is based on a complex of method, heuristically and gnoseologically justified by the goal and tasks of this work. The article primarily employs comparative and systemic methods, which allowed discovering and comparing the dichotomy of modern scientific studies on this topic. The gnoseological potential of statistical and sociological methods of quantitative and qualitative research allowed to adequately interpret the multi-vector results of scientific research on the same subject of analysis. The results acquired in this research lead to the conclusion that the socioeconomic roots of future terrorists of XXI century play a substantial role in the activity of recruiters of modern terrorist organizations. Poverty, absence of education and subsequent alienation from the society represent the basic catalysts of terrorism, and provide endless supply of young people for modern terrorist organizations.
Lebedeva E.V. - The problem of religious extremism in the CIS member-states in the context of globalization pp. 9-14


Abstract: The issues of safety provision in the societies experiencing economic, social, and political reforms are still urgent nowadays. The research object of the article is extremism dynamics in the transitional societies under the conditions of globalization. The research subject includes the factors leading to extremism development. The task of the study is to detect the factors stimulating the increase of extremism and transforming its mechanisms. For this purpose the author defines the risk factors in the transitional societies and analyzes the reasons promoting extremism development under such conditions. The research methodology is based on the system approach and the comparative-historical method which allow considering the problem of religious extremism development in the CIS member-states as a set of interrelated and interdependent elements in the historical retrospective. The results of the study allow the author to conclude about the peculiarities of development of extremism in the transitional societies experiencing socio-political and economic transformations; about the impact of global processes on the evolution of extremism mechanisms; about the factors which, in terms of the lack of an adequate policy and control, can lead to the increase of threats to the national security. 
Kovalev A.A. - The policy of double standards as a threat to the national security of the Russian Federation pp. 12-24


Abstract: The research subject is the influence of the policy of double standards on the national security of the Russian Federation. The term “policy of double standards” is widely used in the modern political practice. The research purpose is the attempt to estimate the threat of the policy of double standards to the national security of Russia. The author formulates the following research tasks: 1) to ascertain the possibility of precise methodological definition of the “policy of double standards” concept; 2) to offer the author’s definition of the concept; 3) to estimate the role of the policy of double standards in civilizational confrontation; 4) to estimate the role of international law institutions in the implementation of such policy. The research methodology includes the dialectical, historical and logical and historical-comparative methods and the methods of political science (case study, event-analysis, expert assessment). The author finds out that the “double standards” concept can’t be precisely defined due to a wide range of assessments and subjective judgements attributed to this concept; 2) the author offers his own interpretation of the “policy of double standards” concept as an intentionally contradictory and exaggeratedly emotional estimation of one and the same phenomenon of objective reality. The practice of double standards is performed in the situations when the actions of some countries are supported and justified, and the actions of others are condemned and punished, while the essence of these actions is the same. Nowadays, the policy of double standards is the reality of the current civilizational confrontation between the Euro Atlantic and the Eurasian communities. It plays the role of an effective instrument of information, ideological and paradigmatic wars. In the modern epoch of civilizational confrontation, international legal assessment is deliberately subjective. International law becomes an instrument of the policy of double standards. The author concludes that the policy of double standards is an effective instrument of information war of the Western civilization against Russia as a stronghold of the Russian world. This policy is a real threat to Russia’s national security. 
Surma I.V. - The philosophy of security in the current geopolitical context pp. 15-23


Abstract: The research object is the “philosophy of security”, which has recently shifted from a merely theoretical discourse to a more practical sphere. The author considers the neoconservatism ideology in the context of the modern geopolitics and the challenges of international terrorism. At the present time this ideology is espoused in the U.S. by both the Democrats and the Republicans. The author notes that the unprecedented growth of terrorist threat in the world has raised the significance of the discussion about the correlation and symmetry of such categories as “personal freedom”, “state”, “private rights” and “security”. The study is based on the comparative analysis of the political and philosophical ideology of the “global mission” of neocons, using the example of the homeland security protection in the U.S. and the New Left in France. The author notes that the frequency of terrorist acts in Europe and the apparent unpreparedness of European special services to counteract them prove the fact that it is impossible to reverse this terrible trend without the revision of the fundamental social guidelines and ideologies of the ruling elites, the more so because the situation in the world is developing in such a way that “security” becomes a determinant concept, thus making the delegation of powers to the abstract supranational structures undesirable for the population of most countries-members of various international associations. 
Shul'ts V.L., Kul'ba V.V., Shelkov A.B., Chernov I.V. - Scenario analysis in regional security management pp. 41-79


