Space Research - rubric Space Economics and Business
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Rubric "Space Economics and Business"
Space Economics and Business
Yanik A.A. - Space Transformation of the Economy: Harbingers and Trends pp. 1-14


Abstract: The subject of the research is the problems of analysis and monitoring of a new economic phenomenon - the global space economy. Russian economics and official documents do not use the concept of "space economy." However, internationally, it has become firmly established in public discourse; the space economy is the object of systematic observations, cross-country comparisons, and evaluation. The paper shows that the evolution of the space economy and the growth of its influence on "earthly life" are ahead of scientific understanding. But attention to this object is necessary because, according to various signs, we can state the beginning of the "space transformation" of the world economy.The paper develops theoretical ideas about the phenomenon of the space economy and analyses the difficulties associated with monitoring this phenomenon. The author concludes that the vision of a space economy transformative role is increasingly spreading in the international context. However, as with digital transformation, the scientific understanding of this process is still lagging behind the rapidly changing realities.
Payson D. - Space Dichotomies: On Binary Divisions of the Space Activities pp. 15-21


Abstract: The article is dealing with the identification and analysis of various variants of binary division (dichotomy) of the international space activity that is considered as a set of implemented projects or market sales. The key aspects of the modern development of space activities influence not only the technological, but mainly the institutional, organizational and economic features of interaction between participants in space activities and the effectiveness measurement. Such binary divisions of space activities as "applied vs.non-applied", "commercial vs.non-profit", "public vs.private", "budget vs.non-budget " are considered. In addition, an important aspect of the separation of the results of space activities into products/services and projects is considered. Further directions of research in this area are shown, including the development of model indicators and criteria for the effectiveness of space activities in their various forms and types.
Shubin P.S. - On the history and problems of Russian participation in the market of launch services to geostationary orbit pp. 22-35


Abstract: The subject of the study is the history of the global market for placing satellites into geostationary orbit from the 1990s to the present. The author analyses various reasons (economic, technological, political, etc.), which helped the Russian Federation take a leading position in this market at the end of the XX centuries and lose them now. Special attention is paid to the American policy of sanctions and prohibitions used as a tool for regulating the global space market. Also, the actions of the rocket and space industry of China in the conditions of sanctions by the United States are considered. The paper provides the forecast of possible acts of Russia in a similar situation. For the first time, the paper presents the milestones in the economic history of the Russian launch vehicles in the global space market. The study of this topic allowed us to analyze the origins of Russia's successes and problems in the international market of launch services, as well as to assess the prospective availability of this market segment for Russian players.
Payson D. - On a Comparative Analysis of the Space Market Structural Models pp. 34-52


Abstract: The international space market and associated value chain are considered. We consider the generally accepted approaches promoted by the Satellite Industry Association to analyzing the structure and quantitative parameters of the space products and services market based on the gross turnover approach as well as government funding specifics. The approach suggested by G.Graziola of Bergamo University is analyzed that is based on the space industry/space economy dichotomy. The market structure is interpreted based in the Russia national standardization and experience. The prerequisites for the formation of a substantially different market structure are considered, based on the idea of the added values calculation along the value chain.
Payson D.B. - The phenomenon of the SpaceX as a challenge to the international space market pp. 36-50


Abstract: This article is devoted to the research of the latest changes taking place on the international space market, as well as the new challenges emerging before its major players, including U. S. and Russia. The main attention is given to the analysis of the peculiarities of the strategy and work of one of the most unusual “players” in the modern space economy – a private American corporation SpaceX, which not only sort of challenged the current tradition in this area, but also actively influences the process of its institutional renovation. This work assesses the influence of the “SpaceX phenomenon” upon the institutional environment of the space economy on the national (United States) and global scale, upon trends of development of the global space activity, and national space “agenda”. Although the examined phenomenon is an endemic product of American system and the experience of SpaceX is unlikely to be transferred in an unchanged form into other national jurisdictions, the work of the corporation is objectively becoming the drive of development of the space market as a whole. The new U. S. model of relations between the state and the private sector in the space sphere is currently significantly ahead of any analogues of the Old World, and thus, this experience requires meticulous studying for the purpose of transferring valuable results.
Payson D.B., Popova S.M. - Innovative development of the rocket and space industry in Russia: challenges and potentialities pp. 36-45


