Genesis: Historical research - rubric History of science and technology
Genesis: Historical research
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History of science and technology
Yashina A.V. - Science as an instrument of the Soviet state building during the 1920s 1930s pp. 1-9


Abstract: Within the framework of this article, the author analyzes the state of national science and society during the period of drastic transformations of the 1920’s – 1930’s. Examination of problems of the history of science along with its impact upon the transformation of socio0cultiral and economic context, interaction between the scholars and government during the pivotal period of the Russian history, allows rationalizing the existing strategies for the new scientific and social breakthroughs. The author describes the main features of transformation of the organization of science in Russia during the period under consideration, as well as analyzes “science” through the prism of social design. The research leans on the theories, data and methods in the context of historical, philosophical, anthropological, politological and sociological studies of science, technologies and engineering. The conclusion is made that the Soviet government that perceived science as the major driving force of not only of economic, but also social and political progress, established new requirements to the academic community and adjusted the conditions of its existence and functioning, which allowed the authorities to ensure the essential foundation for the economic development and social changes. The early Soviet period was characterized not only by the emergence of the new institutional form for the science, but also mobilization of the country’s scientific potential, experimental and, at times, revolutionary scientific projects. At the same time, excessive indoctrination of science, repressive and utilitarian nature of government turned science into the mechanism for implementation of their political objectives “here and now”, rather than the institution of the development of knowledge.
Belousov A.S. - Naval shipbuilding on the Don River during the 1721-1735 pp. 1-14


Abstract: The object of this research is the Russian navy during the ruling time of Peter the Great and Anna of Russia under the circumstances of escalation of foreign policy situation in Azov and Black Sea regions. The subject of this research is the history of restoration and development of naval shipbuilding on the Don River during the 1721-1735. Based on the published and archival materials, the author examines the process of formation of Don Flotilla comprised of nine large and six small prams, fifteen gallivants, and thirty small vessels. Methodological framework consists of the problematic-chronological, comparative-historical and structural-functional methods. Special role belongs to the method of historical reconstruction that allowed reproducing the stages of shipbuilding works on the Don River during the 1721-1735. The article demonstrates the details of the process of construction works during the 1721-1724, their demothballing in 1733, and further construction of the ships of Don Flotilla prior to Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739. The author also analyzes the shipbuilding process itself, which main conclusions consist in the statement that the flotilla was not ready to the beginning of large-scale military operations against the Ottoman Empire.
Bocharov A.A., Mikhailov A.A., Fisheva A.A. - Popularization of Scientific and Technical Knowledge, Aviation, Military and Political Issues Conceptualized in the Literary Works of Nikolai Nikolaevich Shpanov (1896-1961) pp. 11-28



Abstract: The paper discusses popular science and fiction (primarily science fiction) works of N.N. Shpanov, the Soviet writer and pilot, one of the founders of military fiction genre in Soviet literature. In his works a certain mood in society, its aspirations and expectations, supported by the countrys political leaders, are mirrored. The article analyzes as well N.N. Shpanovs activity in the field of promotion of knowledge about aviation, writer's prediction on the course of the upcoming clash with a powerful western power (Germany), made by him on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, and the role of military aviation in this confrontation. The main conclusion of the study is that in the 1920-1930s N.N. Shpanov, having gained technical knowledge and broad experience in the period of his studying at the Polytechnic University, then at aeronautical courses and later on while serving in aviation, in his literary work popularizes new ideas coherent with geographical research, science, and technology, especially aviation. Since the late 1930s in writings of N.N. Shpanov the disposition towards spreading the ideas and policies of the Stalin periods Soviet propaganda showed itself. The imprint of large-scale historical events, military, and technical concepts reflected in books of N.N. Shpanov makes the analysis of his works substantial as it is firmly bound with the history of science, aviation, and social consciousness in the USSR.
Shebyrova L.G. - Life and scientific work of Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov in France pp. 12-27


Abstract: Based on the archive and published documents, this article examines the details of biography and scientific work of the Russian emigrant scholar Sergei Ivanovich Metalnikov during his life in France, after 1919. This period is extremely important for the social history of science and history of biology. The goal of this work is to reproduce the new details of Metalnikov’s biography, which pertain to his scientific and social activity. The author conducts a historical-scientific analysis along with systematization of the scholar’s scientific works, archive and published documents that reveal the facts of his personal and professional path, as well as his views. The author thoroughly examines and determines the main directions of Metalnikov’s scientific work during within this timeframe, including the research on correlation between the immune system and nervous system, immunology and pathology of the insects, and biological methods of pest control. A number of new archive documents from the scholar’s epistolary heritage are being introduced into the scientific circulation. The author also reveals Metalnikov’s active participation in social life of the Russian scientific emigration, as well as his civil position, political views, and the given by Metalnikov scientific explanation.
Sharov K.S. - The role of Biblical prophecies within global historical process from the perspective of Isaac Newtons historiography pp. 13-21


