Historical informatics - rubric Information technologies in archives and museums
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Information technologies in archives and museums
Rinchinov O.S., Rinchinova O.S. - Database of Buryat Genealogies: Major Approaches and Implementation pp. 1-10

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2021.4.36415

Abstract: The article develops a database of archival sources covering Buryat family trees. Genealogic data were traditionally very important for Buryat society as they were linked to such aspects as administrative arrangement, economic activity and marital relations. Special importance of family relations in social organization was seen in spiritual life as it actualized the cult of ancestors. In the context of ethnocultural revival observed in the recent decades, the social significance of information resources on Buryat genealogies is increasing. The funds of the Center for Oriental Manuscripts and Xylographs of the IMBT SB RAS store a large number of materials on this topic. They were the basis the discussed database was developed on. To form a meta-collection of archival materials on this topic the authors used corpus analysis methods processing the general index formed on the basis of electronic archival cases titles of the Center for Oriental Manuscripts and Xylographs. To organize the data the methodology of authority control is applied. The ontology scheme of a family tree includes descriptive categories "Family", "Place", "Person". This makes it possible to implement user-friendly methods of data aggregation and visualization - GIS, hierarchical trees, social graphs, etc. which are integrated into a web application. Digitalization of archival and rare book funds contributes to the identification and formation of thematic meta-collections similar to the corpus of archival sources on Buryat genealogies considered in this article. This opens up new opportunities for a comprehensive disclosure of historical and cultural heritage.
Natsvin A.V., Eremin I.E., Lokhov A.Y. - Computer Reconstruction of the Appearance of Amur Cossacks and the Manchu in the 17th Century pp. 11-21

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2021.4.36756

Abstract: The article studies historical appearance of Russian servicemen of the Far East in the 17th century as well as their traditional opponents – soldiers of the eight-banner army of Qing China. The study sets a goal to practically model and print 3D models of the people understudy. To form basic sketches of the models the authors use historical images as well as modern reconstructions of uniforms and weapons. Computer modeling was carried out using open software. The approach is to develop a utilitarian technique for high-quality modeling of three-dimensional models of historical characters without professional art education. As a result, the authors have got unique three-dimensional models made according to a single algorithm. The use of three-dimensional modeling technologies provides for a fairly simple creation of both a character model itself and his uniform and weapons. Also, three-dimensional modeling allows one to create copies of individual objects thus forming a library that can significantly reduce the time spent on creating similar models. 3D printing technologies make it easy to replicate physical copies of a 3D model which in this case makes it possible to fulfill orders for small-scale production of souvenirs. The models can be applied in industrial production such as casting and milling.
Yumasheva J.Y. - Document Resources of Foreign Archives in the Internet: Electronic Finding Aid (Part One) pp. 75-100

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.2.26554

Abstract: The article reviews information retrieval systems (IRS, electronic catalogs, databases) developed and submitted on the Internet by foreign archives on the basis of information from their finding aids. The author has identified and analyzed a complex of portals (sites) of archival institutions (over 200) among which special attention was paid to the study and analysis of 87 archive information retrieval systems of 68 countries in Europe, North and South America, Asia, Latin America and Australia. The review uses two classical methods of historical research: the historical-comparative method and the historical-typological method which allowed the author, on the one hand, to compare the content and functionality of archival IRS and, on the other hand, to outline their typology. The topicality of the review is the introduction of a complex of foreign archival Internet resources of reference nature into scientific discourse with the aim to expand the potential source base of national historical science by introducing new information about documents stored in foreign archives. Taking into account the variability of the Internet environment, each new publication of annotated IRS descriptions is sure to be somewhat new.
Yumasheva J.Y. - Audiovisual Archives in the Internet. Part One: УIn the Beginning Was the Word ЕФ pp. 84-110

