- 4 2017 . - - . ISSN: 2453-8817 - NotaBene
Space Research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Space Research" > Contents of Issue 04/2017
Contents of Issue 04/2017
Astrophysics
Serga E.V. -

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.25139

Abstract:
Serga E.V. - On the nature of redshifts in the galactic spectrums pp. 243-251

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.68662

Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of redshifts in galactic spectrums. Modern natural science as-sociates this effect with the Doppler shift as the result of the expending universe. Dopplers interpretation of the redshifts is based on the perception of the cosmic space (cosmic vacuum) as emptiness. However, such interpretation is outdated in light of modern scientiic knowledge, which allows us to observe cosmic (physical) vacuum as a material environment with speciic characteristics. The key prerequisite for this work is the position on the unity of the vacuum territory in physics of the microworld and space physics. The proposed model explains the effect of redshifts in galactic spectrums as one of the vacuum effects explained by the interaction of the photons with the vacuum as a physical environment. Such approach al-lows, using new scientiic data, returning to the earlier rejected hypothesis of the Russian and Soviet astrophysicist Aristarkh Belopolsky on loss of energy of photons in their movement through space proposed by him in 1929.
Space Economics and Business
Uvarov V.B. -

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.25023

Abstract:
Uvarov V.B. - Increasing the eficiency of the use of the ISS: modern approaches towards commercialization of space experiments. pp. 252-261

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.68663

Abstract: This work is devoted to studying the conditions for eficient development of the space infrastructure as a com-ponent the new space economy. The subject of the analysis is the place and role played by the manned orbital complexes, including the International Space Stations (ISS), in creation of technological innovations that can also be implemented in the earth economy. Special attention is given to the analysis of current approaches towards commercialization of the results of scientiic research conducted on the ISS, as well as assessment of prospects of transfer of modern foreign organizational and administrational solutions in this area to the Russian space industry. On the example of the space experiment Organaut, prepared for the interests of a private company, the author demonstrates the practical possibility of transfer of modern in-ternational technological solutions on expediting the tempos of expansion of the space infrastructure into Russian practice. A conclusion is made on the need to reduce the bureaucratic cycle of preparation of space experiments and reasonableness of implementation of special institution of development outside the perimeter GK Roskosmos.
Space Law
Lozhkovoi P.N. - Information about the Territory: International Law Issues

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.24426

Abstract: The article is devoted to the legal aspects of the remote sensing of the Earth from the outer space. The author of the article underlines that the international law commonly uses the territorial supremacy principle, however, lacks a proper legal status of information about the territory. The author believes that information about the territory has the same status as the territory itself, thus the state has the same rights for the information about the territory that it has for its territory. The author of the article also pays attention to the control over information as a property. The methodological basis of the research involves general research methods (systems approach, functional and general logical methods such as analysis and syhthesis and etc.) and special law methods. As a result of the research, the author concludes that a state has all legal rights to limit the distribution of information about its territory. This is a complex right that fully provides an opportunity to control information. The author of the article also underlines that current contradictions between the countries can be solved by signing international acts that involve parties concerned. 
Lozhkovoy P.N. - Status of information of state territory: international law issues pp. 262-272

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.68664

Abstract: his article examines the international law aspects of remote probing of Earth from space. It is noted that the international law holds the generally accepted principle of territorial supremacy of state, but there is no legal status on information about the territory. The author believes that information about the territory carries the same status as the ter-ritory itself and that the state has the same full rights with regards to the information as it has over its territory. Attention is given to examination of the issue of control over the propriety in form of information. It is summarized that the state has legal right to restrict spread of information about itself and such right, being a complex one, gives the state ability to control the information. A claim is made that the existing contradictions between the countries can be resolved through signing international treaties with participation of interested parties.
Popova S.M. -

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.25135

Abstract:
Popova S.M. - Luxembourgs SpaceResources.lu initiative and possible consequences for regulation of the global market on space exploration pp. 273-285

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.68665

Abstract: The object of this research is the changes in the national space policy of countries and regulation of the global market of space exploration. The importance of monitoring these changes is justiied by the possibility of emergence of unexpected events (black swan), capable of bringing changes to the current rules of the game, disruption in the balance of the competitive positions and reformation of the global space economy upon new terms. The subject of this research is the development of the Luxembourg initiative SpaceResources.lu associated with creation favorable ecosystem within the framework of state-private partnership for involvement into national economy companies that specialize in cutting-edge special exploration. Special attention is given to the analysis of Luxembourg law from July 20, 2017 on exploration and use of space resources, which represents the irst European bill that establishes on the national level guarantees of rights to ownership of resources extracted from space. A conclusion is made that emergence of national legislative bills that violate the current rules of the game on the space exploration market are to a certain extent unavoidable, since the tempo of inter-national lawmaking lags behind the demand of real sector of space economy for new legal solutions that would promote its successful development.
Paris C., Sindoni G., Di Sabato T. - Close Approaches of Debris to LARES Satellite During Its First Four Years of Operation

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.24976

Abstract: Since its launch in February 2012, the LAser RElativity Satellite (LARES) of the Italian Space Agency experienced four close approaches with space debris. LARES orbits at an altitude of 1450 km, in a region where the density of space debris has a peak. However, the probability of an impact with a debris during the operational life of the satellite was reasonably low. The analysis of the close approaches identified three of the objects, that are from two peculiar population of objects. This paper discusses the problem of space debris in low orbit, the approaches occurred with LARES, and some possible scenarios related to space regulations and space law in case of an impact.
Paris K., Sindoni D., Di Sabato T. - Close Approaches of Debris to LARES Satellite During Its First Four Years of Operation pp. 286-299

DOI:
10.7256/2453-8817.2017.4.68666

Abstract: Since its launch in February 2012, the LAser RElativity Satellite (LARES) of the Italian Space Agency experienced four close approaches with space debris. LARES orbits at an altitude of 1450 km, in a region where the density of space debris has a peak. However, the probability of an impact with a debris during the operational life of the satellite was reasonably low. The analysis of the close approaches identified three of the objects, that are from two peculiar population of objects. This paper discusses the problem of space debris in low orbit, the approaches occurred with LARES, and some possible scenarios related to space regulations and space law in case of an impact.
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