Genesis: Historical research - rubric History of economy and business
Genesis: Historical research
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History of economy and business
Zalesskaia O., Zhou T. - Ethnic entrepreneurs in PRC in the border areas of the Russian Far East during the 1990s: peculiarities of economic activities pp. 1-19


Abstract: The subject of this research is the economic activities of Chinese entrepreneurs in the border areas of the Russian Far East during the 1990’s. Over the recent decade of the XX century, the Chinese migrants have developed a dynamic business activity in the bordering Far Eastern territories, which led to continuous cross-cultural interaction between the two essentially different cultures. The system of international economic contacts established in the region at this time, can be described through the category of “ethnic entrepreneurship”. Particular attention is given to the traces of ethnic entrepreneurship manifested in the border areas of the Russian Far East during the 1990’s. The authors examine the specificity of the ethnic (Chinese) entrepreneurship in the contact zone of China-Russia cross-civilizational interaction, as well as socioeconomic situation in the Russian Far East at the end of the XX century. The article provides characteristics to the terms of “ethic entrepreneurship” and “ethnic entrepreneurs”, introducing these categories into the discourse of historical science in corresponding subject area for the first time. Territorial framework include the regions of the Russian Far East bordering with China, where ethnic entrepreneurship has expanded in the 1990’s. Overall, this can be described as a complex sociocultural and economic phenomenon that laid the foundation for the formation of transboundary space in the Far East in the XXI century. The acquired historical experience of communication between the Russian population and Chinese migrants has a direct impact on the current development of China-Russia relations, as well as requires further examination and generalization.
Sapuntsov A.L. - The meaning of Portuguese East India Company for liberalization of relations with the colonial Asia pp. 45-55


Abstract: This article examines the problematic of formation of the Portuguese East India Company – representative of the first generation of transnational corporations that in the XVII century allowed combining the disparate European merchants in spice trade with Asia. The subject of this article is the events conducted by Portugal for the purpose of centralizing the activity of private entrepreneurs in Asian colonies and shifting away from the outlived colonial model based on dominance of the government in organization of foreign expeditions. It is demonstrated that government constructs of colonial administration started experiencing difficulties associated to the decline in motivation of the employed population, escalating bureaucratization, shortage of capital and slowdown in merchandise flow. The criteria of performance of the European East India Companies are introduced into the scientific discourse. The scientific novelty consist in the fact that based on generalizing the initiatives of the Portuguese on formation of their own East India Company institutionalized directly “from above” only in 1628, the author determines the causes of its incapability to integrate into the system of colonial administration due to the severe shortage of private capital and substantial difficulties in managing trading activities, as well as accumulation of assets abroad. It is concluded that despite the satisfactory results during the first years of work, the Portuguese East India Company experienced series of setbacks related to the low level of investment attractiveness for the merchants and number of shipwrecks, which led to dissolution of this organization in 1633. In the future, Portugal was not able to implement the system of colonial transnational companies.
Salfetnikov D.A. - Vectors of industrial modernization of the agrarian regions of South Russia and its implementation in the late 1930s (on the example of Kuban and Stavropol Krai) pp. 49-60


Abstract: The object of this research is the industrial process in the two South Russian regions during the years of the second and third five-year industrial plans. The author meticulously examines the essence of the industrial transformation in the agricultural regions within the framework of Soviet Modernization; importance of Kuban and Stavropol Krai industry, as well as their common and specific features. Relevance of the article lies in the insatiable scientific and sociopolitical interest generated by Soviet industrialization, methods and rates of its implementation in separate regions of the country along with the results. The scientific novelty lies in analysis of the specificity of industrial development of the two regions with the economies of rural character, as well as regional cut of industrial processes within the indicated historical-temporal format. The article analyzed the structure of the regional industry, solution of industrial tasks in the prewar period. The conclusion is made that by the end of the 1930’s the industrial development of Kuban and Stavropol Krai has entered the new stage, accompanied by the emergence of new industrial branches and administrative-territorial reforms. Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai remained mostly agricultural, but in the course of reconstruction and industrial development of this period, has increased the role of light, food, energy, and manufacturing industries, as well as other branches demanded by the regional and national economy.
Dimoni T.M., Beznin M.A. - The processes of the development of Russian society in the 1930s-1980s pp. 58-72



Abstract: The subject of the study is one of the most significant trends in the social transformation of Russia in the Soviet period - the process of formation of workers. The relevance of the study is due to the need to study the social revolution in Russia that occurred during the Soviet period. The article pays attention to both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the process of working. As quantitative characteristics, the number of the working class of Russia in different periods of the 1930s - 1980s is considered. Among the qualitative characteristics, the main place is occupied by the study of the denaturalization of the family budget, the formation of wage mechanisms of exploitation, changes in living conditions (type of housing, communal infrastructure), the features of the worldview. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the authors, based on a large statistical, analytical and sociological material, note the most important processes in the development of Soviet society. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the processes of processing urban and rural society, raises the question of the unevenness of this process in different spheres of socio-economic life. Special attention is paid in the article to the question of the sources of the formation of the working class of the country. Among these sources, a special role was played by the process of raskrestyanivaniya, which developed rapidly in the 1930s and 1960s. The article concludes about the growth of qualitative indicators of the process of working in Russian society, including the prevalence of wages in the formation of the budget of families, the growing interest in consumption, non-peasant socio-psychological characteristics and lifestyle of urban and rural workers.
Sutyagina O.A. - Trade advertising of Siberian merchants during the 1880s (based on the materials of Siberian Newspaper) pp. 71-85


