Genesis: Historical research - rubric History and Politics
Genesis: Historical research
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History and Politics
Torosian A. - Evolution of normative-legal aspects of UN peacekeeping activity and position of the Russian Federation with regards to this question pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.4.32439

Abstract: This article examines the evolution of the normative-legal aspects of UN peacekeeping activity as one of the key phenomena of peacekeeping under the aegis of the United Nations. The author also analyzes the position of the Russian Federation on this question, since Russia is one of the major players on the international arena and active participant of peacekeeping activity within the UN system. Special attention is paid to the normative documents of the Russian Federation, which reflect a clear position of Russia on peacekeeping. Currently, peacekeeping plays an urgent role in world politics, helps to prevent escalation of multiple conflicts, despite the existence of problem clusters within the United Nations peacekeeping activity. Peackeeping also yielded great benefit to the international community; however, it needs changes and improvements to increase its effectiveness in regulation of drawn-out conflicts on the world arena.
Shabalin V.V. - Professional activity of former members of the united opposition in the 1930s (on the example of biographies of the Bolsheviks who signed the Declaration of 83 pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.1.34797

Abstract: The object of this research is the collective fate of former members of the united opposition (Bolshevik-Leninist faction) in the 1930s. This topic is rarely covered by the researchers and remains poorly studied. The subject of this article is the peculiarities of professional career of the oppositionists reestablished in the ranks of the Communist Party. The group under review is the members of the All Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), who in May 1927 signed the “Declaration of 83”. Comparative analysis of the available biographical records on the signers of the “Declaration of 83” allow determining the spheres of professional activity of the former Bolshevik-Leninists. The author enlists the spheres of their activity, indicating the number of employed capitulated factionists therein, as well as positions held by them, enterprises and institutions they worked at during this period. The conducted research demonstrates that the highest concentration of capitulated oppositionists was in the industrial sector, while professional spheres, such as science, trade, etc., are noticeably behind. At the same time, former Bolshevik-Leninists often mastered new types of activities. Most of them were appointed as chief executives, which the author explains with shortage of personnel committed to the Communist ideas who possessed organizational experience. The novelty of this research consists in the statement that the returned to the All Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) supporters of Trotskyism and Zinovievism), despite their demotion, were actively engaged in Stalin's modernization. They were appointed with executive positions and included into the ruling elite (although holding a special “niche” therein).
Androsov D.P. - The establishment of public opinion in Western Europe during the 1970s by means of mass media on the background of the fight of German Federative Republic against Red Army Faction terrorist pp. 18-28

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.19262

Abstract: The object of this research is the most resonant and exerted significant influence upon the establishment of public opinion in separate countries publications in major publishers of the continental Western Europe in 1970’s, pertaining to measures taken by the executive and legislative authorities of FRG in the state period, which are aimed at neutralization of threat to the Western German society and government that emanates from the left wing radical terrorist organization “Red Army Faction”. The author gives special attention to the development of the fundamental direction of the publicistic thought that touches upon confrontation between the state and the terrorist; he also analyzes the assessment of this fight given by the print mass media in FRG, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Netherlands, attempting to pursue regularities of the journalistic reasoning. For this research the publications of the 1970’s on the topic of the fight between the government of FRG and “Red Army Faction organization” have been selected in the following German publishers: “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung”, “Die Welt”, “Bild”, “Die Zeit”, “Frankfurter Rundschau”, “Der Spiegel”, as well as in French, Italian and Swiss newspapers. The main conclusion consists in the establishment of the concrete regularities in the nature of the articles of the informational printed materials and their assessments, given to the anti-terroristic campaigns conducted by the law enforcement agencies of FRG, as well as to the decisions of the Western German judicial system with regards to “Red Army Faction” terrorists.
Khlebnikova V.B. - Attempts of self-presentation and introspection of the political elite representatives of the Principality of Montenegro (to the question on peculiarities of political culture of Montenegrins at the turn of the XIX XX centuries) pp. 19-32

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.10.34087

Abstract: History of the Principality of Montenegro, proclaimed after several centuries of consistent struggle with the Ottoman Empire, was quite short. As an independent state, it existed from 1878 to 1918. The reasons are explained by the political culture and level of professional qualifications of the Montenegrin elite, which had to resolve most difficult challenges dictated by the delayed and accelerated modernization of the country. The goal of this article consists in determination of significant characteristics of the Montenegrin ruling class, which substantiate the successes and failures of the principality. Two most prominent Montenegrin politicians of this time, Crown Prince Nicholas of Montenegro and Foreign Minister Gavro Vuković attempted to assess the results that were achieved, as well as their role in the political processes. A comparative analysis carried out on their narrative heritage, assessments given by the contemporaries, and archival materials led to the conclusion that the supreme leaders of Montenegro to the fullest extent possessed the qualities that were inherent to the people as a whole. Political culture of the Montenegrins, which has not previously become the subject of research within the Russian science, remained patriarchal and retained vestiges of tribal structure that impeded establishment of the state of modern type. Several centuries of hostile encirclement and permanent war, put the Montenegrins noticeably behind with regards to the development of education. Therefore, there was a severe shortage of managerial human resources. The low level of professional competence of the elite was compensated by placing emphasis on the military past and traditional values. However, the excessive warlike attitude led to reassessment of their powers, mismanagement with regards to domestic and foreign policy, as well as impeded the development of statehood of Montenegro. The acquired results may be valuable for culturologists and political scientists as the empirical material for studying such complicated concept as the political culture.
Marinin M.O. - International crisis of 1830-1831 and foreign policy of the Russian Empire pp. 23-30