Abstract: The research subject is the peculiarities of innovative development of the rocket and space industry in the Russian Federation. Based on the complex analysis of external and internal challenges and the institutional and legal context of this sector reforming, the authors detect the obstacles to quantitative changes in the development of one of the key sectors of Russia’s economics. The study shows that in the context of the new challenges, the improvement of adaptive capacities of the rocket and space industry of Russia and its capacity for internal changes and transparency is of a prime importance. To accomplish the research tasks, the authors apply the system, structural-functional, comparative-historical, comparative-legal, formal-logical and other research methods. The authors conclude that in terms of the peculiarities of the goals and tasks of the “Roscosmos” company, it is becoming a unique institution, according to its scale and complexity, working in the sphere of development of a specific sector of Russia’s economics, though its institutional status and the related functions haven’t been formally legalized in the federal legislation. The authors note that the successful modernization of the rocket and space industry determines the possibility for Russia to remain the leader in the field of space exploration.  
Kosenkov I.A., Komissarov V.K. - New Space Markets: A Blue Ocean of the Final Frontier? pp. 53-143


Abstract: The current state and prospects for the development of new markets for space-based products and services related to material production outside the Earth's atmosphere are considered. The analysis of the main factors that led to the growth of interest in the "material" space markets after the period of development of their information segments was carried out. A brief overview of the current state of affairs with venture financing of projects in the field of extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, orbital services and space production is provided. The need to address the regulatory legal issues of the use of extraterrestrial resources in the context of the international status of the “common heritage of mankind” is emphasized. The conclusion is made about the ecosystem nature of the extraterrestrial resources’ utilization projects. The methods of segmental analysis of integrated markets for goods and services are implemented taking into account the economic and legal factors causing their future development.
Yanik A.A. - Peculiarities of commercialization of the results of private research and development for NASA: the experience of the Small Business Innovation Research Program


Abstract: The research subject is the analysis of the specificity of NASA’s interrelation with small and medium businesses in the sphere of scientific research and development. The research is based on the results of NASA’s public-private partnership programs in the sphere of space activities, primarily the long-term Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Special attention is given to the methods used for the evaluation of the progress of commercialization of the results of small businesses’ R&D for the aerospace agency. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific research methods – formal-logical, comparative, transition from concrete to abstract, analysis, synthesis and others. Based on the results of the regular effectiveness audit of the SBIR program, conducted by national academies of sciences of the USA, the author concludes that the development of NASA’s management systems, including the level of its adaptability, ability to transform, and transparency, is a necessary condition, but it is not enough for the improvement of the research intensity of the related economic sector. The author concludes that within NASA’s area of responsibility, including its key state partners, general contractors, the academic community and other participants of scientific and innovation activities, the models of evaluation of the level of commercialization in terms of common economic activities (for example, the volume of sales or gross proceeds) have limited applicability. The main criteria are the broadening of the total volume of technological knowledge in space and missile sector, and the potential commercial value of R&D results, even if they haven’t entered the market yet. Another criterion is the development level of the information infrastructure of the sector, which is also the key instrument of functioning of the modern system of space activities. 
Uvarov V.B. -


Yilmaz S. - Space and Turkey


Abstract: Around the world, increasing numbers of developing countries are investing in space-related technologies, seeking partners for space projects, and even constructing launch facilities. Those countries must overcome many hurdles to benefit the space independently for their own security and to make significant contributions to peaceful activities, even if they use the advantage of turning up late in space studies. To see the concern between science and technology and space science and its technology within a country, it is sufficient to take a look at Research and Development investments supported by realistic policies. Incipient countries must consider the importance of international cooperation to share the risk and cost and to create synergy, rather than following and copying the initiators in discovery of space, they should be able to develop new technologies and creative solutions with increasing international actors and projects, and be prepared for future with flexible and sensational plans. Turkey took important steps within the last 20 years but these efforts could not attain desired results yet. Turkey gained a position as satellite and satellite sub-system developing country in the world classification of active countries with initiated space projects. Besides not having sufficient space industry within the country, most important obstacle towards Turkey is undeveloped social consciousness in this field.
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