Historical informatics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Contents of Issue 02/2023
Contents of Issue 02/2023
Computerized analysis of historical texts
Aletkina E.Y. - Information potential of large-circulation newspapers of the oil industry enterprises of the Ural-Volga region in the 1960s- 1980s as sources for the study of labor motivation: content analysis of letters to newspapers pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.40749

EDN: UVQFXL

Abstract: The article examines the large-circulation newspapers of the oil industry enterprises of the Ural-Volga region in the 1960s-1980s as sources for the study of labor motivation. For the first time, newspapers produced at the oil enterprises of Bashneft, Permneft and Tatneft are being introduced into scientific circulation. Initially, an assessment of the information potential of the sources was carried out. Based on the selected materials, a content analysis of letters from oil workers to the newspaper of one of the divisions of the Permneft production association "Neftyanik Polazny" in 1973 - 1985 was performed. Descriptive methods of source analysis are also used in this study. Content analysis was provided by MAXQDA 2022 and UCINET software and consisted in analyzing the frequency of occurrence of selected categories and their visualization to assess the degree of significance of social and industrial topics related to labor motivation for oil workers. The study proved that for the employees of NGDU "Polaznaneft" the most urgent problems were related to "bottlenecks" in the social sphere and in the organization of production processes. In addition, it is noted that the category of "production management" was a key factor in solving various problems. The results of calculating the frequency of occurrence of categories and visualizing these frequencies can be useful for further research in the field of labor motivation.
New methods and techniques of processing historical sources
Sokolov Y.V. - Discussions about the Russian Revolution of 1917 on the Web: methodological approaches to the study of web forums as a historical source pp. 19-33

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.40601

EDN: AFQXIL

Abstract: The subject of the study is a methodology for analyzing the electronic content of social networks (forums) as a historical source. The discussion of the revolution of 1917 during the centenary of this historical event was used as a material for analysis. The aim of the study was to test approaches to the methodology of working with large arrays of online texts, and the possible combination of two approaches to working with online texts - quantitative analysis tools (distant reading) and traditional methods of working with historical text (slow reading). As part of the "distant reading", thematic modeling is used using the LDA (latent Dirichlet placement) and LSA (latent semantic analysis) algorithm in the R programming environment in the R studio program (version 4.2.1). During the "slow reading" we analyze the entire volume of the text directly.The novelty of the research lies in the application of thematic modeling to sources in the R programming environment in conjunction with classical methods of analyzing historical texts. Within the framework of the study, a methodology for analyzing the content of social networks (forums) has been tested, focused on substantial arrays of text that are physically impossible to read in full or at least in a significant part, using exclusively traditional means of interaction of the researcher with the corpus of sources. A step-by-step research algorithm is proposed, in which the researcher needs to analyze the text by "distant reading" methods, identifying the topics of texts consisting of terms (words). Then, using these keywords, you should find the relevant text fragments in which the identified topic was discussed most actively, and analyze the fragments in more detail using traditional methods of working with a text source. A possible way to improve the quality of identifying topics necessary for the researcher in social networks and forums by the LDA algorithm is proposed, namely, preliminary splitting of a large text and subsequent analysis of fragments by the LDA method as separate documents.
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Mamonova S.A. - Virtual reconstruction of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker (Lori region of Armenia): a study of the cultural heritage of the Russian presence in Armenia in the XIX - XX centuries pp. 34-78