Abstract: The object of this research is some of Isaac Newton’s unpublished archival manuscripts from Yehuda Collection preserved in the National Library of Israel (Jerusalem), Keynes Archive in the King’s College of Cambridge University, and Archive of the Library of Martin Bodmer Foundaiton (Cologny, Switzerland). The subject of this research is the civilizational theory of Isaac Newton. The goal lies in apprehension of the place and role of prophecies in the history of human society from the perspective of Newton’s civilizational theory. Particular attention is given to examination of the role of Biblical prophecies within Newton’s historiography. Methodology includes approaches, principles and procedures of archival research and source study, historical hermeneutics, structural analysis, and comparative literary studies. The following conclusions were made:  1) Hermeneutics of prophecies is one of the central parts of Newton’s civilizational theory; prophecies and historical sources differ only with regards to time – prophecies become history at the moment of their accomplishment. 2) Newton believes that the entire global historical process is strictly predetermined by God’s will, since the creation of the world until the apocalyptic end of times; at the same time, prophecies are God’s voluntary revelation of facts about the forthcoming historical events. 3) The components of Newton’s hermeneutics of prophecies are described. 4) It is demonstrated that for Newton the heuristic value of Ancient Jewish and New Testament prophecies is much higher than the Antique and Ancient Eastern prophetic vision. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author is first to systematize Newton’s outlook upon the role of prophecies within the course of world history sporadically spread through a number of manuscripts that are currently preserved in the three archives.  
Ripak I.A. - Stages of Anglo-American cooperation in the framework of the first atomic projects pp. 13-26



Abstract: Nuclear weapons, which have largely defined the landscape of international relations since the mid-20th century and have turned conflicts between great powers into proxy wars and local clashes, were first developed through the collective efforts of the United States and Great Britain during World War II. Although the allies eventually completed their work on nuclear weapons together, their contributions were not equal. This was reflected in the dividends received by each side in the end. In addition, the nuclear projects were not initially conducted separately, experiencing periods of growth and decline in cooperation with each other that did not coincide with the overall trend of allied relations. The purpose of the study is to identify and capture the specific stages of Anglo-American cooperation within the framework of the first atomic projects of Great Britain and the United States. US and UK historiography has studied various aspects of both the American Manhattan Project and the British "Tube Alloys", including the role of diplomacy and the influence of allied cooperation on the development of nuclear weapons. Soviet and Russian historiography, despite a significantly smaller volume of works on this topic, also addressed these issues. However, neither Russian nor American and British researchers have established any clear periodization of allied nuclear projects cooperation. The study demonstrates the dynamics of relations between Great Britain and the United States in the atomic sphere, identifies the main contradictions between allies that led to the stagnation and cessation of atomic cooperation, and indicates the causes of the resumption and intensification of such cooperation. The conclusion separates Anglo-American cooperation into seven stages. Each stage is determined and characterized by the comparative level of project development at a particular moment, as well as constantly changing interests of the both sides.
Konov A.A. - Railway transport of Urals and Siberia in the 1956-1991: modernization of diesel locomotive traction pp. 14-29


Abstract: The subject of this research is the modernization of diesel locomotive traction in the railway transport of Urals and Siberia, its technical-economic effects in transportation process and development of logistics of the railway transport. The author sets a goal to unlock the technical and economic potential of diesel locomotive traction, and determine the causes of its gradual replacement with the electric traction. An attempt is made to analyzes the results of using diesel locomotive traction in the railways of Urals and Siberia, as well as objectively assess its implication for modernization of railway transport. The research is conducted within the framework of modernization theory. The modernization of diesel locomotive traction is a transitional state in the development of railway transport from steam locomotive traction towards the electric traction, aimed at increasing the cargo and passenger flows on railways along with estimated capacity of railway yards, and exploitation of new railway lines. The scientific novelty lies in studying the modernization processes on the materials of railway transport of Urals and Siberia. Within a decade, diesel locomotives displaces the steam locomotive traction from the main railroads, increased the estimated capacity of railway yards, enabled the formation and maintenance of the new railway network in the area of the West Siberian oil and gas complex. Moreover, the technical capabilities of diesel locomotive traction with regards on increased cargo traffic were limited; thus, it could not become an alternative direction in modernization of railway transport of Urals and Western Siberia. The priority vector in the development of railway transport became the electrification.
Prischepa A.S. - Restoration and development of Leningrad machine building in the second half of the 1940s - 1960s. pp. 14-23


Abstract: The subject of the study is the process of restoration and development of Leningrad machine building in the post-war period, which was characterized by important socio-economic and industrial transformations. The starting point in this is the lifting of the siege of Leningrad and the beginning of the restoration process in the city's industry. The machine-building industry, as well as the entire production environment of the city as a whole, needed restructuring. The equipment had to be replaced or thoroughly improved. Labor cadres actively participated not only in the revival of the lost industrial potential, but also helped to update and modernize existing production, and in the future to make changes in technological methods of work and management on them. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that the author attempted to demonstrate a set of measures aimed at the restoration and development of Leningrad machine building in the mid–1940s – mid–1960s. At the same time, special attention is paid to key projects and joint labor activity of representatives of the working personnel, engineering and technical staff and scientists of the city for the further development of technological operations that were carried out during the study period. Separately, the article provides examples illustrating the process of development of scientific and technological progress in the Leningrad machine-building industry, including the improvement of technological methods and techniques.
Skrydlov A. - Institutionalization of statistical science in universities of the Russian Empire (late XVIII early XIX centuries) pp. 24-38