Abstract: The paper is devoted to the methodological and practical problems of regional security management improvement in the context of globalization, intensification of contradictions between the Western countries and Russia, and the instability in the global economic system. The authors analyze the main external and internal threats to regional security; demonstrate the results of analysis of the main peculiarities of regional security management including those related to the Russian regions development disparity. The study considers the main principles of social stability monitoring organization, and the mechanisms of scenario analysis application in a region’s socio-economic development management, and provision of its protection from external and internal threats to social stability. The paper demonstrates the results of the scenario analysis of the developed multigraph model of regional security management and social stability provision in the context of globalization. Problems of regional security management are solved on the base of the methodology of regional security management effectiveness assessment based on the scenario approach and simulation modeling using the set of functional signed graphs. The analysis shows that the main peculiarity of regional security management in the context of globalization is the need for a coordinated solution of two basic sets of tasks: provision of sustainable socio-economic development of a region and its protection from external and internal threats to social stability. The scenario analysis use for regional security management helps detect the threats to social stability, ensure a complex assessment of their prospective danger, and assess the effectiveness of measures of threats prevention. 
bartosh a.a. - Hybrid Warfare Paradigm pp. 44-61


Abstract: The research object is the new elements of modern conflicts connected with globalization and the development of technologies. The research subject is the paradigm of modern conflicts, whose transformation is caused by the tendency connected with the transition from the linear warfare model to the non-linear one, which is based on indirect asymmetric actions.The author considers the aspects of the topic connected with the intensive growth of the use of new strategies, based on the combination of military efforts with political, economic and information methods of influence on the opponent, which are used in the practice of modern conflicts to solve the problems, which have been previously solved mainly by military methods.Based on the comparative analysis of hybrid warfare and color revolutions, the author studies the cascade mechanism of strengthening based on the synergetic impact of hybrid warfare and color revolutions on a state, which is subject to aggression within a uniform operative project.Special attention is given to the peculiarities of hybrid warfare as a non-linear conflict model, based on the use of indirect asymmetric actions, and the impact of such peculiarities on the transformation of the paradigm. The research methodology is based on the system, structural-functional, comparative-political and military analysis, the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction. The author is one the first to attempt to reveal the impact of a non-linear character of hybrid warfare on the strategy and tactics of war, on prognostication and strategic planning.The author studies the concepts of “friction of war” and “lubrication” in relation to hybrid warfare. The author is one of the first to attempt to demonstrate the importance of the concept of “friction of war” for the understanding of hybrid warfare as a sphere of indefinite and unreliable reflection of this phenomenon in the model of war.The author is the first to build the hybrid warfare model reflecting the essential characteristics of a conflict, and to study the potential of combination of the strategies of hybrid warfare and color revolution within a single conflict strategy.The author concludes about the existence of a serious danger for the national interests and security of the Russian Federation coming from the growth of intensity of use of new strategies, based on the combination of military efforts with political, economic and information methods of influence on the opponent, which are used in the practice of modern conflicts to solve the problems, which have been previously solved mainly by military methods.In the context of the problem of Russia’s national security provision, the author demonstrates the necessity to develop a new strategical approach, which would be based on the wide use of adaptive political technologies in the socio-economic and cultural spheres; to improve the potential of military forces and other law enforcement agencies with account for the peculiarities of such conflicts, the appropriate transformation of the national and international normative framework. The author formulates the proposals about the provision of Russia’s national interests and national security in the context of transformation of the modern conflicts paradigm.
Anikin V.I., Abdeev R.F., Surma I.V. - Philosophical aspects of information civilization and modern problems of management in the context of global security pp. 44-54


Abstract: The research subject is the modern problems of management in the context of geopolitical and geo-economic uncertainty. The authors use contemporary philosophy and the conceptual world-view model of development and identity of nature and society in the form of the confluent spiral called the philosophy of the modern civilization. Based on the latest scientific and technical achievements, the authors outline its three most important features: dialectics of spasmodic changes; definite limitedness of the number of the spiral turns, and nonlinearity of development processes. The authors use the model based on the authors’ philosophy of information civilization as a methodology of the contemporary life, which reveals the driving forces and vast opportunities of information technologies. The proposed approaches animate most countries to overcome the crisis; that is very important, because people and society without any modern ideology or uniting ideas are not able to organize and embark further progressive development. 
Zelenkov M. - A set of factors contributing to modern religious terrorism pp. 46-70