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.11.28212

Abstract: Revolution in the Belgian lands of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and uprising in the Kingdom of Poland rarely become the subject of research dedicate to the foreign policy of Nicholas I. Although there are grounds for believing that these were the milestone events from the perspective of transformation of the Vienna System of 1815, as well as gradual formation of prerequisites to Anglo-French bonding that resulted in the military alliance of the period of Crimean War. The subject of this work is the correlation between the events of Belgian Revolution and Polish Uprising in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire of 1830-1831.  The research is based on combining the problematic-chronological and systemic-historical approaches to the analysis of the indicated events. The scientific novelty lies in proving the tenuity of the existing in the national and foreign historiography outlook upon the events in Belgium and Poland as the independent from one another phenomena. The various sources demonstrate that Nicholas I and his diplomats perceived these events as the interrelated manifestations of crisis of the existed at the moment Vienna System, which required comprehensive approach to their solution.
Novikova M.V. - Peculiarities of the historical policy of Soviet State during the years of Perestroika (1985-1991) pp. 24-39

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.2.25374

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of revision of the Soviet past that took place in USSR during the years of Perestroika (1985-1991). The author analyzes the indicated process within the paradigm of the “historical policy”. This article familiarizes with the key vectors of historical policy implemented over the recent years of the existence of Soviet Union, as well as the factors that affected their emergence. The accent is made on description of the process of formation of the contours of “historical policy”, analysis of creation of infrastructure within the “realm of memory”, and factors that affect the implementation of historical policy. The author examines the documents and decrees, party publications, mass media, stenographs of the meetings and conferences. For determination of the main principles of historical policy, was conducted a discourse analysis of the performances of the top officials and their memorial speeches, as well as quantitative and qualitative content analysis of a number of publishers, including the newspapers “Moscow News”, journal “Communist”, etc. The scientific novelty consists in a comprehensive description of the revision of the Soviet past during the years of Perestroika, concept of the “historical policy”. Currently, within the historiography, this term is referred to as the phenomenon of post-Soviet period. The author reveals the application of the key methods and approaches of the historical policy during the period of Perestroika, and their interrelation with the historical policy in the post-Soviet context. The article for the first time introduces into the scientific discourse some documents from the personal archives of the Secretary of  Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR A. N. Yakovlev and editor-in-chief of the newspaper “Moscow News” Yegor Yakovlev.
Atakishieva D.G., Naumova N.N. - The evolution of integration policy of Charles de Gaulle (mid 1950s late 1960s) pp. 28-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.8.36041

Abstract: This article traces the evolution of the Western European policy of the General Charles de Gaulle during his presidency. In the early 1950s, he willingly cooperated with the European countries in terms of creating the economic union; however, in the course of solution of decolonization issues and, namely the Algerian problem that constrained the implementation of the key vectors of state policy, the president began focused on advancing the concept of national mightiness of France and commitment to the principles of intergovernmental cooperation in the development of integration. Charles de Gaulle fought for the foundation of the political union “Europe of the Homelands”, in which France would be assigned a significant role. The article analyzes de Gaulle’s failures in negotiations with the “P5+1” countries, which once again demonstrated to the Europeans that building integration is a long and complex process that does not tolerate rapid decisions and requires the ability to compromise. Special attention is turned to the development of integration policy of the General Charles de Gaulle based on his formal speeches, correspondence, and memoirs. De Gaulle's efforts in the sphere of integration policy of the Fifth Republic yielded certain results. First and foremost, he was able to establish the superiority of national principles in addressing the general policy issues in the European Community. Secondly, he prevented the Great Britain from joining the Common Market, as from his opinion it was an economic and political competitor of France. Thirdly, de Gaulle strengthened the international reputation of France as the country that was at the dawn and in the lead of the integration processes in Europe.
Beishenaliev A.B. - The stages of US policy in Central Asia region (1991-2015) pp. 30-37

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.9.27034

Abstract: This article demonstrates the key stages of the advancement of US policy in Central Asia region, which includes five countries: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The United States were among the first to recognize these countries as the full-fledged actors of international relations. The author determines the three stages in development of the relations between the United States and the countries of Central Asia. The first stage marks the acquisition of sovereignty after dissolution of the Soviet Union in the late XX century; the second falls on the presidency of George W. Bush (2001-2009) and ended in 2014; the third began in 2015. The article presents the texts of bilateral agreements between the United States and five republics of Central Asia; a total of over 60 agreements, the majority of which have been signed by Kazakhstan due to the problem of annihilation of nuclear armaments on its territory. Over the recent time, in US policy with regards to Kyrgyzstan have occurred certain issues and misunderstandings, which forces to search for new vectors and opportunities in the relations of these two countries. Therefore, it is imperative to continue studying the geopolitical interests of the United States in Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan in the area of international security.
Smirnov I. - Montenegros political crisis of 1997-1998 pp. 33-47

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.10.34107

Abstract: The subject of this research is the struggle of political elites in Montenegro, which was a constituent federated state of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in the late 1990s. In 1997, as a result of split between the ruling in Montenegro Democratic Party of Socialists, the political life of the country faced a severe crisis. The opposition wing within Democratic Party of Socialists, headed by the young politician Milo Đukanović won the confrontation. The result of this conflict became a drastic change in the country's political orientation in its relations with Serbia and the federal center in Belgrade. The author examines the factors that caused crisis situation and proliferation in the republic. The article determines the key stages of political confrontation in the republic and their fundamental characteristics. The first stage marks the internal struggle of the elites, juxtaposition of reformist wing of the ruling party, which criticized the allied authorities in Belgrade, and its conservative parliamentary group that supported alliance with the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its leader Slobodan Milošević. At the second stage, the confrontation extends beyond the republic and shifts onto the federal level, becoming an inter-republican conflict. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the original approach towards studying the topic at hand, using the new sources and literature.
Ippolitov V.A. - Socio-political attitudes of the members of Komsomol during the mid-1930s pp. 36-48