Abstract: The object of this research is the process of institutionalization of statistical science in Russia in the early XIX century. The article examines the history of emergence within the structure of Russian universities of the corresponding departments and inclusion of statistical knowledge into lectures. The author analyzes the peculiarities of teaching statistical science in the Moscow, Kharkov, Kazan, and Saint Petersburg universities. Special attention is given to the activity of M. l. Magnitsky and D. P. Runich, which led to termination of the reputable scholars-statisticians from Kazan and Saint Petersburg universities. The research leans on the basic methods of historical science – problem-chronological for studying the time sequence of events; historical-genetic and historical comparative that allow studying the genesis and key stages of development of statistical education in the Russian universities. It is established that teaching statistics in form of political science initially appeared in the last third of the XVIII century in the Moscow University. Statistical courses were read upon personal initiative of the professors and were not established by the provisional “Project” of 1755. In their lectures, the first educators were guided by the experience of Göttingen University, which in the mid XVIII century became the center of the German school of political science. The university reform of 1802-1804 in Russia led to the creation of new system of higher education. In accordance with the norms of the Decrees of 1804, statistics was introduced into the curriculum of Russian universities for the first time. The article explores the key stages of organization of teaching statistics, such as unification of the content of lectures, publishing of course books, establishment of scientific schools.
Uzbekova Y.I. - Council for the Study of Productive Forces within the system of mobilized science (1930 1950s) pp. 32-43


Abstract: In the scientific system of “Stalin’s modernization” period a special place was held by the Council for the Study of Productive Forces (CCPF), which after its establishment in 1930 was charged with thorough research on the country’s natural resources. The activity of the Council, similar to other scientific institutions, was subordinated to the stringent production-oriented policy of the country’s leadership; therefore, its experience may be considered as an important source for designing the model of the “mobilized” Stalin’s science. Emphasis is made on the causes and dynamics of the reforms that took place with the Council for the Study of Productive Forces throughout 1930’s – 1950’s, as well as the key changes in the Council’s development strategy. For this purpose the author applied the historical-systemic method and the concept of the social institution of science. The article provides characteristics to the new concept of development, formulated in the end of 1940’s, underlining the role of the state’s general economic strategy in selection of particular forms and vectors for the work of CCPF. The conclusion is made that CCPF was influenced objectives of accelerated modernization of Stalin’s period to the full extent. The logics of the development of CCPF structures, topic of scientific research, shift of productive forces towards East in the late 1940’s – all these was justified by the course of central leadership. It is noted that the administrative-command system created multiple obstacles for the effective work of the Council for the Study of Productive Forces and its cooperation with the Academy of Sciences and other organizations. From the practical perspective, the case of interest is the mechanism of interaction between scientific and departmental structures in implementation of plans for the rapid creation of industrial centers in the conditions of limited time and material resources.
Makurin A.I., Ulianova I.A. - On the eve of the era of "highways": on the History of Federal Highway Construction in the USA pp. 32-43


Abstract: The object of the study is the history of the formation of the federal highway construction system in the United States before the First World War. The subject of the study is the economic, social and political prerequisites for the emergence of the idea of federal financing of road construction. The article examines the socio-political struggle that unfolded in American society at the beginning of the XX century on the need for federal participation in the creation of a highway network. The most important link in the Government's road policy was the creation of a system of federal agencies dealing with road construction problems. The study of this issue allows us to trace the evolution of the approaches of the public and politicians in solving the problem of the separation of powers of the states and the federal government in the field of road construction. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that the issue of federal funding is considered in the context of traditional discussions about the separation of powers of the states and the federal government, as well as the problems of strategic planning. The authors' attention is focused on the fact that previously the allocation of money for the construction of roads from federal funds was considered an unacceptable measure that violates the constitutional autonomy of the states. But strategic problems demanded a new look at this feature of the US state structure. The results of the study allow us to conclude that the Federal Road Assistance Act of 1916 meant recognition of the need for federal regulation of road construction and became an important precedent that opened up the possibility of creating a nationwide road network in the future.
Borisova N. - Systematization and analysis of priority discrepancies in electrical telegraphy pp. 37-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the systematization and analysis of different opinions of the countries that stood at the origins of electrical telegraphy (Russia, England, Germany, United States) regarding the question of who invented an electrical telegraph. The lower boundary of the period under consideration is the time of the emergence of first electrical telegraphs (1830’s); the upper boundary – is the time of completion of the most bitter priority conflicts (1850’s). On each of the four countries, the author analyzes value judgments of the key experts; determines the priority discrepancies, both international and domestic. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive character of studying priority discrepancies pertaining to electrical telegraphy and determined patterns in the nature of ambiguous priority assessments. The desire to defend prestige or gain commercial profit are the key reasons for priority discrepancies, The first reason serves as the motive for scientific disputes; the second one – for conflicts and litigations between the self-professed inventors. The opinion of all indicated countries on the priority in electrical telegraphy was based on the different understanding of the term “priority”. The Russians adhered to formal interpretation of priority (the pioneer is considered the person who patented or declared an invention) and defended the priority of Schilling. The countries that succeeded at the stage of proliferation of an invention, tended to consider the invention itself as a prehistory. The research results as an example of scientifically justified explanation of the existence of priority contests may be used for popularization of the national scientific and technological achievements in mass media, museum and educational activities.
Krasnozhenova E.E., Kulik S.V., Prischepa A.S. - Scientific and Production Activity of Leningrad Higher Education Institutions in the Years of the Blockade (on the Example of M.I. Kalinin Leningrad Polytechnical Institute) pp. 40-46



Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of scientific, practical and production activities of employees of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute named after M.I. Kalinin during blockade. The purpose of the scientific publication is to study examples of real practical assistance of employees of the Polytechnic Institute during years of the blockade through research work. In the course of the research, author used the method of comparative analysis, and presented types, features of technological improvement of performance of production operations are shown using descriptive technique. The principles of historicism and scientific objectivity helped the authors to reveal the objective factors that influenced the assistance of the industrial and labor collective of the city in production. The paper presents cases of participation of the scientific staff of the university in the organization of a number of events related to the conversion of peaceful production for military needs, participation in the development and construction of the ice route "Road of Life". In conclusion, it should be noted that the scientific and pedagogical staff of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute made a huge contribution to the organization of the work of industrial enterprises during the blockade. Most of the scientific works of the university scientists were of a practical nature. Being in extreme conditions, despite all the difficulties, teaching staff of the university continued to work, publish works, conduct experiments that made it possible to ensure the work of enterprises of the Leningrad industry, thereby making a huge contribution to the Victory over fascism.
Egorova S.L. - The phenomenon of private correspondence in biographical context on the example of letters of the Antiquity Researcher Professor Natalia Vasilievna Vulikh pp. 45-57


Abstract: This article describes the life circumstances and scientific activities of the Doctor of Philological Science, Leningrad Professor of Antiquity, Vice-President of the International Society “Ovidianum” – Natalia Vasilievna Vulikh (1915-2012), who resided in Komi Republic (Syktyvkar, Ukhta) during the period of 1980’s – 2000’s. A set of letters by N. V. Vulikh over the period from 1981 to 2004, preserved in personal corpus of the Syktyvkar scholars-philologists A. E. Vaneev and I. M. Vaneeva of the Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The article applies the historical-biographical method that allows describing the persona of N. V. Vulikh from the standpoint of her life story and sociocultural context. Based on the letters, the author determines the creative contacts of N. V. Vulikh, geography of academic trips, topics of research and conference presentations, as well as the plans for continued academic activities. The work demonstrated N. V. Vulikh’s personal attitude to the events taking place in science and education, situation in the country, and her emotional disposition. A conclusion is made on the value of sources of personal origin for explication of the scholar’s scientific biography in the context the era.
Fando R.A. - Nicholas Sergeevich Obraztsov (1906-1966): life journey of the forgotten scholar pp. 50-57


Abstract: The object of this research is the Russian scientific emigration to the United States. The subjects is the biography of the prominent entomologist Nicholas Obraztsov, who emigrated during the Great Patriotic War from the Soviet Union to Germany, and later the United States. His life journey is an illustration of a challenging fate of the Russian native, who happened to live in a foreign country, and was condemned to oblivion on his motherland. Referring to the scholar’s biography allows filling the gaps in the history of Russian natural science, which appeared due to a longtime suppression of the achievements of Russian emigrant scholars. The biography of N. S. Obraztsov is viewed with consideration of the psychological, sociocultural and thematic-disciplinary aspects. The main results lies in reconstruction of the life journey of the famous entomologist. The author analyzes the scientific contribution made by Obraztsov to the development of morphology and systematics of various groups of insects, publishing of scientific and reference literature, as well as creation of museum collections. The absence in the national historiography of the works and scientific activity of N. S. Obraztsov underlines the novelty of the presented material.
Borisova N. - The emergence of radar in different countries: comparative-historical analysis pp. 51-73


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of participants of the first radar projects in the pioneer countries (Soviet Union, United States, Great Britain, Germany), aimed at creation of prototype models and improvement of technical characteristics of new equipment. The goal consists in determination of the role of Soviet works in the genesis of radar. The evolutionary process of creation of the first radars, unfolded in the prewar period (1930s), is viewed individually for each country, with identification of differences and similarities. At the time of joining the World War II, all countries were armed with dozens of radars of meter and decimeter wavelength ranges, which were not too distant and accurate. Invention of a powerful multi-resonant magnetron of centimeter wavelength range (" core " of the radar) became a revolutionary event, since the transition to the centimeter range was capable to improve the radar parameters for successful accomplishment of military operations. Special attention is given to the little-known events in the history of this invention. Comparative analysis of the origin of radar in different countries (including foreign research), which was carried out for the first time, proves that the unique construct of the Soviet multi-resonant magnetron Alekseev-Malyarov had a priority, and perhaps, copied by other countries. The research results consists in illustration of the origin of radar overall, and Soviet contribution to the world history of radar in particular. Popularization of national scientific and technological achievements by the mass media, museum and educational activities may become the sphere of application of the obtained knowledge.
Bagaev A.B. - Modernization of small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century pp. 52-56


Abstract: The subject of this research is the small arms of Ossetians of the last quarter of XIX century. This topic remains insufficiently studied but is important in studying the military art of Ossetian people. Within the indicated timeframe, Ossetia faced the modernization processes in the area of small arms: the old armament, especially rifles, was actively replaced with the new, more improved. The author thoroughly examines the two systems of breechloader that were widely spread in Ossetia during this time. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this question is subjected to extensive analysis for the first time. The results of this research covered the previously insufficiently studied question about the systems of rifles that comprised the inventory of Ossetians of the late XIX century. The author determined the time of replacement of the muzzle-loading flintlocks with the breechloaders. The article also describes the impact of the Russian military culture upon modernization processes in the area of armament of Ossetians.
Aleksandrova I.N. - Connecting youth to the scientific and technological achievements in the late 1950s early 1960s pp. 53-67