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.43508

EDN: SIRUAN

Abstract: In studies on the history of the Russian presence in Armenia, an important place is occupied by the question of the role of the Orthodox Church. Currently, there are several Orthodox churches in Armenia. One of the most interesting, the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Amrakits (Lori region of Armenia) is unique in its architecture, has a century-old history, but suffered significant destruction during the large-scale Spitak earthquake in 1988. Since that time, it has actually lost its significance as a functioning temple. In 2022, survey work began in Armenia to determine the possibility of restoring the partially destroyed church building or (if such restoration is impossible) recreating this temple in an authentic form. In this regard, the task of creating a virtual reconstruction of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, using three-dimensional modeling methods, is relevant. An important condition for such work is the availability of a set of sources that allow the implementation of such a project. In this study, a source base has been formed, including drawings, plans, measurements of the church building, as well as photographs of the object before and after the 1988 earthquake. The author studied the history of the settlement Nikolaevka, founded at the beginning of the 19th century (now Amrakits), as well as the history of the construction of the temple of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the study is to reconstruct the appearance of the church at the beginning of the 20th century. The article contains a study of the history and architectural features of the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, as well as a description of the process of creating a virtual reconstruction and the problems associated with it. The author used SketchUp 2022, Vision, Lumion 10 as software.
Korsakov S.A. - Virtual reconstruction of the main house of the Sennitsy estate situated in Moscow region: sources and research methods pp. 79-101

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.43472

EDN: SJKCWS

Abstract: The problem of historical and cultural heritage preservation is very relevant these days. Increasing number of monuments is being destroyed every day; however, our compatriots are continuously becoming more interested in landmarks Russia. There has been a marked increase in the number of tourist routes in Moscow region. Numerous noble estates represent an important part of the regions cultural assets. In Moscow region, there are lots of former estates of prominent families of the Russian Empire: today many of these properties are in ruins. Manor Sennitsy situated in Ozyory district of Moscow region is one of such gradually decaying cultural monuments with a rich history. This study analyzes a set of sources, on the basis of which the author creates a virtual 3D-reconstruction of manor Sennitsy in the period of late 19th early 20th century when it was owned by the family of Count F.E. Keller. The source base for the study is very diverse: plans, drawings, cartographic materials, photographs, inventories of property, construction cost estimates. The author describes gradual process of 3D-modelling, in the framework of which softwares SketchUp and Twinmotion were used. Reconstruction of buildings of the Sennitsy manor complex allows to visualize an image of the destroyed monument of culture, as well as to demonstrate high potential of using 3D-modelling methods in history. This study is carried out within the framework of the Project of reconstruction of appearance of the noble estates of the Moscow region, supported by the Department of Historical Information Science of the Faculty of History of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Zherebyatyev D.I., Pimonova D.A. - Virtual reconstruction of small architectural forms of the Bogoroditsky Palace and Park ensemble of the estate of Counts Bobrinsky of the late XVIII century pp. 102-128

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.43509

EDN: SJKMOC

Abstract: The article is devoted to the virtual reconstruction of small architectural forms of the Bogoroditsky Park of the Bobrinsky estate. In addition to the unique architectural ensemble, this place was famous for its park, and all thanks to its creator the estate manager Andrey Timofeevich Bolotov. It was A.T. Bolotov who left the most detailed memories of the construction of the park ensemble, as well as a whole album with sketches of the views of the park, which allows us to present the beauty and grandeur of the estate today. The focus of the virtual reconstruction is on the most beautiful part of the park, which was located to the northwest of the palace, closer to the shore of a Large pond. The article discusses the techniques of landscape design used by the estate manager A.T.Bolotov at the end of the XVIII century, the features of the construction of the park and the difficulties encountered in creating objects of small architectural forms. The methods and technologies of computer modeling used in creating a three-dimensional historical reconstruction of small architectural forms, the relief of the park, reservoirs and green spaces based on historical sources are analyzed in detail. The work contains a study on the history of the construction of the Bobrinsky Estate park, its development after the resignation of the manager A.T. Bolotov, development and restoration in the XX XXI centuries, provides an overview of historical sources, including materials of the Restoration and Architecture LLC project in 2014, which allow restoring the historical appearance of the palace and park ensemble of the estate.
New methods and techniques of processing historical sources
Galushko I.N. - The use of topic modeling to optimize the process of searching for relevant historical documents (on the example of the stock exchange press of the early 20th century) pp. 129-144