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.17451

Abstract: This article analyzes the socio-political moods of Komsomol members over the period of 1934-1936 in the following aspects: assessment of the work of country’s leadership, perception of party’s policy in the village, relation to assassination of S. M. Kirov, and cancellation of the ration stamp. The main sources for this research became the unpublished archive materials from the State Archives of Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast and Voronezh Oblast. In Komsomol’s history of this little-studied period, the author observes the consistent connection between the economic situation of the country and political attitudes of the youth. The theory of nationalization of Komsomol, according to which Komsomol is considered a peculiar Soviet “youth ministry” or interlink between the state and the youth, became basic for examination of the historical and Komsomol issues. The study of the public moods of the members of Komsomol allows evaluating the socio-cultural phenomenon of Komsomol more objectively. The scientific novelty consists in reframing of the controversial socio-political attitudes of the youth. The author concludes that a significant part of Komsomol members assessed the situation in the country rather critically. But it was dangerous to openly demonstrate such attitude due to the possibility of repressions by the government. The author notes that the mechanisms of repressions were used inside the Komsomol organizations during the mid-1930’s.
Smetanina K.Y. - Problem of the legitimacy of authority of Catherine II and approaches to its interpretation in the school textbook of the XIX century on the history of Russia pp. 37-45

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.28183

Abstract:  Based on the materials of highly demanded and many times reissued textbooks on the history of Russia, which undoubtedly influences the formation of representations of several generations of Russian students about the past, this article analyzes the peculiarities of ascension to the throne of Catherine II. The author examines such topics as the ancestry of the empress and the circumstances of overthrow of Peter II in 1762. Special attention is given to the strategies, which allow the authors to substantiate the legitimacy of the reign of Catherine II. The article applies the principle of historicism for determining the dependence of the content and methods of translating information about the past events on the sociopolitical environment that affected the creation of school textbooks. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that this article is fist to study the question of the legitimacy of reign of Catherine II on the materials of school textbooks of the XIX century. The conclusion is made that the authors were trying to bypass the problem of legitimacy either through concealing the circumstance of overthrow of Peter III and presenting the empress as the legatee of her husband; or by depicting the coup as an event contributing to the improvement of wellbeing of the Russian nation and enhancing the glory of the empire.
Kosykh E.S. - Legal aspects of the Soviet concession policy of the 1920s pp. 38-44

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.9.27384

Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal aspects of the Soviet concession policy of the 1920’s. The research is conducted through examination of the materials from central archives. It is noted that the goal of concession policy was to create the favorable investment climate for attracting foreign capital to the Soviet economy. The author underlines the concession agreement was a special agreement allowing the derogation from the Soviet legislation to the benefit of foreign entrepreneurs. Concession signified that the laws on state monopoly for development of mineral resource, conduct of foreign trade, ban or restrictions to hiring workforce, etc. did not apply to some of the entrepreneurs. The use of comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods allowed determining the peculiarities of legal regulation of foreign concessions in the 1920’s. The scientific novelty lies in demonstration of strong correlation between the political and economic tasks in the policy of Soviet State pertinent to foreign concessions. This correlation  was clearly traced in legal regime of a concessionary company. Property of concessionary enterprise was owned by the state; a concessioner was merely a hirer. The legislation provided the state with the right to control the production activity of the concession, and prematurely terminate the contract at any time. Most of the concession agreements were terminated at the government’s initiative and without compensation. Only those, close to the Soviet elites, received a partial compensation for the losses. Concession existed for as long as the government was interested in it for any reasons of international, foreign economic, or domestic economic character.
Kodan S.V. - The Council of Peoples Commissars and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks orderJoint normative legal acts of the Communist Party and the Soviet State within the system of sources of Soviet law pp. 39-53

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.1.17674

Abstract: The established within USSR system of administration and regulation of public relations in the Soviet society represented a conglomerate of the Communist Party and the government. The Soviet state acting as a mechanism in realization of ideological and political decisions of the Russian Communist Party-the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks-the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its legislative activity in its foundation was determined by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee. At the same time, the Communist Party did not possess official constitutional authorities for decreeing the normative obligatory for the entire population acts, thus was initially using a particular form of legalization of its decisions – joint acts of the Party and the state. This article reveals the place and role of the joint orders of the Party’s Central Committee and the Soviet State of normative legal character as the means of broadcasting into society the politico-ideological decisions of the party, as well as the combined efforts of the party and state apparatus towards the determination and solution of the questions of managing the social, political, and economic processes. 
Ermolaeva E. - Formation and development of foreign policy ideology of the Republic of Korea pp. 39-50