Abstract: This article is confined to the 100th anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol). The author examines the role of Komsomol in realization of the state youth policy aimed at connecting of young people to the scientific and technological achievements of the late 1950’s – early 1960’s. Documents of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History, as well as the collections of regulations” sealed as “top secret” compiled the main group of sources for this research. Komsomol is viewed as a distinct Soviet “ministry of youth”, a linking point between the state and youth. The system of value orientations is presented as a generalized index of the direction of interests, demands, social position, and level of spiritual development of the generation. The article demonstrated the dynamic actions of Komsomol with regards to the establishment of a positive attitude to knowledge among the youth through introducing the most recent achievements of science and technology. Two opposite trends were noticed the within the overall practice of implementation of state youth policy: one was aimed at enhancing the ideological component, while the other was of high pragmatism considering the changes in the country and worldwide, associated with the scientific and technological progress and actual economic needs.
Vladzymyrskyy A.V. - Institutionalization of scientific researches in the field of distant automated diagnostics in the RSFSR (1970-1990s) pp. 55-74



Abstract: Objective is the processes of formal structuring of scientific research in the field of remote automated diagnostics in the USSR. In the period under study, against the background of intensive processes of informatization of health care, a direction of scientific research was formed to create algorithms and programs for computer analysis of biomedical data in order to support medical decision-making. The low availability of electronic computers (due to objective technological and financial difficulties) prompted scientists to use telecommunication technologies to transfer data from practical health care institutions to large scientific and clinical centers equipped with computers. The initiatives of individual scientific groups were combined into the Republican target complex program for the scientific and practical development of automated advisory systems. The institutionalization of scientific research has reached a high level. At the expense of the state and administrative resources, systematic research was ensured - since 1979, the Republican Target Program "Development and Implementation of an Automated System for Remote Diagnosis of Certain Emergency Conditions" began in the RSFSR. However, by the mid-1980s due to a number of reasons (infrastructural, information-psychological and socio-economic), the biotelemetric component has lost its relevance and has almost completely disappeared from scientific topics. Research in the field of automated data analysis and biotelemetry itself has been divided into two separate areas.
Kochedykova M.M. - Collaboration of explorer of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra A. V. Zhuravsky with the Russian Geographical Society in the early XX century pp. 61-68


Abstract: The subject of this article is the history of science in the European Northeast of Russian of the early XX century. The object is the research activity of A. V. Zhuravsky in the field of geology over the period of 1903-1914 covering the territory of Bolshezemelskaya Tundra. The author examines the key directions in joint collaboration of Zhuravsky and the Russian Geographical Society on exploring the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra. Thanks to the expeditionary and collecting activities of Zhuravsky, was established the first scientific institution in the European Northeast of Russia. The author’s main contribution lies in using as the source base of the unique expeditionary reports and publications of A. V. Zhuravsky, reports of the department of Mathematical and Physical Geography of the Russian Geographical Society, as well as the correspondence between its members. The sources are preserved in several archives and museums of Russia. A conclusion is made that the collaboration with the Russian Geographical Society in the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra in the early XX century led to the beginning of the systematic explorations, which pioneer was A. V. Zhuravsky. The process of joint activity resulted in acquisition of the new knowledge that allowed clarifying the importance of the immense territory. The interested in Zhuravsky’s exploratory work Russian Geographical Society tried to gather the documents on this region in their archives. The scientific novelty consists in author’s discovery that Zhuravsky’s activity on exploration of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra was comprehensively supported by the directorate of the Russian Geographical Society, including finding opportunities for compensating the expeditionary costs and supply with instruments for conducting the topographic surveys.  
Kreitsberga K.A. - Formation of the Leningrad Institute of Pedology and Defectology in the 20s of the XX century. pp. 73-81



Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical aspect of the formation of the Institute of Pedology and Defectology. The object of the study are the archival materials of the Central State Administration of St. Petersburg, the Central State Educational Institution of St. Petersburg, the GARF (resolutions, minutes of meetings, reports, circulars, notes and other documents of the Psychoneurological Academy, the Petrograd Pedological Institute, the Institute of Preschool Education, the Petrograd Pedagogical Institute of Social Education of Normal and Defective Children, and, directly, the Institute of Pedology and Defectology). The author examines in detail the controversial points in the work of these institutions, attempts to explain the mergers and "consolidation" of departments and universities under study into unified educational organizations. The aim of the work is to reconstruct the process of integration of educational institutions of higher education on the example of the Institute of Pedology and Defectology. The main conclusions of the study, conducted using methods of historical analysis, systematization of factual material of documents, are: inconsistency of activities within educational institutions with a wide range of departments, the emergence of numerous educational organizations with similar functions (after 1918, the opportunity to organize an educational institution, the main activity of which will be in the field of social engineering and concern the development of the child did not leave labor, since there was a need to work with children's groups), frequent changes of subordinate organizations to monitor the activities of universities, inconsistency of financial support from the state and the results offered by institutions and organizations, an attempt to standardize the educational space to improve the quality of education by senior management after 1921 (Decree on the management of universities), formal execution of orders, etc. A special contribution of the author is an appeal to the business correspondence of the institutions under study.
Yashchuk T. - Determination of the subject of history of state and law in Russian legal science in the late 1950s early 1960s pp. 76-87