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.4.28149

Abstract: The article is the first part reviewing audiovisual archives and presentation of their collections in the Internet. In this series of articles the author will deal only with audiovisual documentation on transparent (film) or specialized media. In case archival collections include born-digital audio recordings, photos, video films and video fragments, this will be stipulated in particular. The first article studies audio archives and collections that can be conventionally divided into several categories. The first one is musical archives containing records of folk music, classical music and popular music; radio archives. From a historical point of view, reports and interviews are of interest in these collections as they reflect history of everyday life and mentality of contemporaries of historical events. The second category is audio archives of research centers studying ethnography, anthropology, oral history, memorial (personal) history, linguistics, etc. The research methods are historical and systemic, historical and comparative, historical and typological as well as historical and descriptive methods. The study is a historiographical review of the current state of audiovisual information archives in Russia and abroad and presentation of their collections in the Internet. Finding aid, digitized collections, permanent electronic expositions and thematic online exhibitions are a small list of forms to present audiovisual information.
Yumasheva J.Y. - International Practice of Handling a Problem of Independent Digital Copying in Reading Rooms of Archives and Libraries pp. 95-133

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.2.21905

Abstract: The article studies the practice of foreign libraries and archives to regulate the readers’ use of various gadgets (digital cameras, pads, smart phones, portable scanners, etc.) to independently copy archival documents and pages from rare books. The author makes a review of the issue, classifies the approaches employed and analyzes the texts of regulatory documents. The research methodology is that of a system approach. The main methods are: - a historical and systematic method to analyze the problems set up in regulatory documents; - a historical and genetic method to compare the practice understudy with the legislature of other countries; - a historical and comparative method to study different approaches proposed in the documents; - a historical and typological method to study similar, specific and unique variants of problem solution. The main result of the study is the conclusion about various approaches practiced to handle the problem of independent copying. At the same time, the author is the first to have classified regulatory methods employed in libraries and archives and have demonstrated preferable solutions of the problem tried out in many countries.
Yumasheva J.Y., Hookk D. - Information Technologies in the Research Activities of Museums: from Digital Catalogs to Artificial Intelligence Methods pp. 114-155

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.3.38813

EDN: CJBDOV

Abstract: The article is of a historiographic nature and is intended to record the main stages in the development of hardware-software complexes and systems for creating digital images (DI) of museum storage items and their (DI) application in intra-museum activities: from solving practical problems of documenting the discovery (acquisition) of museum funds with historical artifacts, their existence in museums, conservation and restoration, creation and development of catalogues, to the implementation of historical and art history research, implemented using the methods of mathematical statistics and a wide range of modern approaches, technologies and scientific disciplines of Data Science. For the first time in Russian historiography, the expansion of the range of research tasks is considered, which has been going on from the mid-1970s to the present and has become possible, on the one hand, in connection with the growing understanding of the information potential of DI of museum objects, and on the other hand, with the digital transformation of traditional technical and technological methods of analysis of museum items, highlights the history of design and development of specialized hardware and software systems; an original periodization of the identified processes is proposed, a brief description of each of the 4 identified stages is given (including a methodological breakthrough that occurred at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries) and the results of the most significant scientific projects are described.
Miklas H., Brenner S., Sablatnig R. - Multispectral Imaging for Digital Restoration of Ancient Manuscripts: Devices, Methods and Practical Aspects pp. 116-134

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2017.3.23697

Abstract: The article gives an overview of the current situation with the multispectral imaging starting from the formation of multispectral images, their registration and splitting of initial texts to further processing in order to enhance readability. It is the result of ten year development of the method as well as its practical use within interdisciplinary projects dedicated to ancient written heritage. In order to develop new research methods the inter-university Center of Images and Material Analysis in Cultural Heritage (CIMA) was founded in 2014 (http://hrsm.caa.tuwien.ac.at/). The specialists of the center together with material engineers have developed a repertoire of tools and techniques for the acquisition, processing and enhancement of multispectral images of badly preserved manuscripts. Multispectral Imaging (MSI) is an approach to compensate for most of the shortcomings of human visual perception. The novelty of the method use within philological studies and source studies is apparent as it enhances the readability of degraded texts, reconstructs fully lost (erased from the surface of a parchment) information, analyzes writing materials – ink and devices to write and erase texts and images, studies the surface structure of the medium – parchment, etc. These are few issues to address with the help of the multispectral imaging method.
Yumasheva J.Y. - Scholarly Publishing of Historical Documents in an Electronic Environment: Problems of Source Studies and Archeography pp. 125-139