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.7.33554

Abstract: This article explores the process of formation of foreign policy ideology of the Republic of Korea. The object of this research is the national ideology of the Republic of Korea, while the subject is the ideological concepts of its foreign policy. Analysis is conducted on the historical background, cultural and sociopolitical context, which affected the formation of South Korean ideology. The article describes the foreign policy concepts of the Republic of Korea, using the example of ideological course of the administrations of Lee Myung-Bak, Park Geun-hye and Moon Jae-on. The author applies the comparative-historical and problem-chronological methods, as well as content analysis in examination of the texts of documents for determining conceptual grounds of foreign policy. The Russian Korean Studies do not feature comprehensive research on the topic of ideology in the sphere of foreign policy of the Republic of Korea, which defines the scientific novelty of this work. The following conclusions were formulated:1) Historically, Korea was in a state of foreign policy dependency, which impacted the formation of nationalistic views among the political elite; 2) The peculiarities of development of the Republic of Korea led to the division of political forces into two main groups that vector the foreign policy within the framework of genera paradigm, characterized by nationalistic context and the strive to ensure sustainable development of the country and regional security;3) The ideological concepts of political groups mark a number of differences in the attitude to the alliance with the United States and interaction with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. However, the implementation of foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Korea depends on a particular situation, thus the ideological course of foreign policy does not always reflect the real government actions. The ideological differences in foreign policy of the rightwing and leftwing forces become more conditional – the pragmatic objectives aimed at preservation of stable relations and balance of forces, as well as maintenance of regional security, come to the forefront.
Kozcaz U. - Signing of Ankara Agreement (Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty) and its impact upon the Turkish Press pp. 41-48

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.6.26378

Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of news texts in Turkish newspapers through the prism of the Russia-Turkey relations. The object of this research is the basic Turkish newspapers published following the execution of Ankara Agreement. Particular attention is given to the reception of Turkish newspapers over the period of September 28 through October 29, 1939. The author reviews the materials of the publishers “Cumhuriyet” (the Republic), “Ulus” (the People), “Tan” (the Dawn), “Son Posta” (the Last Message), “Akşam” (the Evening), “İkdam” (the Promotion), and “Vakit” (the Time). The article compares the materials of seven publishers, as well as make conclusions on their similarities and discrepancies. The scientific novelty is substantiated by comparing the materials of the publishers that have not been previously examines in the Russian language literature. A conclusion is made that the indicated timeframe (September 28 – October 29, 1939), from the perspective of the considered in the article publisher, was paramount for the Republic of Turkey in selection of the political course.
Rabush T.V. - On the formation of the state borders of Afghanistan in the late XVIII XIX centuries pp. 44-52

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.10.36613

Abstract: The subject of this research is the formation of state borders of Afghanistan throughout the period from the mid XVIII century to the late XIX century. A brief overview is given to this process during the existence of the Durrani Empire, while the main part of research is covers the events of the XIX century, since the reign of the Barakzai Dynasty. The article leans on the works of the experts in history of Afghanistan of the corresponding period, history foreign policy of Afghanistan and its individual aspects, as well as related documents. This topic has not previously become the subject of separate research, which defines the novelty of this publication. The main results are as follows: the author divides the history of formation of the borders of Afghanistan into two stages – since 1747 to the mid XIX century, characterizes by the dynamic policy of Afghan rulers aimed at the expansion of their territories, including through military conquests; the second half of the XIX century, which determines the new borders of Afghanistan primarily by the external political actors and their activity. It is worth noting that the period from the late XVIII century and the entire XIX century marks the formation of state border of Afghanistan that remain to this day.
Salamatova M.S. - People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) and All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK): the role in organization of election campaigns in RSFSR (1917-1924) pp. 46-60

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.5.29857

Abstract: The subject of this research is the involvement of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee in organization of elections to Soviets and congresses of Soviets during the establishment of the Soviet State from 1917 to 1924.  Due to the absence of the nationwide specialized elective body, the key role in leading the election campaigns in RSFSR throughout the indicated period belonged to NKVD. The article describes the peculiarities of establishment and exercise of powers of People’s Commissariat in organization of elections. The scientific novelty lies in examination of the role of the supreme and central Soviet bodies in the organization of election campaigns during the establishment of the Soviet State based on the newly introduced to the scientific discourse archival materials and published sources. Soviet organization of elective bodies significantly reproduced the prerevolutionary model, and suggested the creation of specialized elective bodies at the local levels while retaining a substantial role of administrative branches under the authority of NKVD. The People’s Commissariat did not consider the organization of elections for Internal Affairs as a priority sphere of activity, which led to a chaotic and unsystematic exercise of powers in leading the election campaigns. Ineffective exercise of powers with regard to elections by the central apparatus of NKVD, as well as its territorial branches, logically led to reorganization of NKVD apparatus and delegation of these powers to subdivisions of VTsIK and executive committees of the Soviets.
Belukhin N.E. - Rebellious Parliament: period of the policy of reservations in Denmark-NATO Relations (1982-1988) pp. 47-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35530

Abstract: The object of this research is the foreign policy of Denmark in the 1980s. The subject of this research on the one hand is the ideological foundations of Denmark's foreign policy during this period, which were strongly affected by the ideas of European social democracy, and on the other hand – the influence of the Danish Parliament (Folketing) upon the formation of Denmark’s official position on the issues of European security discussed within the framework of NATO. Denmark’s refutation of neutrality after the World War II and its entry into NATO in many ways determined the foreign policy position of Denmark throughout the Cold War as a small European state that perceived the Soviet Union as a threat to national security. At the same time, the desire of Denmark of maintain maximum flexibility and avoid making far-reaching commitments within the framework of NATO, led to the fact that Denmark was often perceived as an unreliable and inconvenient ally. The period from 1982 to 1988 indicates the Atlantic dissidence of Denmark and simultaneous improvement of relations with the Soviet Union), when Denmark’s representatives in the NATO sessions, being obliged to take into account the position of the parliamentary majority in the Folketing, were forced to make reservations to the final documents of the sessions, expressing disagreement or criticism of implemented measures. Among the Russian scholars dealing with the history of Denmark, this period has not yet received wide coverage. This article is an attempt to describe and explain the causes and consequences of the period of the “policy of reservations” for Denmark’s foreign policy in the context of the end of Cold War and in the conditions of transition towards the post-bipolar system of international relations.
Salamatova M.S. - The recall of a deputy in Soviet Russia: legislation and practice of realization (1917 1936) pp. 48-60