Abstract: The subject of this research is analysis of the process and key approaches towards determination of the subject of history of state and law of Russia in in the late 1950s – early 1960s, considering the designation of science and academic discipline in this period as “The History of State and Law of the USSR”. The research is based on chronological, institutional, and historical-comparative methods. The chronological method allowed reconstructing representation on the subject of the science of history of state and law of the Soviet Union in historical sequence. The institutional method established the basic framework for discussion the subject of science. The historical-comparative method ensured comparison of different approaches towards understanding of the subject of science. It is determined that the initiators of determination of the subject of history of state and law were the educators of historical-legal disciplines. The author reveals and analyzes the main publications that contain records of comprehension of the subject of science. Characteristic is given to the circle of scholars dealing with the indicated problematic. The authorial approaches are discussed.  The general and peculiar comprehension of the subject of science is demonstrated. The general consists in determination of the subject based on the historical type of state and law, highlighting the significance and specificity of the Soviet state and law. The differences pertain to setting priorities in the subject of science: establishment of general patterns in evolution of state and law, or examination of particular phenomena, processes and institutions in the history of state and law. The acquires results can be applies in the history of legal science. Discourse on the subject of history of state and law that unfolded in the late 1950s – early 1960s was beneficial to the advancement of historical-legal science.
Pyltcina M., Makhina S.N. - Agrarian scientific heritage of Carl Birnbaum pp. 77-84


Abstract: The subject of this research is the agrarian scientific heritage of the German Professor of Agriculture Carl Joseph Birnbaum, whose work “Guidance to Agriculture” achieved special prominence on Russia; the formation of surrounded him academic community and associated with it discourse; and the determination of scholar’s contribution into the development of agrarian science. The “Guidance to Agriculture” contains the theoretical bases of agricultural activity, and determination of important factors and circumstances affecting the progress of agriculture. Using the general scientific and special research methods, the authors note that C. Birnbaum through the profound retrospective analysis of the development of agrarian production of various peoples deduces the concept of the formation of state from the evolution of agriculture. A conclusion is made that the agrarian views of C. Birnbaum became a substantial breakthrough in establishment of the scientific methodology in agrarian sphere, as the questions discusses by the scholars and proposed for consideration within academic community of that time, remain relevant nowadays. Trying to develop his research strategy, C. Birnbaum analyzes the factors affecting the efficient agrarian production, among which he lists the labor, capital and land, as well as reasons on possibility of their mutually beneficial synthesis in the context of agricultural industry.
Brovina A. - Scientific research of the territory of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century: information potential of personal funds of the scientists of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 82-101


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the historical role of the scientific community in the cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. The object is the information potential of personal funds of the scientists in the context of scientific development of the northern territories of Russia in the XX century. The author examines the documentary heritage of scientists of the European Northeast of Russia in the XX century, preserved in the funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Particular attention is paid to the funds that reflect the development of the key scientific areas for studying the northern territories – the history of geological, biological and humanitarian research. Examination of the personal funds of scientists of a particular region is a relevant trend in studying the archive funds, which is associated with keeping the modern documentary systems in the archives that allow preserving the knowledge of an individual of a specific historical era, as well as capturing mental peculiarities of the society. The conducted analysis is of great interest for the historians of science for studying the major milestones of life and creative path of the scientists, as well as contribute into the development of Russian science. Author’s special contribution lies in the introduction into the scientific circulation of the vast documentary complex of personal origin that indicates the input of the scientific community towards cognition and development of the northern territories of Russia. It is determined that the personal funds of scientists may differ in quantitative and conceptual indexes, but always retain the typical structure usually presented in list of information blocks: science, teaching, organization of science, epistolary style, visuals. It manifests as a certain model, which through a particular set of documents on one hand is an example of a person with his interests, hobbies, life stages, career; while on the other – a slice of a specific historical period of the era itself.  The unique materials of the funds cover the history of scientific study of the Northern territories of Russia; provide an opportunity to assess personal contribution of the scientists into the scientific community and development of academic science in the Russian North in the XX century.
Brovina A., Roshchevskaya L.P., Roshchevskii M.P. - Research of oil shale in the Komi ASSR during the Great Patriotic War: experience of the Professor D. N. Kursanov pp. 85-100


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical role of Russian scientific community in studying the Arctic and Subarctic territories during the years of Great Patriotic War. The key goal consists in demonstrating the contribution of scholars to accumulation of scientific knowledge on the northern region in the context of solution of the priority government objective and establishment of scientific organizations on the European North of Russia in first half of the XX century. The main tasks of this research lie in reconstruction of the process of creation and activity of oil shale laboratory of the Base of Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union on studying the North under the authority of Professor D. N. Kursanov, who dealt with the questions of utilization of solid fossil fuels of the Komi ASSR. This topic did not receive due coverage within the scientific literature. For solution of the set tasks, the author attracted the unpublished archival materials from the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Archive of the Federal Research Center “Komi Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences” and National Archive of the Komi Republic; writings of the staff members of the indicated laboratory published based on the research results in 1940s, as well modern researchers of the depths of Russian North. The article explores the history of establishment of scientific department, development of scientific programs and plans, organization of interaction of academic community with the government and economic branches of the Komi ASSR. The main conclusions consists in the proof that the scientific-organizational activity of D. N. Kursanov led to conducting strategic research of defense designation on the problems of studying oil shale of the mineral deposit on Ayyva River, utilization of oil shale for motor fuel generation, and elaboration of new chemical products for defense industry. It is underlined that the high level of explorations and pilot surveys carried out by national scholars in these directions contributed to the development of new shale-chemical industrial sector of the country in the later years.
Vladzymyrskyy A.V. - Scientific and technical Development of transtelephone Electrocardiography in foreign Countries during the 60-80s of the twentieth Century pp. 88-112



