Ёлектронный журнал »сторическа€ информатика - є1 за 2020 год - —одержание, список статей - ISSN: 2585-7797 - »здательство NotaBene
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Historical informatics
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Historical informatics" > Contents of Issue є 01/2020
Contents of Issue є 01/2020
Methodological problems of historical informatics
Zhakisheva S.A. - УA Beautiful MindФ or УProof of LifeФ: Historical Information Science and/or Digital History? pp. 1-19

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.31099

Abstract: The article studies integration processes which have been characteristic of humanities in the second half of the twentieth century, the changing configuration of interdisciplinary fields and the redistribution of the interdisciplinary hierarchy of science domains as well as the role of historical information science in a strong or a weak integration type of scientific knowledge. Historical information science is a classical example of interdisciplinary interaction (match) of several fields (history, source studies, applied mathematics, mathematical statistics and information science). This supradisciplinary form of integration connects history with mathematization and informatization as well as principles and methods of the general theory of systems, the information theory, synergetics, etc. In this respect, the article focuses on the impact of the digital turn on the relationship between historical information science, digital history and digital humanities as well as methodological problems of information source studies rather than digital documents studies. The author states that new prospects provided by the “digital revolution” set new goals for history in the 21st century.
Databases and search systems
Bryukhanova E.A., Nezhentseva N.V., Chekryzhova O.I., Ivanov D.N. - A Database Built on the First 1897 Russian Empire Population Census Data: Structure and Analysis pp. 20-33

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32387

Abstract: The article presents the potential use of primary materials of the First General Census of the Russian Empire taken in 1897 for historical studies. Emphasis is laid on the composition and the structure of 1897 census materials, the database architecture as well as the technique to study nominative sources and compare aggregated and personal data. In the first part of the article the authors provide an overview of publications that contain information on the safety of 1897 census papers in Siberia. The second part of the article describes the creation and the structure of the database covering the primary materials of the First General Census of the Russian Empire taken in 1897. The third part of the article presents the main approaches to the analysis of the census data. When developing the database, the authors sought to cover the information of all census paper forms at most and preserve internal ties between them (counting sheets – “oblozhki” - census papers). Particular attention is paid to the development of an intuitive interface for all forms of data entry corresponding to census paper forms. The database mainly covers the census information for 8 cities of Tobolskaya Guberniya. The research novelty is the application of a new technique to identify personal data and analyze the census material structure which can be traced in the architecture of the 1897 census database.
Quantitative history
Karchaeva T.G., Kizhner I.A., Gergilev D.N. - Participation of Women in Local and Regional Soviets in Eastern Siberia from 1921 to 1936: Statistical Sources Analysis pp. 34-54

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32080

Abstract: The article studies how women were becoming participants of the social and political life in the first soviet decades thus proving the socialistic policy to eliminate the class and sex inequality widely spread at the beginning of the 20th century. The article explores the dynamics of Eastern Siberian women’s participation in local Soviets in Russia from 1921 to 1936, their social composition, professionalism and work ethics. To analyze raw data the authors use database technology and statistical methods. Computer technologies provided for processing mass historical sources: party censuses, service records and inquiry forms of civil servants. The authors conclude that the number of women fluctuated between 25% and 33% of the deputies and delegates to the local and regional Soviets (public councils), they lacked proper professional experience and education (about 80% had only primary school education), had peasant or labor class background and could not boast high level of work ethics. Moreover, many women were passive deputies without any visible demonstration of the service. Statistical analysis has demonstrated that women with middle professional education and higher education had higher positions in executive committees of Soviets. They were few in number but they contributed a lot to the developing new administration and government.
Historical process modeling
Anisimova D. - Helsinki Stock Exchange Index during World War One: Statistical Test of Hypotheses on the Basis of Counter-Factual Modeling pp. 55-65