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.5.19603

Abstract: The subject of this study is the terms, conditions and implementation of the recall of deputies in the period of the Soviet political system. The opinion of the Deputy had a limited distribution in the world and domestic practice, in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Came to power, the Bolsheviks introduced a recall of a Deputy in the Soviet electoral system, considering it an important form of direct democracy, revising the mechanism of interaction of deputies and voters. Contrary to initial plans, the recall of a Deputy in the Soviet reality, did not become a form of "genuine proletarian democracy" was implemented under the directives, top-down, and was not supported by any broad initiative of the population. However, the recall of the Deputy was not and meaningful way of dealing with opposition deputies, the Bolsheviks used the more cruel political practices to displace disloyal members of the councils.The study is based on the methodological principles of historicism, system analysis and objectivity. The principle of historicism allows us to consider the evolution of the institution of recall of deputies in the context of the historical era. Systems approach and structural-functional analysis allowed us to determine the mechanism of recall of deputies as well as the place of the Institute in the Soviet electoral system.The novelty of the research consists of a comprehensive study of the legal regulation of the grounds, conditions and procedure for the implementation of the recall of deputies at the stage of formation of the Soviet electoral system. For the first time introduced into scientific circulation sources helped to reveal the mechanism of functioning, the real value of the Institute and the problems of implementation of the recall of deputies in Soviet political practice.Until the mid-1920's the institution of recall of deputies could not find the real development in the Soviet legislation and practice. During the period of implementation of the policy of "revival" of the Soviets (1925-1929) opinion was considered as a measure of the revitalization of the Council deputies, in the Soviet law there were specified grounds, conditions and order of revocation. In practice, the recall of a Deputy remained unclaimed. The recall of a Deputy of the forms of direct will of the voter has become one of the forms of organizational-mass work of the Soviets. In the 1930s the recall of a Deputy was one of the elements of the mechanism of identification and suppression of "class enemies", but not widespread.
Salamatova M.S. - Bolsheviks and opposition parties at the Council elections: means of formation of the single-party political system pp. 50-68

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.2.32146

Abstract: The subject of this research is the mechanism of formation of the single-party political system in Soviet Russia, and dislodgement by the Bolsheviks of opposition parties from the political and electoral process. The article reconstructs the methods of struggle of Bolsheviks against opposition in the course of elections and between election periods, as well as reviews statistical data on the participation of parties in Council elections and different levels of the Congresses of Soviets. The author reveals the role of agitation-propagandistic, repressive, and administrative means of struggle between Bolsheviks and opposition parties, and results of implementation of such methods. The scientific novelty consists in comprehensive examination and classification of the means of struggle of Bolsheviks against opposition parties during the first Council electoral campaigns. The first methods have formed at the elections of 1918, and later undergone extensions and amendments. The range of means of struggle against opposition includes the agitation-propagandistic, repressive, and administrative pressuring. The key role in liquidation of multi-party system was carried out by the repressive and agitation-propagandistic methods, which were not the method used in elections specifically, but produced most significant effect upon the electoral process. Diverse methods of administrative pressuring , such as restriction of pre-election agitation, ban on the speeches of opposition parties representatives, prohibitions on publicizing the lists of opposition candidate (prohibition on participation in the elections), compulsory re-voting, were applied directly at the elections and served as supplements to the more coarse measures of repressive character.
Salamatova M.S. - Cancellation of the elections of 1924 in Soviet Russia: new materials and interpretations pp. 53-66

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.1.19047

Abstract: The subject of this research is the reasons and conditions of mass cancellation (cessation) of the election results of the winter of 1924/25, which was a unique event in the Soviet political history. The established within historiography position on this matter, as a result of high level of absenteeism of population and formalization of electoral process, must be subjected to significant amendment. The causes of mass cancellation of the elections should be examined in the context of opposition inside the party, as well as socioeconomic and political development of the country. Essential factors, which justified the declaration of a “new course” and cancellation of elections, became the strive of grouping in party leadership that insisted in implementation of the more liberal course (in contradiction of the one suggested by L. Trotsky) for ensuring the advantage in retention of power alongside the support of population. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the introduction into the discourse of the new sources and innovative interpretation of the events associated with the mass cancellation of the elections of 1924, as well as development of the Soviet electoral system. The author underlines the transformation of the electoral model, characterized by the weakening of party-state pressure upon population and implementation of the limited alternativeness. The common electoral practice in the late 1920’s was the involvement of broad range of urban and rural population in the elections, free nomination and discussion of the candidates, requirements and mandates to the new Councils. The new reality became the rejection from the formal semi-mandatory voting for previously approved lists of candidates. Within the framework of the achieved consensus on the elections of the late 1920’s, the country’s leadership was able to expand the trust towards the authorities; the population received the opportunity of a direct dialogue with the government, as well as the ability to delegate their representatives and voice their demands.
Agapov I.O. - Lobbying in Great Britain: history of development and problems of regulation pp. 54-73