DOI:
10.7256/2306-0891.2017.1.21766

Abstract: The study focuses on the problems related to the publishing of electronic copies of archival documents in an electronic environment. Emphasis is laid on the adequacy, representativeness and credibility of both the electronic copy and the accompanying descriptions: archeographically deployed complete description of the original document and a description of the electronic copy as an independent object. The author considers the international experience in electronic publishing of historical document copies, the use of standards (formats) of bibliographic (MARC-based) and archival (EAD) descriptions as well as electronic image description standards (MOD, METS, FITS). To study this problem the author has employed historical-comparative, historical and typological methods providing for the analysis of pros and cons of the approaches addressed. Scientific novelty of the paper is in the problem of creation and development of a new domain of applied historical research - archeography in an electronic environment. This domain is interdisciplinary as it has to combine traditional methods and techniques of source studies, desk archeography, edition archeography, paleography, filigranology, etc. with technical methods of digitization (graphic image creation), description of electronic copies (files) and provision of their adequacy to original documents in the process of publication, storage and use.
Yumasheva J.Y. - Document Resources of Foreign Archives in the Internet: Electronic Finding Aid (Part Two) pp. 146-172

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2018.3.26555

Abstract: This article is the final part of the review analyzing the content and functional features of information retrieval systems (IRS) (electronic catalogs, databases) of foreign archives created on the basis of the finding aid in the Internet. Each IRS is analyzed as far as the amount of information stored, adherence to international archival description standards, functionality (including extra search tools (directories) and integration of electronic copies of archival documents and information visualization methods) are concerned. The review employs historical-comparative and historical-typological methods allowing the author to compare information systems (sites, portals), identify typical and exclusive approaches and formulate general conclusions. On the basis of the analysis made, this part of the review draws conclusions in which the author emphasizes the main trends methods of the finding aid representation in the electronic environment develop, explains the features of archival description standards application for creating information retrieval archival systems and also raises the question of adequacy, completeness and reliability of archival IRS information from the viewpoint of research practice. 
Lysenko K.D. - Experience of using 3D reconstructions of cultural heritage objects in museum practice (on the example of the Trinity Cathedral in Stavropol-on-Volga) pp. 181-195

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.2.38377

EDN: HLBWZL

Abstract: This article is a logical continuation of the author's article "Virtual reconstruction of the Trinity Cathedral in Stavropol-on-Volga in the first half of the twentieth century: sources, methods and research technologies", which contains a more detailed account of the history of the city of Stavropol-on-Volga and the Trinity Cathedral, as well as a description of the process of developing a virtual reconstruction. The subject of this study is the analysis of foreign and domestic experience in the use of virtual reconstructions in museum practice, as well as a description of the author's experience in preparing and placing materials for the virtual reconstruction of the monument of historical and cultural heritage in the museum exposition of the Togliatti Museum of Local Lore. † The Trinity Cathedral, built in 1738 in Stavropol, was one of the very first buildings of the city. It was the city-forming and uniting Kalmyks, accustomed to nomadism, in one place on the basis of religion. Due to the complete loss of the building, as well as the lack of development of its virtual reconstruction at the last stage of its existence, the creation of a 3D model of the Trinity Cathedral is an urgent project that will contribute to the preservation of the common cultural heritage of the city of Togliatti, and will also probably help attract public attention and investors who can help in the restoration and preservation of this monument historical and cultural heritage.
Hookk D. - Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of Hall 17 in the Winter Palace North-West Avant-Corps pp. 201-211

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2019.2.30016

Abstract: The cultural heritage objects that have undergone major changes due to various historical events need modern approaches to their presentation and display, especially if there are no illustrative sources or such evidence should be collected bit by bit in archival documents and numerous scientific works. The Winter Palace has a unique room closed for visitors where one can demonstrate the history of Russia, architecture and museum collections from the 18th to the 21st centuries. This study was based on a hypothesis that a three-dimensional computer model can be of use. Reconstruction and modeling are sure to result in a “time machine” which will demonstrate all the stages of architectural reconstructions, functional transformations and tell us about a historical environment determining these changes.  Never before the task for collecting all data in a computer model of the interior with information about the room decoration in order to create a virtual tour of the Winter Palace historical interior has been put forward. At the moment, it is impossible to predict what adjustments will be made to the museum plans at the time when these halls are renovated and become available to visitors, but it is desirable to study the complex of different sources in advance to make up a story about the history of one of the premises of the former Imperial residence with the help of modern technology.
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