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32459

Abstract: The article proposes an improved model of St. Petersburg Stock Exchange index dynamics and constructs a similar model of Helsinki Stock Exchange index on the basis of published results of a counterfactual model predicting the hypothetical dynamics of St. Petersburg Stock Exchange index after July 1914 under the assumption that there is no war. The author hypothesizes that internal economic factors that determined the downward trend of St. Petersburg Stock Exchange index also influenced the dynamics of Helsinki Stock Exchange index under the assumption that there was no war. To test this hypothesis the author has constructed (in the R software environment) the ARIMA statistical model that is an integrated autoregressive-moving average model which extends the ARMA model for non-stationary time series. The constructed counterfactual models proved that while the influence of pre-war factors remained, the dynamics of both indices did not show similar trends thus suggesting that the Finnish stock market was developing without any noticeable look at St. Petersburg Stock Exchange and inner economic factors of the Russian Empire.
Geographic information systems and 3D reconstruction
Vladimirov V., Krupochkin E.P., Sarafanov D.E. - A Subject-Oriented Historical GIS (the Example of Barnaul Infrastructure in the Late 18th Ц Early 20th Centuries) pp. 66-80

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32091

Abstract: The article studies the infrastructure of Barnaul city in the second half of the 18th - early 20th centuries. The study aims at acquiring new systematic knowledge about the way the infrastructure of West Siberian cities developed, the influence of infrastructural objects on city ecology, the correlation of demographical and ecological factors influencing the city development and urban population reproduction. The study rests on an extensive source database including written, cartographic and photo documents stored mainly in the state archives of Altai Krai and Tomskaya Oblast as well as a number of published sources. The methodological basis of the work is the systemic and interdisciplinary approaches, the general scientific as well as traditional historical research methods. Geoinformation analysis based on the subject-oriented historical geoinformation system created is used as the main way to obtain new information. The article analyzes spatial aspects of the city infrastructure and ecological factors of its development and demonstrates changes in the disposition of infrastructural objects in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The article concludes that the negative impact of ecologically unfriendly city objects was exerted mainly through aggravating sanitary environment and ecosystems.
Lemak S., Chertopolokhov V., Kruchinina A., Belousova M., Borodkin L., Mironenko M. - Optimization of Interface Elements Order in Virtual Reality (Virtual Reconstruction of Bely Gorod Historical Relief) pp. 81-93

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32205

Abstract: The article sets a problem focusing on how to optimize the order of 3D user interface for virtual reconstruction of Moscow historical center landscape in the 16th-18th centuries. To work with the interface a virtual reality headset, a motion tracking system and an eye-tracker were integrated. Spatial representation of the historical reconstruction is accompanied by a specialized interface that allows one to access the source database. The authors introduce a criterion that provides for estimating the optimum order of interface elements in the virtual space. The problem is handled in case there are unknown factors such as the size of user's hands, deviations in the position of an interactive object and restrictions related to the disposition of interface elements. The article sets the general problem and solves some internal problems related to the construction of acceptable multiple dispositions of interface elements and the modeling of eyesight movement from one interface element to another. The article is the first to suggest an algorithm to numerically optimize the interface in 3D virtual space modeling the relief and historical buildings in the center of Moscow. It provides for user’s movement and gives access to historical sources which are the basis for virtual reconstruction of the heritage understudy.
Methods and techniques of online analysis
Povroznik N., Smetanin A.V. - The Network of Zemstvo Glasnye: Sources of УParty AffiliationФ in the Local Government pp. 94-110

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.31884

Abstract: The article discusses how the factions in Moscow Zemstvo and Perm Zemstvo assemblies were formed in the first three years of their activity since zemstvos were founded in the second half of the 19th century. These zemstovs have been chosen in order to compare the political structure of the local government both in the capital and in provinces as well as to evaluate the factor of proximity to the imperial institutions and political processes. Both zemstvos directed the life of their economically developed guberniyas, were “active” and their experience was transferred across Russia due to its fruitful results. Social networks inform about glasnye (deputies) who led discussions as well as the decision making process and zemstvos work. As a result, one can find universal and specific features of deputies’ political fragmentation. The research methodology is the network approach and the social network analysis which provided for simulating interaction structures, identifying deputy groups and analyzing them. The authors have studied all journals of Moscow and Perm Zemstvos regular and emergency meetings held during the first three-year period of their activity and have singled out specific discussions. To study personal links they have collected auxiliary data sets providing information about deputies’ personal participation as well as the issues discussed. The study is the first to group glasnye, analyze their cliques and compare peculiar features of zemstvo meetings understudy. In general, the social network analysis supports the idea that personal activity at zemstvo meetings was more effective than the group one at the initial stage. This is supported by the voting results analysis as well. The formation of factions was also greatly hindered by social and political views of zemstvo members.
New methods and techniques of processing historical sources
Akasheva A.A., Chechin A.V. - A Technique to Reconstruct Nizhniy Novgorod Land Survey Plan and Borders in 1784 Based on Special Geodetic Software pp. 111-142