Abstract: The object of this research is the religious terrorism. The subject is the factors contributing to this process. Based on the results of systemic analysis of the causes that incite a person towards religious terrorism, the author attempts to determine those that play a fundamental role in this asocial process and conduct their classification. The methodological framework is comprised of retrospective analysis of the scientific and publicistic texts that reveal the essence and content of religious terrorism, socio-psychological characteristics of the extremists. The systemic comprehensive approach allows revealing and substantiating the leading factors in the process of radicalization of an individual, classifying them into three groups, as well as creating a set of key factors encourage a modern person to take the path of becoming a member of the religious terrorist organization. Mathematical model that describes the functionality of such complex is built in accordance with the method of mathematical modelling. The novelty of this work and acquired results are defined by the original approach towards determining the key factors of religious terrorism of the XXI century. The author examines the correlation between these factors within a single structure, which allows to continuously replenish the ranks of religious terrorists.  The developed mathematical model reveals interdependence between the process of joining a religious terrorist organization and the key factors contributing to this action. The acquired results are valuable for the development of anti-terrorist activity in modern world, as well as creating a system of parrying the existential threats to an individual, adequate to the religious terrorism of the XXI century.
Ursul A.D. - Global studies and the security problem pp. 62-87


Abstract: The author analyzes the problem of security in the context of interdisciplinary global studies and the sustainable development concept. The paper considers the problems of interconnection between security and development and the formation of a unified methodology of their researching in the context of extensive interpretation of the problem and the concept of security. The author demonstrates that the sustainable development concept unites preservation (security) and transformation (progressive development) of civilization in a single system in the context of preservation of the environment. Sustainable development in a broad sense is understood as the safest, non-regressive type of evolution, which eliminates or decreases any negative impacts on civilization and biosphere for the purpose of their preservation. The author uses general scientific methods including the complex-interdisciplinary, evolutional-historical and system-global approaches, the methods of conceptual modeling and the studies of the future, particularly, the futurological approach oriented on the research and targeted prognostication of the dynamics of the object under study. The author notes that in the future global world, sustainable development and security will be maintained mainly not by means of protection, but via this type of safe development, thus promoting the establishment of positive and elimination of negative tendencies of global development. The paper considers the theory of securitization, developed within the Copenhagen School of international relations. The author forecasts the formation of two integrative fields of scientific knowledge; one of them will get a global prefix (global securitology) and another will become an interdisciplinary section of global studies (securitological global studies). 
Rabkin S.V. - Economic security as an institutional base for modernization of strategic sectors of economics of Russia and China pp. 63-74


Abstract: Creation of an effective model of modernization of national economy is one of the key prerequisites of the formation of modern guarantees of economic security provision. State regulation of the strategic sectors of economics becomes one of the terms of creation of an integrated model of modernization. The experience of reforms in Russia and China indicates the necessity of a distinct definition and realization of the national priorities of sectoral development. Thereby the modern challenges and threats to the national economic systems can be neutralized by the advance development of the key sectors of economics. Such actions destroy the unipolar model of the world economic relations and create the grounds for a new economic system of mutually beneficial cooperation. On the base of the general methodology of the institution analysis the author comes to the conclusion about a possibility of the transition from the catching-up model of modernization to the integrated one, which is based on the strategic sectors of economics as a “new industry”. The realization of this approach can be considered within the creation of intergovernmental economic alliances, promoting the development of the corresponding sectoral groupings. Grouping of the strategic sectors of economics can be variable and consisting of different combinations of sectors. So from the viewpoint of economic security provision and the national priorities of development realization, the cooperation between Russia and China in aircraft and infrastructural objects building can be one of the most important areas of this alliance development. 
Melkumian K.S. - Financing of Terrorism: Trends of the 21st century with Syrian Accent pp. 78-93


Abstract: The subject of the study is the system of financing of terrorism in its broad context, including sources, channels and funding entities. Recognizing the financing of terrorism as an independent subject area requiring special efforts of the international community, the author pays special attention to the key trends in the financing of terrorism of the 21st century in accordance with the characteristics of the modern financial system, the introduction of technologies into the financial system, and political instability, typical for both regions of increased risk of terrorism and the world political system as a whole. Considering the financing of terrorism in integrity, the author engages a systematic approach, comparative analysis and synthesis as the main methods of research. Using a retrospective view, the author comes to the conclusion that the spectrum of sources, channels and actors involved in the financing of terrorism has expanded. Modern technologies, including social networks and new payment systems, provided a broad platform for terrorist organizations to maneuver. The author emphasizes the problem of involving professionals to financial management of terrorist organizations both in terms of increasing the profitability of terrorist assets and handling terrorist operations through financial institutions in accordance with the specifics of the current AML/CFT regime. Within the framework of the article, the analysis of the terrorism financing system is presented for the first time in connection with the current Syrian crisis, the activities of ISIL, as well as the terrorist attacks taken place in the 21st century.
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