Historical informatics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Contents of Issue 04/2022
Contents of Issue 04/2022
Quantitative history
Zyuzin K., Valetov T. - The Role of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Supplying of the Far Eastern Region in 1903-1913: a Comparative Analysis of Foreign Trade and Transport Statistics pp. 1-35

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39097

EDN: EBBFWX

Abstract: The article is devoted to the role of the Trans-Siberian Railway in the freight supplying of the Russian Far East in 19031913 (since the commissioning of its last section through Manchuria along the CER). Methodologically, the article is based on a comparison of various sources: customs, port, railway statistics, reports of the Dobrovolny flot (Voluntary Fleet), etc. It is concluded that the sources do generally provide a possibility to conduct a study in the period under review, and it can be based on different tables from the foreign trade yearbooks and railway statistics on transportation to the Ussuri railroad. The statistics are considered in two ways: 1) "import - transportation from Russia" and "by sea - by the railroad". This allows us to draw conclusions about where the goods mainly came from and how they got to the local market. Comparative statistics are built for the most important categories of goods: cereals, sugar, fuel, timber, metals, textile, etc. A comparison of the freight transportation by the railroad and by sea showed that, at least until 1909, the railroad supply was not significant, but began to grow later, when the railway transportation to the region helped to reduce the share of imports, especially in terms of supplying textiles and some categories of metal goods.
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Stepanova I. - Upper Volga and Upper Podvine as part of the Russian State: General and Special Territorial Organization through the Prism of Geoinformation Technologies pp. 36-52

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39315

EDN: UAOEWK

Abstract: The article discusses the results of the application of geoinformation technologies in the study of the historical geography of the Upper Volga and Upper Podvinya of the late XV first half of the XVII century. The study included the development of historical GIS of Tver, Toropetsky, Rzhevsky, Novotorzhsky, Belsky counties and the Tver half of Bezhetskaya Pyatina. The main sources are scribal descriptions of the end of the XV - the first half of the XVII century, the assembly material is involved. Localization of toponymy of the XV-XVII centuries was made using sources of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The objectives of the study included the characteristics of the territorial organization of the studied territory of the Late Middle Ages and early Modern times, including the localization of territorial administrative units, borders, roads; characteristics of rural settlement, territorial organization of the peasantry in historical dynamics; identification of the features of the historical geography of land ownership in the region. The result of the use of GIS technologies in historical and geographical research, in addition to web GIS of applied importance, is the characteristic of the territorial-administrative and settlement structure of the region, which has both all-Russian and local features. Among the local features are specific types of territorial organization inherited from the preMoscow period - digests and dozens that persisted in the XVI-XVII centuries. in the Upper Podvinye and on the southeastern periphery of the Novgorod land. A dispersed settlement system was characteristic of the Upper Volga region, while a "nest" settlement system was identified in the Podvine region. The different nature of the entry into the Russian state determined the peculiarities of the formation of local land ownership in the studied areas. Archaic features are also evident here (in the preservation of official land ownership in the Mikulinsky camp-county).
Vladimirov V.N., Krupochkin E.P. - On the Possibility of Using Geoinformation Technologies to Study Economic Inequality (Based on the Materials of the Siberian Region of 1926-1927) pp. 53-64

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39387

EDN: ZRZMLZ

Abstract: The article discusses the possibilities of using geoinformation technologies to study economic inequality. The methodology and technique of applying geospatial analysis in the study of wage inequality of employees of district cities of the Siberian Territory in 1926-1927 are shown. Statistical bulletins published in 1926-1929 in Novosibirsk were used as sources. Data were selected that characterize the salaries of employees of the district cities of Siberia for 8 quarters, covering almost 2 years 1926 and 1927. During the development of GIS, a 1:3000000 scale map of the Siberian Region was digitized, on which there is a coordinate grid, the situation (hydrographic network and relief displayed by washing) and administrative division were plotted according to the zoning data of 1929. A series of maps was built reflecting the average salary level of employees in district cities, as well as the dynamics of wages based on quarterly statistics. The highest salary of employees is observed in Novosibirsk. It is noticeable that cities with low wages are concentrated in the south of Western Siberia. The growth rates of wages in cities show a greater variation than the average salary. The largest increase in wages is demonstrated by those cities in which its level was low or average. It can be stated that there are certain prospects in the use of geoinformation technologies to study economic inequality.
Quantitative history
Danilov E.V. - Dynamics and Factors of Medical Service in European Russia at the Beginning of the 20th Century pp. 65-83