Abstract: The object of this research is the entrepreneurial activity of Siberian merchants. The subjects is the advertisements placed in the “Siberian Newspaper” as a reflection of professional activity of Siberian entrepreneurs. The goal consists in the analysis of information contents of the advertisements, determine the peculiarities and main types of merchant advertising. The article reveals the key advertising providers, as well as marketing strategies applied by the merchants for sales increase. Analysis is conducted on the groups of advertised goods and services based on studying the materials of “Siberian Newspaper”. In the course of research, the methods of content analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction were implemented. The scientific novelty lies in the first ever content analysis of trade advertising of Siberian merchants using the advertisements from the “Siberian Newspaper”. The conclusion is made on the importance of advertisements as a source on the history of Siberian merchantry that allows determining the prices that were set, the goods that were sold, outlining he scheme of commercial relations of Siberian merchantry, and fill the gaps pertinent to separate merchants.  
Ryabova O.V., Zykova T.V., Kochkurova E.A. - Hotel enterprises in Nizhny Novgorod in 1918-1939. pp. 81-91



Abstract: The market reforms that began in the late Soviet period and continued after the collapse of the USSR radically changed the country's hotel industry. The changes have affected literally all aspects of the industry. Similar large-scale changes were already taking place in the hospitality industry at the beginning of the twentieth century, after the socialist revolution of 1917. Therefore, it is interesting to find out how the young Soviet state, in the most difficult conditions of the civil war and foreign intervention, was able to practically rebuild the country's hotel industry. Because of this, the experience of hotel construction in the first two decades of Soviet power can be useful. The subject of the research in this article was the development of hotel enterprises in Nizhny Novgorod, such as communal hotels, "Peasant Houses", night shelters during this period. The paper provides an analysis of the main directions of development of the Nizhny Novgorod hotel industry from 1918 to 1939. The article is based on materials from regional archives (TSANO and GOP NO), periodicals, and scientific literature. The article uses historical-systemic and historical-comparative methods, as well as general scientific methods such as description and comparison. The conducted research showed that the hotel industry of the city was in a difficult situation by 1918. The change in the social system in the state, the decline in the standard of living of the population, and the refugees provoked a crisis in the hotel industry of Nizhny Novgorod. The mass closure of enterprises was avoided only by nationalization and municipalization of enterprises. The opening of the Peasant's House in 1925 was able to alleviate the acute shortage of hotel stock for a short period. But in the 1930s, due to the growth of foreign tourism, the problem of a shortage of high-class hotels worsened. The construction of the Volna, Rossiya and Intourist hotels partially solved this problem. But for ordinary Soviet citizens, hotels are still inaccessible. At the same time, the level of service was at an extremely low level.
Mohamed Abdalla A.E. - Trade and economic cooperation between the USSR and Sudan in 1960 -1980. pp. 86-92



Abstract: The article is devoted to the main stages of the formation and development of foreign economic relations between Sudan and the USSR, starting with the establishment of Soviet-Sudanese diplomatic relations in 1956 and up to the end of the 1980s. The purpose of this article is to study the main directions of Soviet-Sudanese economic and scientific-technical cooperation in the context of political relations between the two countries in the period under study. The author relies on the principles of modern historical science: reliability, scientific objectivity and historicism, as well as a number of general scientific and special historical methods, in particular, chronological and historical-comparative. The object of the study is the Soviet-Sudanese economic relations in the 1960s-1980s. The subject of the study is the forms, directions and mechanisms of interaction between Sudan and the USSR in the economic sphere. It is shown how the unstable internal political situation in the country, the constant struggle for power between the military and civilians had a direct impact on the level of bilateral relations. The main directions of trade and economic cooperation between the Sudan and the USSR are revealed, which concerned, among other things, the sphere of geological exploration, construction, personnel training, and the exchange of specialists. Special attention is paid to military-technical bilateral cooperation, which was most actively developed during the presidency of Jafar Mohammed Nimeiri. The conclusion is made about the role of the USSR in the diversification of Sudan's industrial production, the restructuring of its monocultural economy and, in general, in the development and strengthening of the state sector of the country's economy.
Gangur D.I. - The problem of quality of consumer goods in USSR during the 1955-1975 (on the materials of clothing industry of Krasnodar Krai) pp. 105-115


Abstract: The subject of this research is the quality of apparel manufactured by clothing factories of Krasnodar Krai during the 1950-1975. Based on the archival materials and periodical publications, the author analyzes the quality of the manufactured apparel and the impacting factors, as well as the measures taken by various authorities and structures aimed at its improvement. Reference to the Soviet experience, which in this aspect is yet insufficiently studied, may contribute to further development of national industry and increase of competitiveness of its products. The scientific novelty consists in conducting a special research dedicated to profound examination of the problem of quality of apparel within the indicated chronological framework, which for the first time is viewed on the materials of a particular region. It is concluded that the problem of quality was one of the key ones for the clothing industry. The comparative analysis demonstrates that during the 1950’s, the portion of defective goods has reached up to 50%. The author determines that it was cause by the outdated facilities and equipment, poorly qualified staff, low level of apparel design. The government and sectoral structures undertook measures aimed at improvement of quality of the products, including specialization of fabrics, advancement of technological process, modernization of the industrial production base, ideological campaigns, stricter quality control, expansion of the role of fashion houses. These measures led to the improvement of situation with regards to quality of manufactured apparel by the end of the indicated timeframe. However, the growth in quality was uneven from factory to factory.
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