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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 06/2023
Contents of Issue № 06/2023
Transformation of legal systems
Atabekov A.R. - Analysis of approaches to determining legal liability for the actions of artificial intelligence in the medical field: the experience of the United States and Russia. pp. 1-9



Abstract: This article introduces a comparative analysis of existing approaches to determining the liability of artificial intelligence in the context of public medical relations between the United States and Russia. As part of the comparative analysis, the basic problems in the field of transparency in the decision-making of artificial intelligence were identified, theoretical and practical situations for the use of artificial intelligence in the medical field were considered, and possible compensatory legal measures were proposed to ensure the safe integration of artificial intelligence into the healthcare sector in Russia. The subject of the study is the formalization of artificial intelligence actions in legal relations between a doctor and a patient. The object of the study is regulatory documents, recommendations and other documents regulating the use of artificial intelligence for the purposes of medical legal relations in Russia and the United States, judicial practice, academic publications and analytical reports on the issues under study. The research methodology integrates a complex of modern philosophical, general scientific, special scientific methods of cognition, including dialectical, systemic, structural-functional, hermeneutical, comparative legal, formal legal (dogmatic), etc. Within the framework of this study, special emphasis is laid on the implementation of a comparative legal study of the phenomenon of the autonomy of artificial intelligence involved in legal relations between a doctor and a patient, followed by the identification of potential scenarios for regulating responsibility for AI actions. The measures proposed as a result of the study can be applied in the legislative activities and their implementation by relevant authorities that are in charge of the integration of artificial intelligence into the sphere of public relations in Russia, including the healthcare sector.
Human and state
Milchakova O. - Legal Consequences of Void Transactions on the Acquisition of Strategic Assets by Foreign Persons pp. 10-19



Abstract: The article deals with some topical issues of the invalidity of transactions made for the purpose contrary to the foundations of law and order and morality. The author focuses on the consequences of the invalidity of void transactions for the acquisition by foreign investors of the assets of Russian strategic companies. The issues of application as consequences of invalidity of transactions made in violation of the legislation on foreign investments, restitution, collection of shares (shares) of a strategic company, its fixed production assets into state income are considered. As part of the study, the author substantiates the attribution of transactions for the acquisition of strategic assets by foreign persons in violation of the law to invalid transactions burdened with the defect of the illegality of their content. The conclusion is formulated about the need to comply with an increased standard of proving the invalidity of a void transaction, corresponding to the standards used when appealing against voidable transactions. The author concludes that the measures of state coercion in the form of recovery of shares, fixed production assets of a strategic company acquired in violation of the law, are measures that are adequate and commensurate with the consequences of violation of the legislation on foreign investment in strategic sectors of the economy, which is an integral part of the foundations of the rule of law, and are predetermined by constitutionally significant goals to ensure the defense of the country, the security of citizens, society and the state.
Law and order
Bardeev K.A. - Foreign experience of the constitutional and criminal law prohibition of torture pp. 20-27



Abstract: The subject of research in this article is the long-term experience of a number of countries of the modern world summarized by the author in the field of legislative regulation of criminal liability for torture in many of its manifestations. In addition, the relevant international legal provisions, which are the legal basis for combating torture in national legislation, acted as such. In particular, we are talking about the 1984 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Since the prohibition of torture is absolute, comprehensive and constitutional, which is reflected in a number of state constitutions, the subject of the study was the norms of the basic laws of a number of countries. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that in the article, based on the analysis of the palette of legal definitions of torture existing in foreign law – from brief, reflecting only its main properties, to detailed, descriptive ones, the author's vision of the grounds for distinguishing between these definitions is determined, heterogeneous approaches to understanding how the object of torture, as well as its subject, to determine the place of this crime in the structure of the Special Part of Criminal Laws.
State institutions and legal systems
Naryshkina S.Y. - Possible ways to improve the institution of conciliation procedures in civil proceedings pp. 28-35



