Genesis: Historical research
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History and Politics
Androsov D.P. - The establishment of public opinion in Western Europe during the 1970’s by means of mass media on the background of the fight of German Federative Republic against “Red Army Faction” terrorist pp. 18-28


Abstract: The object of this research is the most resonant and exerted significant influence upon the establishment of public opinion in separate countries publications in major publishers of the continental Western Europe in 1970’s, pertaining to measures taken by the executive and legislative authorities of FRG in the state period, which are aimed at neutralization of threat to the Western German society and government that emanates from the left wing radical terrorist organization “Red Army Faction”. The author gives special attention to the development of the fundamental direction of the publicistic thought that touches upon confrontation between the state and the terrorist; he also analyzes the assessment of this fight given by the print mass media in FRG, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Netherlands, attempting to pursue regularities of the journalistic reasoning. For this research the publications of the 1970’s on the topic of the fight between the government of FRG and “Red Army Faction organization” have been selected in the following German publishers: “Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung”, “Die Welt”, “Bild”, “Die Zeit”, “Frankfurter Rundschau”, “Der Spiegel”, as well as in French, Italian and Swiss newspapers. The main conclusion consists in the establishment of the concrete regularities in the nature of the articles of the informational printed materials and their assessments, given to the anti-terroristic campaigns conducted by the law enforcement agencies of FRG, as well as to the decisions of the Western German judicial system with regards to “Red Army Faction” terrorists.
Marinin M.O. - International crisis of 1830-1831 and foreign policy of the Russian Empire pp. 23-30


Abstract: Revolution in the Belgian lands of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and uprising in the Kingdom of Poland rarely become the subject of research dedicate to the foreign policy of Nicholas I. Although there are grounds for believing that these were the milestone events from the perspective of transformation of the Vienna System of 1815, as well as gradual formation of prerequisites to Anglo-French bonding that resulted in the military alliance of the period of Crimean War. The subject of this work is the correlation between the events of Belgian Revolution and Polish Uprising in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire of 1830-1831.  The research is based on combining the problematic-chronological and systemic-historical approaches to the analysis of the indicated events. The scientific novelty lies in proving the tenuity of the existing in the national and foreign historiography outlook upon the events in Belgium and Poland as the independent from one another phenomena. The various sources demonstrate that Nicholas I and his diplomats perceived these events as the interrelated manifestations of crisis of the existed at the moment Vienna System, which required comprehensive approach to their solution.
Novikova M.V. - Peculiarities of the historical policy of Soviet State during the years of Perestroika (1985-1991) pp. 24-39


Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of revision of the Soviet past that took place in USSR during the years of Perestroika (1985-1991). The author analyzes the indicated process within the paradigm of the “historical policy”. This article familiarizes with the key vectors of historical policy implemented over the recent years of the existence of Soviet Union, as well as the factors that affected their emergence. The accent is made on description of the process of formation of the contours of “historical policy”, analysis of creation of infrastructure within the “realm of memory”, and factors that affect the implementation of historical policy. The author examines the documents and decrees, party publications, mass media, stenographs of the meetings and conferences. For determination of the main principles of historical policy, was conducted a discourse analysis of the performances of the top officials and their memorial speeches, as well as quantitative and qualitative content analysis of a number of publishers, including the newspapers “Moscow News”, journal “Communist”, etc. The scientific novelty consists in a comprehensive description of the revision of the Soviet past during the years of Perestroika, concept of the “historical policy”. Currently, within the historiography, this term is referred to as the phenomenon of post-Soviet period. The author reveals the application of the key methods and approaches of the historical policy during the period of Perestroika, and their interrelation with the historical policy in the post-Soviet context. The article for the first time introduces into the scientific discourse some documents from the personal archives of the Secretary of  Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR A. N. Yakovlev and editor-in-chief of the newspaper “Moscow News” Yegor Yakovlev.
Beishenaliev A.B. - The stages of US policy in Central Asia region (1991-2015) pp. 30-37