Abstract: In the context of the scientific and technical history of electrocardiography, the development of transtelephone electrocardiography (tele-ECG) remains unexplored - as a set of technical and methodological aspects of remote ECG transmission via telecommunication. This direction played a significant role in medical science and practice in the middle of the twentieth century, in many ways it remains relevant to this day. The task of the study. To identify and systematize the patterns of development of scientific knowledge related to the creation and use of transtelephone electrocardiography technologies in the period of the 1960s-1980s in Europe, Asia, North America and Australia. Results. From the point of view of technical sciences, there were two main trends in scientific research: a) the design of hardware solutions for broadcasting and receiving ECG via cable or radio channels; b) the development of algorithms for computer analysis of ECG. From the point of view of medical sciences: a) clinical trials, including an assessment of the technical reliability of equipment; b) evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of remote (both "human" and machine) interpretation of ECG; c) study of the clinical significance of tele-ECG. When comparing the trends of scientific and technological development of transtelephone electrocardiography in foreign countries, it is obvious that the countries of Europe and Asia follow in the wake of medical science in the USA. In the studies of scientists from Eastern Europe, the influence of medical science of the USSR in the form of the use of tele-ECG in occupational medicine is noted. Conclusions. In the period of the 1960s-1980s, the scientific and technical development of transtelephone electrocardiography took place in many countries of the world, but the activity and significance of these processes seriously differed. The emergence of affordable and reliable technologies for remote counseling, as well as automated analysis of electrocardiography results, has become significant. The overall result was the emergence of clinically significant remote diagnostics techniques and new models of medical care organization based on them.
Bakhteev D.V. - Prerequisites for establishment and development stages of the technology of artificial intelligence pp. 89-98


Abstract: The object of this research is the technology of artificial intelligence. The subject of this research is the mechanisms and factors of the establishment and development of this technology. Philosophical prerequisites underlied the classical scientific works; however, the foundation for the establishment of the aforementioned technology is the studies in the area of neurophysiology and theory of computation. In the XX century, with the advancement of computer engineering, this technology received an impetus to development, which lead to its widespread proliferation and increased the interest of socio-humanitarian sciences, primarily jurisprudence and ethics towards it. The following conclusions were made. Methodological foundation of the modern technologies of artificial intelligence is the nervous system theory, which serves as prototype for designing the artificial intelligence systems on the basis of the artificial neural networks. The process of establishment and development of such technology was divided into five stages. The factors ensuring wide proliferation of the systems of artificial intelligence include: the possibility of modeling of the processes of human reasoning, collection and processing of large data, interdisciplinary and multifaceted nature of scientific research on this technology.
Vladzymyrskyy A.V. - Biotelemetric Experiment in the Radiotelegraphic Bureau of the Maritime Department (1912). A New Episode from the History of the Development of Russian Science pp. 91-99



Abstract: The minutes of the meeting of the Society of Marine Physicians in St. Petersburg dated October 30, 1912, which describes an experiment on the transmission of biomedical data via telecommunications, are published. The head of the workshop of the Radiotelegraph depot A.K. Nikiforov developed a device for remote transmission of the sound picture of the heart, using his own designs of amplifiers and microphones. The experiment was conducted with the participation of doctor A.G. Makarov. The results indicated insufficient broadcast quality and required technical refinement of the device. Comparison with the effectiveness of similar experiments in other countries shows that in the studied period of time, the general level of technical development did not fundamentally allow solving the problem of high-quality transmission of biomedical data over a distance. The fact of the experiment revealed by the author, which occurred against the background of institutionalization of scientific research in the Radiotelegraph Depot, is extremely important from the point of view of systematization of the history of domestic scientific research in the field of biotelemetry. When studying archival materials, the processes of institutionalization of scientific work in the Radiotelegraph Depot were revealed, including regulatory support, creation of organizational structures, distribution of goals and objectives, financing, and resource provision. The formal structuring of scientific activity formed the context for scaling research into other fields of knowledge, which created the basis for A.K. Nikiforov's scientific and design activities in the field of biomedicine. The scientist-engineer made a contribution to the accumulation of knowledge and the future formation of dynamic biotelemetry as a separate scientific direction.
Filippova T.P., Simakova S. - Documentary scientific heritage of the geologist V. A. Dedeev pp. 102-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of establishment and development of geological science in the territory of the European North of Russia in the XX century. The object is the scientific activity of one of scientists who dedicated is entire life to development and studying of geology of the European North, the Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical sciences Vladimir Alekseevich Dedeev (1931-1997). On the basis of the archive documents that remained in funds of the Scientific Archive of Komi Republic of the Scientific Center of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the author examines the details of scientific biography and activity of the scientist associated with studying of the prospects of petroleum potential of the northern territories. The goal of this work consists in demonstration of value of the preserved documentary scientific heritage for studying V. A. Dedeev’s scientific activity and history of the development of geology throughout this timeframe. In conclusion, the author underlines that the documentary sources, preserved in the State Archive of Komi Republic, allow familiarizing with the academic results of the works of V. A. Dedeev. The modern petroleum, geology of the territory of European North in many aspects leans on the results of his research and scientific conclusions. The geologist’s works also contributed into the fuel and energy development of the northern region.
Fat'yanov I.V. - Regularities of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity in Russia pp. 114-137


