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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Legal Studies" > Contents of Issue № 12/2021
Contents of Issue № 12/2021
Теория и философия права
Savenkov D.A. - The problem of theoretical-methodological “refinement” of jurisprudence pp. 1-9


Abstract: The subject of this research is the essential characteristic of the history of legal thought of the last two centuries, which directly pertains to the theoretical-methodological fundamentals of legal theory. In the conditions of the object-disciplinary establishment of legal science as the theory of law since the end of the XVIII century, crucial significance has acquired the orientation towards demarcation of logical-gnoseological and real-psychological aspects of legal understanding. The article analyzes the peculiarities of the corresponding theoretical-methodological opposition, which manifested in the appeals to the construction of “refined” legal concepts that exclude any real arguments of social, historical, political, or psychological nature. By the end of the XIX century, namely in the field of the philosophy of law, has escalated the competition between psychologism and anti-psychologism in law. The novelty of this research lies in determination of the new patterns of theoretical and methodological opposition of psychological and anti-psychological attitudes of legal understanding in the evolution of legal thought in contemporary history. It is demonstrated that the phenomenological approach, which claimed to provide jurisprudence with an authentic scientific methodological apparatus, reduced the problem of legal understanding, however, did not contribute to the adequate understanding of law as a complex gnoseological object. Anti-psychological classification of phenomenology cannot be acknowledged without a profound analysis of the conceptual framework that contributed to the evolution of this approach in the sphere of cognition and interpretation of law.
Questions of current interest
Serebriakov A. - Actors in the sphere of issuing and turnover of digital financial assets: legal problems pp. 10-19


Abstract: The new technological realities significantly affect the economic turnover, which due to digital transformation requires adequate legal regulation. Public relations complicated by digitalization need clarification of the legal status of their actors. The subject of this research is the legal status of actors in the sphere of issuing and turnover of digital financial assets. The research leans on the formal legal method for establishing the content of legal norms regulating the issuance and turnover of digital financial assets. The methods of analysis and comparison were applied for revealing the peculiarities of the legal status of the parties to relations in the sphere of issuing and turnover of digital financial assets. The novelty of this article in the fact that most sources focus on the digital financial assets as the objects of civil turnover, while there are no works dedicated to comprehensive analysis of the legal status of the actors in the sphere of issuing and turnover of digital financial assets. It is demonstrated that the key actors in the sphere of issuing and turnover of digital financial assets are the emitters or holders of digital financial assets, operators of information systems, and operators of the exchange of digital financial assets. However, the existing legal regulation does not contain an accurate mechanism for interaction between these parties. The author takes into account the complex nature of relationships between the emitters and the holders of digital financial assets, as well as the fact that digitalization affects only the external aspect of relations. As a result of analysis of the legal status of  the operators of information systems and operators of the exchange of digital financial asset, the author highlights five groups of requirements that need to be met; as well as establishes gaps in determining the responsibilities of the operator of information system.
Lolaeva A.S., Makiev S.A., Butaeva E.S. - The legal nature of cryptocurrency pp. 20-32


Abstract: This article examines the legal nature of cryptocurrency. Comprehensive analysis is conducted on the legal nature of digital currency; its correlation with the traditional money and e-money is determined. The author summarizes and systematizes the opinions of the scholars on these issues, as well as the existing legislation. The object of this research is the public relations arising process of functionality of crypto technologies and with regards to such the phenomenon of cryptocurrency in Russia. The subject of this research is the Constitution of the Russian Federation, normative legal acts that comprise the current legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as scientific works dedicated to the public relations in this sphere. The goal lies in examination and revelation of the financial legal essence of cryptocurrency, its legal nature and role among the objects of civil rights. The conclusion is made that the states will act towards the implementation of cryptocurrency into the economy. Digital currency is a promising trends of development and investment. The question of legal regulation and consolidation of the status of cryptocurrency remains important and relevant for not only Russia or any country, but the entire world community. The economy that is based on cryptocurrency has good chances to become a reality on the global scale.
Договор и обязательства
Vronskaya M.V., Maslyuk P.M. - The prospects for regulating superficies in modern civil legislation of the Russian Federation pp. 33-41


Abstract: The need for the reform of civil legislation and, namely, the real right, is a frequently discussed and valid problem of the Russian civil law. The solutions this problem have been devised for over a decade, which resulted in the Concept of the Development of Legislation on Real Right that presents the fundamentally new system of limited real rights, particularly the superficies. The subject of this article is the institution of superficies, the establishment of the real right essence of which comprises the hypothesis of scientific research. The authors examine the doctrinal provisions that regulate the legal nature and essence of this phenomenon, outline the advantages of the right of superficies with regards to the practice of application of lease obligations under the condition of superficies, analyze the foreign experience of exercising the right of superficies for its implementation by the Russian legislator within the framework of finalizing the Concept of the Development of Legislation on Real Right. The conclusion is made on the prospects for regulating superficies as the real right due to the existence of reasonable advantages with regards to tenancy, as well as on establishment of possibility of abusing such right by the developers (tenants) in the context of application of the provisions of the  Article 39.20 of the Land Code of the Russian Federation – benefits in acquisition of the right to public land; feasibility of consolidation of the nature of the right of superficies in the aspect of using proprietary methods of protection (including the claims of the owner) that would ensure and guarantee the holder of the right of superficies the protection against claims of third parties, including landowner; finding compromise solution with regards to securing guarantees for compensation payment to the superficiary for the build real estate object if the right of superficies is terminated. This would allow retaining the principle superficies solo cedit and enhancing the proprietary  nature of the right of superficies.
History of state and law
Korovin K.S. - The Soviet Federation and the principles of its construction in the context of constitutional discussions of 1918 pp. 42-55


Abstract: The Bolsheviks, alongside their mentors K. Marx and F. Engels, were staunch opponents of the federal structure. However, the political goals of the revolutionary party were put at the forefront; thus, V. I. Lenin viewed federation as the method for uniting the proletariat into a single union. The leader of the revolution developed the forms of structurization of this union on multinational basis throughout his entire creative life. The article traces the evolution of V. I. Lenin's representations of the state structure of Soviet Russia – from the unitary centralized state to the federation of free nations. Such political and legal views on the Soviet federation underlines the development of the constitutional doctrine of the Soviet State. However, the constitutional commission of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee did not reach a common ground on which type of federation should be built on the territory of the former Russian Empire, thereby offering different projects of federal structure. The author describes the reflection of Lenin’s ideas on the Soviet federation in perception of majority of the members of the constitutional commission, as well as the corresponding political projects.
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