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.43466

EDN: SKBPNS

Abstract: The key task of the presented article is to test how we can analyze the information potential of a historical sources collection by using thematic modeling. Some modern collections of digitized historical materials number tens of thousands of documents, and at the level of an individual researcher, it is difficult to cover available funds. Following a number of researchers, we suggest that thematic modeling can become a convenient tool for preliminary assessment of the content of a collection of historical documents; can become a tool for selecting only those documents that contain information relevant to the research tasks. In our case, the Birzhevye Vedomosti newspaper was chosen as one of the main collection of historical documents. At this stage, we can confirm that in our study, the use of topic modeling proved to be a productive solution for optimizing the process of searching for historical documents in a large collection of digitized historical materials. At the same time, it should be emphasized that in our work topic modeling was used exclusively as an applied tool for primary assessment of the information potential of a documents collection through the analysis of selected topics. Our experience has shown that, at least for Birzhevye Vedomosti, topic modeling with LDA does not allow us to draw conclusions from the standpoint of our content analysis methodology. The data of our models are too fragmentary, it can only be used for the initial assessment of the topics describing the information contained in the source.
Information technologies in history education
Oskin A. - Application of artificial intelligence technologies in historical education pp. 145-159

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.40580

EDN: SKETPM

Abstract: The possibilities of using artificial intelligence technologies in the training of future historians are considered. As you know, the most popular AI chatbot currently is the ChatGPT application. Unfortunately, access to this service for users from Russia and Belarus is currently limited. However, there are many thirdparty applications that are free from such restrictions that use the ChatGPT API and perform similar tasks. The article analyzes three of the most interesting and useful of these services: Phind.com, Talkai.info, Explainlikeimfive.io. A detailed overview of each application and possible options for its use in the educational process are offered.
Garskova I.M., Borodkin L.I., Volodin A.Y., Frolov A.A. - III-rd International Summer School for Young Scholars in Historical Information Science: New Facets of Interdisciplinarity pp. 160-175

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.43562

EDN: SKUPXH

Abstract: The article is devoted to the review of the School of Young Scholars which is being held for the third time by the Faculty of History of Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Association "History and Computer". The school attracts a lot of attention of students, postgraduates, young teachers and researchers from scientific centers of Russia and neighboring countries who want to get acquainted with information about the latest trends in the development of historical informatics as an interdisciplinary field of application of information technologies and methods of data analysis in historical research, to form a current understanding of data and methods of their processing in the subject field of historical research. The current trends characteristic of the modern stage of the development of historical informatics in Russia against the background of the experience of the development of similar "butt" directions in other fields of science and humanities are analyzed. Attention is paid to the changes in the landscape of the humanities in the first decade of the XXI century in connection with the processes of their digital transformation, the emergence of the multidisciplinary concept of Digital Humanities, the correlation of the content of historical informatics and "digital history". The actual problems of using the concept of "big data" and artificial intelligence for testing digital technologies and mathematical methods in solving analytical problems of historical research are considered.
Information technologies in history education
Antamoshkin O.A., Vladimirov V.N., Lapteva M.A. - Training in the profile "Applied Informatics in the Humanities" at the Siberian Federal University: interdisciplinarity and project approach pp. 176-185

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2023.2.43542

EDN: SKXVQG

Abstract: The article considers the model of training specialists in applied informatics in the humanitarian field, developed at the Humanitarian Institute of the Siberian Federal University (Krasnoyarsk). The history of this training has been going on for almost a quarter of a century. Over the years, the program has changed its name more than once, and the curriculum has also changed in accordance with the requirements. The experience accumulated over a long enough period of time in training specialists of this profile is the subject of consideration in this article. The bachelor's and master's programs, education and activities of the Department of Information Technology in Creative and Cultural Industries, working as part of the Humanities Institute, are considered. Digital technologies continue to develop rapidly, and the number of people willing to master the difficult path of implementing applied informatics in the humanities is growing. Only in 2023, about 50 people have made final qualifying works for bachelors and masters degree at the Department of Information Technology in Creative and Cultural Industries. Each stage of the adjustment of the bachelor's and master's degree curriculum is dictated by a rapidly changing situation. At least two components remain indisputable: interdisciplinarity, which is the basis of educational programs, and a project approach, which assumes a clear statement of the problem and the use of adequate mechanisms for its solution using digital technologies.
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