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.1.16383

Abstract: The subject of this research is the lobbying in Great Britain. A special attention is given to the close connection between the promotion of private interests by the high rank officials of the British governments and the corruption scandals. The author thoroughly examines the legal frameworks of the collaboration on the Royal servants with the representatives of major corporations, a so-called, actively developing practice of “rotating doors”. The law on transparency of lobbying is being analyzed; the conclusion is made about its inability to improve openness of the relationship between the authorities and the business in the United Kingdom. In addition to that, the author demonstrates a number of examples typical for the unbalanced lobbyism. Among the main conclusions are the following: lobbyism in Great Britain is tightly linked to the manifestations of corruption; British mass media is filled with headlines on the controversial actions of one or another politician; the acting legal frameworks of the collaboration between the lobbyist and the officials cannot provide any notable restrictions on the lawlessness of the reputable economic constituents; the fundamental law regulating lobbying in the United Kingdom requires significant changes.
Pripisnova E.S. - On the certain issues of definition and work of the analytical centers in UK pp. 56-62

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.2.17200

Abstract: This article analyzes the issues in studying the practical activity of the British analytical (think) centers in light of transformation of the state policy from Keynesian social democracy to free market (since 1970’s). The subject of the research is the UK think centers which act as “mediators” between the informed public opinion and political and government institutions. In the first part of the article, the author examines the problem of terminology of the “think centers”, as well as definition of these groups in the context of British politics of the XX century. In the second part, the author reviews the genesis of the think centers in UK, as well as the theoretical and practical aspects of their work. The following conclusions are made: there is no unified and accurate definition of the “think centers”; an opinion about the recent appearance of the thinks centers in UK is false; the work of the think centers is aimed at influencing the opinion of the establishment, and the provision of information for making the current decisions in the area of public policy.
Priymachuk D.V. - Historical and political aspects of the US strategy in relation to Afghanistan and the Soviet Central Asia pp. 67-77

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.1.21220

Abstract: The subject of this research is the United States  foreign policy doctrine in relation to Afghanistan and states of the Soviet Central Asia, which undergone a drastic transformation in the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century due to geopolitical changes, associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. The conceptual structuring of Zbigniew Brzezinski defined content of the US foreign policy doctrine; and its major priority consisted in the attempt to establish the unipolar world and reconstitute the “neocolonial” system under the new circumstances. The main conclusion of this work consists in the scientifically substantiated positions on the fact that after the military Operation Desert Storm, the United Stated conducted the utilitarian policy in Central Asia and Afghanistan, which suggested the achievement of certain results within the framework of implemented foreign policy concept at minimum costs. Since the mid 1990’s, the United States established the “foundation” for the future “strategic breakthrough” in the region, the prerequisite for which were the economic interests, activation of the competitors, as well as the growing “Islamic threat”.
Sushkov A.V., Bedel A.E., P'yankov S.A. - Industry of luxurious life: to the question on corruption relationships of the Ural party-state leadership and economic organizations in the 1930s pp. 69-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.8.30518

Abstract: The subject of this research is the corruption practices among the party and economic leadership in the Ural Region during the Soviet industrialization period of 1930’s.  Based on the documents of party control bodies, the article examines the facts of misappropriation of funds and material resources. The relevance of this research is substantiated by the attempt to profoundly understand the causes of repressions of the 1930’s pertaining to regional government and big economic executives. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse historical sources allow clarifying the information on the factors affecting the delays in construction of a number of large industrial plants, as well as housing for workers and amenities in the industrial centers of Ural Region. The descriptive method allowed demonstrating the details of corruption relationships between the party leadership and executives of industrial plants. The historical-genetic method allowed reconstructing and specifying the circumstances of disruption in the construction of a number of important industrial objects, as well as clarifying the reasons of severe living conditions of the employees of large industrial construction projects of the Ural Region during the industrialization period. The novelty of this article consists in conducting a special scientific research dedicated to the corruption relationships between party nomenclatura and economic leaders. The conclusion is made that the unlawful actions of economic and party leadership contradicted the proclaimed by the Soviet propaganda image of a communist, ideas of equality and justice, inflicted irreparable reputational damage, and discredited the Soviet government system overall.
Khasanova M. - Parliamentary Assembly as a factor for development and consolidation of the Union State pp. 76-87

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.8.33778

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the role of Parliamentary Assembly in development of the Union State. The goal is to trace the parliamentary activity in the Union State throughout the entire time of its existence, the objectives that were pursued, their transformation, and change of conditions for their accomplishment. This topic is especially relevant in the current context. A new milestone has passed in the history of Union State: December 2019 marked twenty years since its creation. Agreement on the formation of Parliamentary Assembly of the Community of Belarus-Russia Union State was signed earlier, in 1996. The novelty of this works consists in comprehensive and detailed analysis of different stages in formation of Parliamentary Assembly, which allows describing their role in further consolidation of the Union State. The scientific problem of this article can be articulated as follows: Parliamentary Assembly is not just a legislative institution that formulates the agenda for development of the Union State; it is also a platform for a continuous dialogue between Russia and Belarus. Therefore, examination of this government institution in an urgent scientific problem that allows revealing the key aspects of evolution of the Union State. As the resources for this article, the author explored the legislative acts of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation, legal information from official portals of the Union State and the Parliamentary Assembly. This underline the need for further development of parliamentarism in Russia-Belarus Union State for the purpose of improvement and strengthening of relations between the countries in the current conditions of international transformation. The article is based on most relevant documents pertaining to Russia-Belarus relations for the period from 1991 to the present.
Nikulin V.V. - Political doctrine and composition of the ruling party (regulation of social composition of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks in 1920s: goals, specificity, results) pp. 78-97