Abstract: The subject of the research in this article is the norms of procedural law that characterize such a special segment of relations within the framework of domestic civil proceedings as the institution of conciliation procedures. The author in the article analyzes the legislative provisions that formulate the construction of the concept of conciliation procedures, speaking about its legislative "defects". The problem is also aggravated by the lack of unity of views on its explanation in the scientific community, which necessitates a separate study focusing exclusively on the definitive apparatus. The problematic field of Russian legislation is also the diversity of types of conciliation procedures, as well as the specifics of their implementation in the activities of subjects of disputed legal relations in the context of the legal conflict that has arisen, to which the author pays special attention in view of their multifaceted significance and role in judicial practical application, defining such basic legal parameters as "alternative dispute resolution", mediation, settlement agreement, judicial reconciliation, etc. To conduct the research, the author used a methodology that includes an analytical review of the normative legal and scientific literature on the subject of research, synthesis and generalization of the collected data, the formation of optimal parameters for the application of the model of conciliation procedures in civil and arbitration proceedings. The result of the work done was the original author's proposals and recommendations of the legislative "revision" of procedural legislation, forming innovations in law. In particular, in the form of draft articles, an updated definition of conciliation procedures is proposed, their characteristic features are highlighted, their functional significance is determined, their specific types are isolated. The author's vision of the updated Strategy of applying the institute of conciliation procedures in the realities of Russian legal relations is formulated. In their entirety, the components of the novelty of the article.
Vinokurov V.A. - The Central Bank of the Russian Federation and human rights in Russia pp. 36-47



Abstract: In the article, based on the norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal Law "On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia)", the legal position of the Bank of Russia is considered and the author's definition of this organization formed by the state is proposed. As a result of the analysis of these regulatory legal acts, it was established that the acts of the Bank of Russia restricting the rights and freedoms of a person and citizen in the Russian Federation regarding the use of their property are issued in violation of constitutional norms and the norms of the federal law regulating its activities. It is revealed that in the Russian Federation there is no state body that monitors (supervises) the observance by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation of human and civil rights and freedoms. In conclusion, in order to correct the current situation, which allows the Bank of Russia to make decisions that illegally restrict the rights and freedoms of a person and citizen in the Russian Federation, proposals for changing the legislation are formulated. The novelty of the presented research consists in an attempt to determine the organizational and legal form of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, based on legislative norms that are not taken into account by other authors, as well as to determine the legality of decisions taken by the Bank of Russia that restrict the rights and freedoms of man and citizen in the Russian Federation
Gorbunov I.A. - Administrative Liability for Illegal Obtaining of Classified Information pp. 48-55



Abstract: The high relevance of the topic is due to the appearance in 2021 of article 13.14.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation. This scientific article attempts to form a comprehensive (systematized) understanding of the composition of an administrative offense, which is expressed in the illegal obtaining of classified information. Due to the fact that administrative liability for this offense has arisen relatively recently, many theoretical aspects related to its study have not yet reached a deep scientific understanding. The same applies to law enforcement practice under article 13.14.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation, which has not yet been formed. The article substantiates the importance of proper systematization of normative legal acts that establish the legal regime of classified information, which will ensure the correct application of article 13.14.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation, as well as the need to form law enforcement practice, within which the subjective and objective signs of this offense will be more clearly formulated
Договор и обязательства
Filatova E. - Anti-Corruption Clause in Civil Law Contracts: Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Use pp. 56-65



Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze the essential content and features of the practical use of such a tool for countering corruption manifestations at the level of organizations as an anti-corruption clause included in the text of civil law contracts concluded by it with its counterparties. In this context, the subject of the research conducted in the framework of the article is a set of key characteristics inherent in the anti-corruption clause, legal norms governing its use in civil law contracts, as well as forms of practical use of this tool in the practical activities of modern organizations. At the same time, a set of general scientific methods of comparative analysis and synthesis of the main approaches to the study of the issues under consideration, outlined by the predecessors, is used. Also, within the framework of achieving the research goal, a comprehensive use of formal legal and comparative legal methods is provided. On this basis, the main approaches to the formulation of the essential content of the category "anti-corruption clause", the features of its use in the process of regulation of anti-corruption at the level of organizations, the problematic aspects accompanying the use of this tool are considered. Special attention is paid to the use of an anti-corruption clause in the text of employment contracts concluded by an organization with its employees. The necessity of fixing the mandatory nature of the inclusion of an anti-corruption clause in the text of an employment contract concluded with persons holding corrupt (corruption-dangerous) positions is substantiated.
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