Abstract: The subject of this research is the regularities of emergence of the experimental activity within law. The author points out on the existence of certain regularities within law which should be paid attention to in lawmaking. During the course of this work, the author simultaneously addresses two problematic areas: firstly, practical question of the functioning of the experimental activity in Russia – the activity of competent constituents, when takes place the approbation of the proposed innovations aimed at testing the theory; and secondly, a specifically scientific problem on the concept of the notion “regularities of the experimental activity” and the determinants which substantiate it. The object of this research is the public relations emerging in experimental activity. The author gives attention to the causes of experimental activity associated with the establishment of the local self-governance, and its improvement after the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. The author suggests an original definition to the notion “regularity of genesis and functioning of the experimental activity”, as well as detects certain determinants of the experimental activity within law.
Fando R.A. - L. D. Liozners school of sciences: at the dawn of studying regeneration pp. 116-127


Abstract: The subject of this research is L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences in the area of reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. The object of this research is the results of scientific works of Liozner and his mentees, as well as the key historical stages of origination and development of this school of sciences. In the 1930’s, when the first schools dedicated to studying regeneration appeared in Russia, L. D. Liozner meets L. Y. Blyakher and M. A. Vorontsova, who introduced him to the research in the field of experimental embryology.  Methodology is based on the comparative-historical, biographical, historical-scientific, and retrospective methods of research. The phenomenon of L. D. Liozner’s school of sciences was analyzed in various aspects: substantive-logical, psychological, and sociocultural. The author convincingly demonstrates that only after 1956, at the time of becoming the head of the Laboratory of Growth and Development in the Institute of Experimental Biology of L. D. Liozner, he began consolidating the scholars in the area of reparative regeneration of organs and tissues. The author reveals the team members and the main vectors of activity of the school. The scientific novelty consists in the detailed analysis of scientific heritage of the mentees of L. D. Liozner. He brought up en entire pleiad of prominent scholars, including V. F. Sidorova, Z. A. Ryabinina, A. G. Babayeva, L. K. Romanova, S. S. Raytsina, and E. A. Efimov. It is underlined that the studies on regeneration, conducted by the students of L. D. Lizoner’s school of sciences, continue to this day, considering the recent scientific achievements.
Skrydlov A. - The Case of Professors in 1821 at St. Petersburg University in the history of Russian statistics pp. 156-168


Abstract: This publication is written in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the “Case of Professors" of St. Petersburg University, which heralds the important stage in the formation of conservative policy of the Russian government in the sphere of science and education. The object of this research is the impact of the events of 1821 upon the development of government science in Russia – the early direction of statistical science. The author analyzes the prerequisites for the emergence of political-economic direction of government science in Russia, draws parallel with the traditional German school, outlines the key peculiarities – attempt to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the phenomena under review, establish causal relationships between them, appose government science with political economics. In the course of the “Case of Professors”, two of the most prominent representatives of this scientific direction – C. T. Hermann and K .I. Arsenyev were exposed to harsh criticism by the officials of the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Public Education. Leaning on the published and archival sources, the article explores the arguments of M. L. Magnitsky, I. S. Laval, A. N. Golitsyn on the topic of teaching statistics at the university. The conclusion is made that the major complaint of the officials to the teaching techniques and scientific works of Hermann and Arsenyev was their extensive interpretation of the subject of statistical science. The opponents of the scholars sought to bring the government science back to the traditional for the XVIII century descriptive school, as well as limit it solely to the empirical methods. It is indicated that the prohibition against using the works of Hermann and Arsenyev in the educational institutions entail significant consequences and halted the development of political-economic direction of government science for over two decades. The university statistical education returned to this tradition only after 1835, with the adoption of the new university charter.
Zharova E. - The Laws on the Awarding of Academic Degrees in the Russian Empire as the Reflection of Differentiation in Biological Sciences pp. 236-272
Abstract: The process of formation, development and differentiation of biology sciences in the Russian empire is considered in terms of the laws on the awarding of academic degrees. Changes of the legislation in this area reflect not only the system of scientific certification, but also the formation of various branches of biology as the science that developed in the XIX century. 
Kozhevina M.A. - The preconditions of the genesis of the Russian juridical science as a social institute pp. 430-459


Abstract: The article covers the problems of Russian juridical science as social institute. The author exposes and analyses factors, which influenced the genesis of the Russian juridical science using the institutional approach as the main mean of research. The author underlines the necessity the only criterion of periodization of the Russian juridical science. In the article, the period of XVIII century reforms was considered as time of formed preconditions for the genesis of Russian juridical professional and scientific communities and for the development of Russian law education.
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