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.1.20695

Abstract: Based on the primary sources this article analyzed the complex of measures conducted by the Soviet leadership regarding the changes in social structure of the Communist Party over the period of 1920’s. The author examines the crisis phenomena in the party, which became evident in the early 1920’s, as well as determines their causes and consequences. The article explores the process of formulation of decisions by the supreme leadership of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) – All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks aimed at overcoming of the crisis phenomena in the party. It is defined that the key task of the actions taken in this direction consisted in strengthening of the social foundation of authority as the basis of domestic political stability. The author reveals the conceptual content of the process and forms of its manifestation along with the content and goals of particular measures of regulatory character pertaining to transformation of the social composition of the Communist Party, including purges of the party, “Lenin’s summon” into the party, as well as development of coarse criteria of formation of party’s composition, etc. The conclusion is made that the crucial consequence of the complex of measures taken in 1920’s on changing the social composition of the party, became the intensively developing process of division of the party members according to social estates – bureaucratic principle, creation of workforce potential of the government.
Pupykin N. - Reflection of the problematic of political conflicts in the history of public thought pp. 78-88

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.9.36473

Abstract: This article analyzes the evolution of theoretical approaches of the representatives of foreign (European and US) public thought towards studying the problem of political peace and conflict interaction. The object of this research is the conflictogenic political relations as a form of historical development of the state and social institutions. The subject of this research is the steady development of socio-political and socio-philosophical theories related to political conflicts and social stability. Research methodology is based on the structural-functional and systemic analysis, comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods, as well as other general scientific and special principles of historical cognition. The author comes to the conclusion that the representations of the political forms of social conflict interaction have deeply rooted causal links with different historical eras (Antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Modern Age, Contemporary History), and have made a long way from “naivety” and dogmatism to interdisciplinarity, from unconditional historicism to social systematicity in their conceptual approaches. The novelty of this article consists in comprehensive examination of the evolution of methodology for studying the conceptual-categorical space of political conflict through the prism of the historical development of mankind, thereby revealing the impact of conflictogenic nature of the political process upon the course of world history.
Sosenkov F.S. - The problem of retention of the Soviet Union in documents of the State Committee on the State of Emergency pp. 85-93

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2017.2.18015

Abstract: The subject of this research is the ideas of state unity and combating separatism, expressed in documents of the State Committee on the State of Emergency (GKChP of USSR). The author underlines the compulsory character of establishment of this agency. The main crisis trend of the Soviet statehood of the end of 1980’s – the beginning of 1990’s became the territorial disintegration of USSR and the threat to its collapse. The developed by various political powers projects of restructuring the Soviet State by means of decentralization of administration lead to transformation of the Soviet Union into confederative institution, which legitimized capture of authority by the union republics as violation of the Constitution of USSR. The main goals of formation of GKChP reflected in its documents: “Declaration of the Soviet leadership”, “Address to the Soviet people”, “Appeal to the leaders of states and governments, and UN General Secretary”, and others. These acts list the reasons of the weakening of unity of USSR, as well as defines the measures on overcoming the separatist trends. The scientific novelty consists in attraction of the materials, which were insufficiently involved into the study of the needs of history of state and law, as well as teachings on state and law. The accessible documental heritage of GKChP allows concluding that the key goal of formation of this agency consisted in retention of the territorial integrity of the county, which also defines its “political face”. Despite the established stereotypes, the Communist component in ideology of GKChP was not as high; it was rather the expression of political will of the group of conservatively oriented Soviet leaders. The failure of GKChP accelerated the disintegration of USSR, and allowed assessing the idea of retention of the unified state as reactionary on the official level. Perhaps partially because of this, the agreement between Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus signed on December 8, 1991 that practically liquidated the Soviet Union, did not cause the tangible resonance in society.
Zhuravlova L., Honchar Y.B. - Space Policy of the United States in the context of cessation of the arms race pp. 87-100

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.8.21944

Abstract: The object of this research is the space policy of the United States as one of the leading factors in the process of cessation of the arms race. The authors turn attention to a special role of the space activity of the Unite State in the process of transition from the large-scale build-up of armaments towards the constructive dialogue between two hyperpowers in the late 1980’s. Based on the guidelines of American presidents, international treaties, and extensive research, the work substantiates positive impact of the space theme in the process of détente as an efficient instrument for cultivating bilateral relations in the conditions of retention and even aggravation of the economic and military-political antagonism. The authors also actualize the role of commercial component of space policy of the United States as a tool for accessing the technical potential of countries – successors of the Soviet space program. The scientific novelty consists primarily in application of the complex approach towards examining space policy of the United States in the period of cessation of the arms race, which yet had not been a subject of study within the modern historical science. The conclusion is made that the process of détente of the late 1980’s approved and consolidated the potential of space as a ideologically and politically neutral sphere of the mutually beneficial intrastate cooperation. Space policy of the United States, not lacking in the destructive impact upon escalation of competition between the two hyperpowers, demonstrated significant potential of the positive effect upon the détente of international relations.
Ovanesyan I.G. - Style of the work of Komsomol organizations of the 1950s as a factor of evolution of political culture of the Soviet youth pp. 110-129