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39251

EDN: SBIIBH

Abstract: The article examines the evolution of medical service in European Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. Based on the analysis of statistical data, it is displayed that by 1913 the number of medical care cases increased by half up to 550 services per 1000 people. The key factors determining the dispersion of medical service were health care funding level, doctor and paramedics availability and the zemstvo status of the province. Also, a statistically significant relationship was revealed between medical service and the level of well-being of the population. In urban area, the independent factors determine the variance of studied factor substantially worse than the one in rural areas; by 1913, the most significant factor changed from the zemstvo status of the province to the level of accessibility of medical care. The obtained data allow to infer that in the Russian Empire there were parallel and interdependent processes of developing practices of public health organization and healthcare seeking.
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Borodkin L., Zherebyatyev D.I. - Virtual Reconstruction of Typical Railway Stations of the Great Siberian Railway of the late XIX - early XX Centuries pp. 84-102

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39524

EDN: TEEOSM

Abstract: The paper deals with the issues of preserving the cultural heritage associated with the construction and operation in the late XIX - early XX centuries of the Great Siberian Way (later called the Trans-Siberian Railway - Transsib). The Trans-Siberian Railway is the largest infrastructure project of the Russian Empire, created with the state budgetary funds in 1891-1916. An important task for the builders of the highway was the creation of its infrastructure, including the construction of stations with all the necessary buildings and structures. In the smaller stations (and there were most of them), the passenger buildings were original wooden structures of architectural and functional interest. Almost all of them have lost their original appearance, characterized by the "Russian style" of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The purpose of this article is to create a virtual reconstruction of passenger buildings (as well as other buildings) that stood at small stations on the Great Siberian Way. The source base for creating 3D models of typical buildings of railway stations on the mainline, including drawings of these buildings, photographs of their construction period and a later period, Yandex satellite images, as well as text descriptions of virtual reconstruction objects, is considered in detail. 3D models of passenger buildings and other structures of railway stations are presented, their visualization is given on the Twinmotion Cloud online platform; it is available for viewing by QR-codes on mobile devices and personal computers on any operating system.
Pavlov K.V. - A Source Complex for the Construction of a Scientifically Based Virtual Reconstruction of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin of the XIX - early XX Centuries. pp. 103-134

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.38473

EDN: TEMFGL

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of forming a source complex on the history of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin of the XIX - early XX centuries in order to create its scientifically based virtual reconstruction. As a result of many years of work, the author has collected a significant documentary base on the history of the temple, which includes four large groups of sources: written, pictorial (graphic), cartographic and material (museum exhibits). Each of them is analyzed in detail with the allocation of materials that are most important for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the designated historical object. The paper also discusses methods and technologies for analysis, verification and initial digital processing of pictorial sources from its composition. The scientific novelty of the study is expressed in the fact that for the first time a relevant source complex on the history of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the 1830s was formed, which radically distinguishes this study from previous excursion and tourist virtual reconstructions of this temple. In addition, the technique of digital processing of visual sources and their translation into 3D format, developed by the author and presented in this article, has a certain novelty, which allows to preserve their original appearance as much as possible. The collected documentary base on the history of the Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin allowed us to assert the possibility of its authentic historical virtual reconstruction.
Computerized analysis of historical texts
Aletkina E.Y. - Reflection on the Problems of Labor Motivation in the Letters of the Oil Industry Workers of the Ural-Volga Region in 1956 (Content Analysis of the Territorial-Branch Newspapers "Neftyanik of Tataria" and "Neftyanik of Bashkiria") pp. 135-154

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39538

EDN: QMJQFJ

Abstract: This article describes the experience of content analysis of letters from oil industry workers in 1956. New littlestudied sources are being put into circulation - the territorial-branch newspapers "Neftyanik of Tataria" and "Neftyanik of Bashkiria". The purpose of the study is to research the system of motivation of workers of oil-producing enterprises of the Ural-Volga region through the prism of their letters to the editorial offices of territorial-branch newspapers. The object of the study are the letters of employees published in newspaper issues for 1956. The comparison of letters published in newspapers was carried out in two aspects: by type of newspaper publisher and territorial affiliation. The article describes the experience of content analysis of letters from employees of associations and enterprises of the oil industry. The text of the article describes the analysis of letter materials carried out using the MAXQDA computer program, which implements the basic content analysis method. The use of the program made it possible to obtain data on the characteristic problems of concern to oil workers, the links between the identified categories. The UCINET program was used to visualize the data. The obtained results expand the understanding of the sources used in research on labor motivation, as well as directly supplement the data on motivation and stimulation of labor in the post-war USSR. The content analysis of the revealed semantic categories of letters showed the special importance of the category "production management" for solving both industrial and social issues.
Methods and techniques of online analysis
Salomatina S. - ommodity and Money Flows in Russian Empire in the Second half of the Nineteenth Century: Network and Geoinformation Analysis pp. 155-178

