Historical informatics - rubric Information technologies in archives and museums
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Rubric "Information technologies in archives and museums"
Information technologies in archives and museums
Yumasheva Y.Y. - Document Resources of Foreign Archives in the Internet: Electronic Finding Aid (Part One) pp. 75-100


Abstract: The article reviews information retrieval systems (IRS, electronic catalogs, databases) developed and submitted on the Internet by foreign archives on the basis of information from their finding aids. The author has identified and analyzed a complex of portals (sites) of archival institutions (over 200) among which special attention was paid to the study and analysis of 87 archive information retrieval systems of 68 countries in Europe, North and South America, Asia, Latin America and Australia. The review uses two classical methods of historical research: the historical-comparative method and the historical-typological method which allowed the author, on the one hand, to compare the content and functionality of archival IRS and, on the other hand, to outline their typology. The topicality of the review is the introduction of a complex of foreign archival Internet resources of reference nature into scientific discourse with the aim to expand the potential source base of national historical science by introducing new information about documents stored in foreign archives. Taking into account the variability of the Internet environment, each new publication of annotated IRS descriptions is sure to be somewhat new.
Yumasheva Y.Y. - Audiovisual Archives in the Internet. Part One: УIn the Beginning Was the Word ЕФ pp. 84-110


Abstract: The article is the first part reviewing audiovisual archives and presentation of their collections in the Internet. In this series of articles the author will deal only with audiovisual documentation on transparent (film) or specialized media. In case archival collections include born-digital audio recordings, photos, video films and video fragments, this will be stipulated in particular. The first article studies audio archives and collections that can be conventionally divided into several categories. The first one is musical archives containing records of folk music, classical music and popular music; radio archives. From a historical point of view, reports and interviews are of interest in these collections as they reflect history of everyday life and mentality of contemporaries of historical events. The second category is audio archives of research centers studying ethnography, anthropology, oral history, memorial (personal) history, linguistics, etc. The research methods are historical and systemic, historical and comparative, historical and typological as well as historical and descriptive methods. The study is a historiographical review of the current state of audiovisual information archives in Russia and abroad and presentation of their collections in the Internet. Finding aid, digitized collections, permanent electronic expositions and thematic online exhibitions are a small list of forms to present audiovisual information.
Yumasheva Y.Y. - International Practice of Handling a Problem of Independent Digital Copying in Reading Rooms of Archives and Libraries pp. 95-133


Abstract: The article studies the practice of foreign libraries and archives to regulate the readers’ use of various gadgets (digital cameras, pads, smart phones, portable scanners, etc.) to independently copy archival documents and pages from rare books. The author makes a review of the issue, classifies the approaches employed and analyzes the texts of regulatory documents. The research methodology is that of a system approach. The main methods are:- a historical and systematic method to analyze the problems set up in regulatory documents;- a historical and genetic method to compare the practice understudy with the legislature of other countries;- a historical and comparative method to study different approaches proposed in the documents;- a historical and typological method to study similar, specific and unique variants of problem solution.The main result of the study is the conclusion about various approaches practiced to handle the problem of independent copying. At the same time, the author is the first to have classified regulatory methods employed in libraries and archives and have demonstrated preferable solutions of the problem tried out in many countries.
Miklas H., Brenner S., Sablatnig R. - Multispectral Imaging for Digital Restoration of Ancient Manuscripts: Devices, Methods and Practical Aspects pp. 116-134


Abstract: The article gives an overview of the current situation with the multispectral imaging starting from the formation of multispectral images, their registration and splitting of initial texts to further processing in order to enhance readability. It is the result of ten year development of the method as well as its practical use within interdisciplinary projects dedicated to ancient written heritage. In order to develop new research methods the inter-university Center of Images and Material Analysis in Cultural Heritage (CIMA) was founded in 2014 (http://hrsm.caa.tuwien.ac.at/). The specialists of the center together with material engineers have developed a repertoire of tools and techniques for the acquisition, processing and enhancement of multispectral images of badly preserved manuscripts.Multispectral Imaging (MSI) is an approach to compensate for most of the shortcomings of human visual perception. The novelty of the method use within philological studies and source studies is apparent as it enhances the readability of degraded texts, reconstructs fully lost (erased from the surface of a parchment) information, analyzes writing materials – ink and devices to write and erase texts and images, studies the surface structure of the medium – parchment, etc. These are few issues to address with the help of the multispectral imaging method.
Yumasheva Y.Y. - Scholarly Publishing of Historical Documents in an Electronic Environment: Problems of Source Studies and Archeography pp. 125-139


Abstract: The study focuses on the problems related to the publishing of electronic copies of archival documents in an electronic environment. Emphasis is laid on the adequacy, representativeness and credibility of both the electronic copy and the accompanying descriptions: archeographically deployed complete description of the original document and a description of the electronic copy as an independent object. The author considers the international experience in electronic publishing of historical document copies, the use of standards (formats) of bibliographic (MARC-based) and archival (EAD) descriptions as well as electronic image description standards (MOD, METS, FITS). To study this problem the author has employed historical-comparative, historical and typological methods providing for the analysis of pros and cons of the approaches addressed. Scientific novelty of the paper is in the problem of creation and development of a new domain of applied historical research - archeography in an electronic environment. This domain is interdisciplinary as it has to combine traditional methods and techniques of source studies, desk archeography, edition archeography, paleography, filigranology, etc. with technical methods of digitization (graphic image creation), description of electronic copies (files) and provision of their adequacy to original documents in the process of publication, storage and use.
Yumasheva Y.Y. - Document Resources of Foreign Archives in the Internet: Electronic Finding Aid (Part Two) pp. 146-172


Abstract: This article is the final part of the review analyzing the content and functional features of information retrieval systems (IRS) (electronic catalogs, databases) of foreign archives created on the basis of the finding aid in the Internet. Each IRS is analyzed as far as the amount of information stored, adherence to international archival description standards, functionality (including extra search tools (directories) and integration of electronic copies of archival documents and information visualization methods) are concerned. The review employs historical-comparative and historical-typological methods allowing the author to compare information systems (sites, portals), identify typical and exclusive approaches and formulate general conclusions. On the basis of the analysis made, this part of the review draws conclusions in which the author emphasizes the main trends methods of the finding aid representation in the electronic environment develop, explains the features of archival description standards application for creating information retrieval archival systems and also raises the question of adequacy, completeness and reliability of archival IRS information from the viewpoint of research practice. 
Hookk D. - Spatiotemporal Reconstruction of Hall 17 in the Winter Palace North-West Avant-Corps pp. 201-211


Abstract: The cultural heritage objects that have undergone major changes due to various historical events need modern approaches to their presentation and display, especially if there are no illustrative sources or such evidence should be collected bit by bit in archival documents and numerous scientific works.The Winter Palace has a unique room closed for visitors where one can demonstrate the history of Russia, architecture and museum collections from the 18th to the 21st centuries. This study was based on a hypothesis that a three-dimensional computer model can be of use. Reconstruction and modeling are sure to result in a “time machine” which will demonstrate all the stages of architectural reconstructions, functional transformations and tell us about a historical environment determining these changes.  Never before the task for collecting all data in a computer model of the interior with information about the room decoration in order to create a virtual tour of the Winter Palace historical interior has been put forward. At the moment, it is impossible to predict what adjustments will be made to the museum plans at the time when these halls are renovated and become available to visitors, but it is desirable to study the complex of different sources in advance to make up a story about the history of one of the premises of the former Imperial residence with the help of modern technology.
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