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.19520

Abstract: This article makes an attempt to comprehensively evaluate the style of the work Komsomol organizations of the 1950’s and its impact upon the political culture of Soviet youth. In the author’s opinion, the study of the political culture of the society during one of the pivotal stages of historical development alongside the clarification of the factors influencing its formation, creates the prerequisites for the establishment of high culture of political relations as a sign of civil society, as well as for their rationalization and intellectualization.  This material increases its relevance due to the 100th anniversary of the Communist Union of Youth. Komsomol is being viewed as a peculiar Soviet “ministry of youth”, a so-called interlink between the government and the youth. The research demonstrates that many negative trends in life of the union have not been determined even at the end of a decade. The triumph of bureaucratic tendencies in Komsomol contributed into manifestations of nihilism within the youth environment, youth’s disbelief in their own strength, as well as indifference towards everything. The style of the Komsomol activity encouraged the entrenchment of double standards among youth, the difference between the words and actions, official and daily behavior. At the same time, the author notes the rise of tendencies which overall played a positive role in formation of the youth’s political culture in the life of Komsomol, such as: strengthening of the elements of self-governance; riddance of the campaigns against “public enemy”; criticism of welfare mentality; rejection from the practice of mass transference of Komsomol personnel; consideration of age peculiarities of the youth; increase of attention towards organization of leisure among the members of Komsomol and the youth.
Matsievskii G.O. - The state and Kozakdom in the XVI the beginning of the XIX centuries (the evolution of political relations) pp. 122-136

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19279

Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of political relations between the state and Kozakdom in the XVI – the beginning of the XIX centuries, when Russia was turning into a major Eurasian state, as well as the foundations of its Imperial policy were establishing. The goal of this work consists in determination of the characteristic features and specificities of the main stages of the history of these relations, when throughout the three centuries there was a complex process of integration of Kazakdom into the state sociopolitical structure as the “service social class”. The main method of this research lies in the historical approach which suggests the study of the sociopolitical phenomena and events through their origin and evolution. The author makes a conclusion that the history of political relations between the state and Kozakdom going through number of stages, evolved from “free union” to “class service”. As the result, by the beginning of the XIX century, Kazakdom was definitively assigned as the military-service class of the Russian Empire, the inner life and service of which was fully regulated by the authorities.
Sushkov A.V., Bedel A.E., P'yankov S.A. - This is according to Soviet law, but we are in Tagil!: corruption practices in Middle Ural during the 1930s pp. 134-147

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.11.31222

Abstract: The subject of this research is the corruption practices of the party leaders and economic officials during the Soviet industrialization of the 1930’s. Based on the documents of party control agencies, the author examines the factors of misappropriation of financial and materials resources for personal gain. Relevance of this study is substantiated by the possibility of deeper understanding of the causes of repressions of the 1930’s with regards to regional authorities and economic officials. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse historical sources allow clarifying the records on the factors contributing to backlog in construction of a number of large industrial enterprise, housing accommodations for workers, and public amenities in one of the largest industrial centers of the Sovier Union. The application of descriptive method allowed demonstrating the details of corruption relationships between the party leaders administration of a number of industrial enterprises. Historical-genetic method helped to reconstruct and specify the circumstances of failure in construction of a series of industrial objects and determine the causes that led to severe financial and living conditions of the employees of the large industrial construction sites in Nizhny Tagil during the period of industrialization. The novelty consists in conducting the first in history special scientific research dedicated to the corruption relations between party nomenclature and economic officials during industrialization of the Ural region in 1930’s. The conclusion is made that corruption actions of the economic officials and party leaders negatively affected the implementation of plans for industrial development. Their unlawful activity not only inflicted an immense damage, but also worsened the financial and living conditions of the employees and engineering and technical personnel.
Veber M. - The mutiny of workers of Polevskoy factory against the Bolshevik authorities (17-18th of June, 1918): causes and consequences pp. 170-182

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.6.21154

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the curious phenomenon of the Russian Civil War - uprisings of workers against the dictatorship of proletariat, namely, rebellions of mining population of the Urals against the Soviets in the spring and summer of 1918. One of the largest anti-Bolshevik rebellions of mining population in the Urals occurred in June 1918 in the village of Polevskoi factory, located 54 miles south-west of Yekaterinburg. These events are poorly described both in Soviet and modern Russian historiography. Based on the archive documents, memoirs and newspapers, the author reconstructs the events of the mutiny of workers of Polevskoy factory. The paper examines the complex of reasons, which provoked the mutiny against Bolsheviks. The paper also describes consequences of the mutiny, including comparison of the number of victims of red terror with the number of victims of white terror in Polevskoy factory. The author makes a conclusion about the need for national reconciliation and establishment of the general monument to the victims of the Russian Civil War in Polevskoy.
Salamatova M.S. - The city council in under threat of being captured by the foreign element: participation of non-proletarian layers of the city population in electoral campaigns of the RSFSR in the 1920s pp. 384-407

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.4.14970

Abstract: The subject of this research is the cooperation of the non-proletarian layers of city population with the government during the electoral campaigns of the 1920’s. A retrospective analysis of the mechanism of cooperation between the government and the population during the electoral campaigns of the 1920’s promotes understanding of the modern electoral issues in the post-Soviet space, and thus, in addition to the scientific significance, there is also an important political one. The 1920’s represent a unique period within the electoral history of Russia, which marked the formation of behavioral stereotypes of the population at the election, and the mechanisms of cooperation between the people and the government. Based on the archive materials, the article analyzes the number of the electoral body of the non-proletarian portion of the city population, dynamics of the activeness of participation of citizens in the elections, peculiarities of the formation of electoral behavior, as well as the problems of cooperation between city dwellers and the government. The research demonstrates that the non-proletarian layers of the city population comprised a significant portion within the electoral body of the cities of 1920’s, numerically exceeding in the smaller provincial cities.
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