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32103

Abstract: A present-day task of historical GIS is to geotag ancient maps within еру modern coordinate system. These maps are sure to have many inaccuracies. In this regard, there is a need to develop algorithms accounting for these inaccuracies and allowing one to position sources with the smallest deformations and drawbacks. This task is also relevant for Russian plans of the General Survey. Their peculiarity is that they have accurate geodetic characteristics of plots. The research subject is a set of Nizhny Novgorod plans of the late 18th сentury which were the basis for a technique used to reconstruct the city borders and land survey plans. The research methodology is based on the historicism principal, systematicity and objectivity. The authors emphasize the role of statistical methods and apply specifically historical (historical and typological as well as historical and genetic) methods, the geodetic method to process and equalize transit traverse, modeling and cartometry. The research novelty is determined by the algorithm of city borders and historical land survey plans reconstruction, technological solutions for studying the object by means of geodetic programs, new data on land management and cartographic materials based on land management results in the specific region of Russia. The main conclusions are the positioned borders of Nizhny Novgorod in the conditional coordinate system. It was found that transit traverses of plots studied had significant angle linear errors. For settlement plots they are 3°29' and 1/31 and for pasture plots they are 2°49' and 1/80. For Blagoveshchenskiy Monastery they are 0°37’and 1/139. A raster land survey plan of Nizhny Novgorod has been made. It can be further used for geotagging and creating historical GIS.
Digital history
Karagodin A.V. - Historical Thematic Website УSimeiz. Guide to Old DachasФ: Stages of Development and Research Prospects pp. 143-157

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32009

Abstract: The article summarizes preliminary results related to the development and operation of historical thematic website “Simeiz. Guide to Old Dachas”. The website was created by the author and his colleagues in 2019 as a part of a workshop at the Department of Source Studies of the Lomonosov Moscow State University History Faculty. The workshop aimed at studying the history of the southern coast of Crimea in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The stages and preliminary results of this work are considered in the context of current discussions about the “digital turn” in history. The author analyses the reasons for creating the historical website, its structure, development stages, specific features of its content, database creation and crowdsourcing.  It is stated that the website development was the first important step of the whole research project, its “driver”. Moreover, besides a new form of historical knowledge dissemination, the work on the site provided for setting new source and analytical tasks that is to increase the information impact of sources and get new opportunities for processing the electronic database. These results may be of interest to historians who run similar historical projects.
Chronicles of scientific life
Vladimirov V., Garskova I.M., Frolov A. - Historical Information Science within a New Interdisciplinary Field: the Academic Symposium Addressing the 15th Anniversary of the Historical Information Science Department of Moscow University pp. 158-170

DOI:
10.7256/2585-7797.2020.1.32584

Abstract: The article discusses the scientific symposium addressing the 15th anniversary of the Historical Information Science Department – a part of Lomonosov Moscow University History Faculty. The authors analyze the reports and notes that they are dominated by the spatial approach to historical phenomena and processes. The reports addressed virtual 3D reconstruction of historical and cultural heritage objects as well as the application of geographic information systems and technologies to historical studies. All the conclusions were actively debated by the symposium participants. The methodological basis of the article is the information approach, the use of description and analysis methods. The authors briefly characterize the results of the latest studies applying digital technologies and review the development of historical studies based on mathematics and computer science methods. Herewith, emphasis is laid on the Moscow school of historical information science, primarily the studies carried out at the Historical Information Science Department of Lomonosov Moscow University History Faculty.
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