Genesis: Historical research - rubric Traditions, innovations, adoption of ideas
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Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Traditions, innovations, adoption of ideas"
Traditions, innovations, adoption of ideas
Bogdanov A.P. - The problem of higher education in Russia in the second half of the XVII century pp. 26-65

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.1.32041

Abstract: This article reviews the known facts on the work and concepts of Russian higher educational institutions of the 1650s-1700s. The author analyzes the polemics that unfolded in the XVII century and continues until today around higher education in Russia from Fyodor Rtishchev's School to Zaikonospassky Greek Schools created by Likhud brothers. It is noted that the idea of autonomous estate-inclusive university in Moscow, which was conceived by the Tsar Feodor III Alexeyevich and received privileges in the Grant Letter of 1682, was never brought to life. The author reveals the motives of resistance to introduction of regular education and recognition of rules of the rational science. It is demonstrated that breaking with the Russian traditional church rituals by Patriarch Nikon on the basis of false Greek scholarship caused doubts of the society on the utility of foreign regular science; and the desire of the devotees of Greek scholarship to prove that Latin education, unlike Greek, is harmful for the faith, nullified the attempt of Tsar Feodor III Alexeyevich to create a Moscow university for preparing secular and church personnel. Such struggle for the Academy resulted in the clash between rationalism of the enlighteners and authority of the church, which destroyed and suppressed the enlighteners, and discredited the church. In the XVII century, no Higher educational institutions were established in Russia; moreover, the Moscow academic staff was annihilated. In the context of the reforms of Peter the Great, the humanities education in Russia of the XVIII century was implemented Little Russian scholars, while natural scientific education – by Western scholars.
Fugina O. - Manifestation of attributes of American culture in the works of George Balanchine pp. 170-180

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31262

Abstract: The object of this research is the works of the Russian-American ballet master George Balanchine, viewed through the prism of dominant features of American culture, which in turn, were determined and formulated by the author (duality, permanent transformation, strive for innovation, American communicative behavior, “special” treatment of women, mass culture). In the course of this study, the author analyzes the cultural phenomena and processes common to the American society, as well as assesses the level of Balanchine’s integration into American culture as a creative individual and generator of ideas. The novelty of this research lies in the first ever culturological analysis of the work of George Balanchine; previously, his heritage was viewed from the perspective of art or ballet studies. It is concluded that despite the 50-year stay of George Balanchine in the United States, the nature of his creative thought remained Russian, while the means of realization leant on the American reality. Therefore, namely such cultural diffusion generated the new ballet aesthetics – neoclassical, which became traditional for the American ballet theatre. The conducted analysis allows to more profoundly understand Balanchine’s ballet heritage by the theoreticians and practitioners of ballet.  
Verchenko A.L. - Xinhai Revolution in China: the new approaches to old traditions pp. 191-235
Abstract: After the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 China struggled for the extirpation of customs and traditions, which hindered development of the country. Some of them like “lotus feet”, weddings on the will of the parents or fortuneteller’s advises or divorce prohibition were just prejudices in the minds of people. Others like wearing braids as a sign of submission to the Emperor of a foreign dynasty Qing were considered as derogation of the dignity of state. The thirds like smoking opium threatened the nation’s existence.The lack of education, adherence to the old days and rituals established by the ancestors, the unwillingness of the ruling classes to lose this kind of leverage to keep the power – all these factors hindered the struggle of the progressive forces against the old ways.The important role in the struggle against the vestiges of the past was played by the first president of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen, who during his rather short term of ruling has managed to introduce a new Western calendar, to adopt a decree on the elimination of the use of opium, foot-binding, men wearing braids, etc.The changes took place with difficulty, causing resistance of traditionalists and lasted for many years, demonstrating that any change should take place slow, taking into account national psychology of the people, only then they will be irreversible.
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