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39037

EDN: QMSDEE

Abstract: This article deals with the domestic interregional cash flows in the Russian Empire, which flowed in the opposite direction to the flows of commodities and services; thus, they can be used as proxies of the resource allocation and uneven development of regions. This study is based on the statistics of transfers between branches of the State Bank of the Russian Empire, and it conducts a network and geoinformation analysis for 1868, 1878, 1888, and 1898. The study proves that the top segment of the payment network, including ties with St. Petersburg and Moscow, was organized like a double star (i.e., a star-type network with centers in two capitals with a huge flow between them). From St. Petersburg, the largest proportion of payments for goods and services were dispersed throughout the country, while Moscow was primarily a nationwide center for buying goods or receiving payments. The metropolitan segment always serviced more than half of all settlements in the country. In the European part of the empire, the largest regional ties (beyond the capitals) looked like the flows in the pre-railway period (1868); then, the largest flows were redistributed along the principal railways (1878); later, the flows compressed during the depression (1888); and then, the intraregional (local) flows increased sharply due to the expansion of local railroads (1898). Large interregional flows in the Asian part of the empire were inferior in size to those in the European part; until the 1890s, their main axis was the ties between Tomsk and Irkutsk as well as access to Nizhny Novgorod in the European part (through Yekaterinburg from the 1870s onwards). In the 1890s, new segments appeared in the Far East, in the Steppe Region (Kazakhstan), and in Central Asia.
New methods and techniques of processing historical sources
Bazarova T.A., Proskuryakova M.E. - Autographs of Peter the Great: Reading with Artificial Intelligence Technologies and Creating an Electronic Archive pp. 179-190

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39224

EDN: QMWYXE

Abstract: The article is devoted to modern digital methods of working with the handwritten heritage of Peter I. They were applied within the framework of the scientific project "Autographs of Peter the Great: Reading by artificial intelligence technologies". The project was initiated by the Russian Historical Society and implemented by specialists of the St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sberbank PJSC. The article describes the methodology of preparing a data set for creating a program for machine reading of the manuscripts of Peter the Great ("Digital Peter"). Special emphasis is placed by the authors on the principles of transcribing of the historical text developed during the project. In addition, the cases of the use of non-letter characters by Peter I and the difficulties caused by this in the formation of a data set are analyzed. The article also reflects the results of the created algorithm and identifies variants of the organization of the text of Peter I, which reduce the quality of recognition. The authors also paid attention to the electronic archive "Autographs of Peter I", which became a continuation of the project on machine reading of the manuscripts of the first Russian emperor. The archive, which is being worked on, contains digital copies of Peter's autographs, the results of their recognition by the Digital Peter program, as well as scientific publications of these unique historical sources. The Internet portal "Autographs of Peter I" is associated with the resource: "Biochronics of Peter the Great day by day" (created on the HSE website). The connection of the two sites opens up additional opportunities for researchers: each digitized autograph is introduced into a historical context.
Chronicles of scientific life
Ishankhodzhaeva Z.R., Tagaev Z.E. - Digital Transformation of Science and Education: International Conference in Tashkent pp. 191-197

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2022.4.39545

EDN: QNKFSU

Abstract: The article is devoted to the scientific and practical conference with foreign participation "The importance of digital technologies in the study of the history of Uzbekistan", held by the Department of History of Uzbekistan of the Mirzo Ulugbek National University of Uzbekistan on September 28, 2022. The introduction of digital technologies in science and education is a necessary condition for the development of society in the context of digital transformation. To train modern specialists in all areas of education, it is necessary to use digital technologies in educational programs at the university and postgraduate levels, as well as in research activities. Today, virtual museums, creative exhibitions, various online conferences are organized in Uzbekistan, which contribute to the rapprochement of peoples and actively attract young people. All this was discussed at the conference. About 100 reports on the main directions of digital transformation of science and education were presented at the conference. Special attention was paid to virtual reconstructions of cultural and historical heritage, digital technologies in archeology, informatization and digital technologies in historical education. The conference supported the efforts of Uzbek universities to form a unified scientific and educational space and called for extensive training of specialists using digital methods in historical science and education. The participants of the conference noted the high level of its holding and organization and proposed to make the conference traditional to hold it every two years.
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