Abstract: This article demonstrates the key stages of the advancement of US policy in Central Asia region, which includes five countries: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The United States were among the first to recognize these countries as the full-fledged actors of international relations. The author determines the three stages in development of the relations between the United States and the countries of Central Asia. The first stage marks the acquisition of sovereignty after dissolution of the Soviet Union in the late XX century; the second falls on the presidency of George W. Bush (2001-2009) and ended in 2014; the third began in 2015. The article presents the texts of bilateral agreements between the United States and five republics of Central Asia; a total of over 60 agreements, the majority of which have been signed by Kazakhstan due to the problem of annihilation of nuclear armaments on its territory. Over the recent time, in US policy with regards to Kyrgyzstan have occurred certain issues and misunderstandings, which forces to search for new vectors and opportunities in the relations of these two countries. Therefore, it is imperative to continue studying the geopolitical interests of the United States in Central Asia and Kyrgyzstan in the area of international security.
Ippolitov V.A. - Socio-political attitudes of the members of Komsomol during the mid-1930’s pp. 36-48


Abstract: This article analyzes the socio-political moods of Komsomol members over the period of 1934-1936 in the following aspects: assessment of the work of country’s leadership, perception of party’s policy in the village, relation to assassination of S. M. Kirov, and cancellation of the ration stamp. The main sources for this research became the unpublished archive materials from the State Archives of Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast and Voronezh Oblast. In Komsomol’s history of this little-studied period, the author observes the consistent connection between the economic situation of the country and political attitudes of the youth. The theory of nationalization of Komsomol, according to which Komsomol is considered a peculiar Soviet “youth ministry” or interlink between the state and the youth, became basic for examination of the historical and Komsomol issues. The study of the public moods of the members of Komsomol allows evaluating the socio-cultural phenomenon of Komsomol more objectively. The scientific novelty consists in reframing of the controversial socio-political attitudes of the youth. The author concludes that a significant part of Komsomol members assessed the situation in the country rather critically. But it was dangerous to openly demonstrate such attitude due to the possibility of repressions by the government. The author notes that the mechanisms of repressions were used inside the Komsomol organizations during the mid-1930’s.
Kosykh E.S. - Legal aspects of the Soviet concession policy of the 1920’s pp. 38-44


Abstract: The subject of this research is the legal aspects of the Soviet concession policy of the 1920’s. The research is conducted through examination of the materials from central archives. It is noted that the goal of concession policy was to create the favorable investment climate for attracting foreign capital to the Soviet economy. The author underlines the concession agreement was a special agreement allowing the derogation from the Soviet legislation to the benefit of foreign entrepreneurs. Concession signified that the laws on state monopoly for development of mineral resource, conduct of foreign trade, ban or restrictions to hiring workforce, etc. did not apply to some of the entrepreneurs. The use of comparative-historical and problematic-chronological methods allowed determining the peculiarities of legal regulation of foreign concessions in the 1920’s. The scientific novelty lies in demonstration of strong correlation between the political and economic tasks in the policy of Soviet State pertinent to foreign concessions. This correlation  was clearly traced in legal regime of a concessionary company. Property of concessionary enterprise was owned by the state; a concessioner was merely a hirer. The legislation provided the state with the right to control the production activity of the concession, and prematurely terminate the contract at any time. Most of the concession agreements were terminated at the government’s initiative and without compensation. Only those, close to the Soviet elites, received a partial compensation for the losses. Concession existed for as long as the government was interested in it for any reasons of international, foreign economic, or domestic economic character.
Kodan S.V. - The Council of People’s Commissars and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks order…”Joint normative legal acts of the Communist Party and the Soviet State within the system of sources of Soviet law pp. 39-53


Abstract: The established within USSR system of administration and regulation of public relations in the Soviet society represented a conglomerate of the Communist Party and the government. The Soviet state acting as a mechanism in realization of ideological and political decisions of the Russian Communist Party-the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks-the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its legislative activity in its foundation was determined by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee. At the same time, the Communist Party did not possess official constitutional authorities for decreeing the normative obligatory for the entire population acts, thus was initially using a particular form of legalization of its decisions – joint acts of the Party and the state. This article reveals the place and role of the joint orders of the Party’s Central Committee and the Soviet State of normative legal character as the means of broadcasting into society the politico-ideological decisions of the party, as well as the combined efforts of the party and state apparatus towards the determination and solution of the questions of managing the social, political, and economic processes. 
Kozcaz U. - Signing of Ankara Agreement (Anglo-Franco-Turkish Treaty) and its impact upon the Turkish Press pp. 41-48


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of news texts in Turkish newspapers through the prism of the Russia-Turkey relations. The object of this research is the basic Turkish newspapers published following the execution of Ankara Agreement. Particular attention is given to the reception of Turkish newspapers over the period of September 28 through October 29, 1939. The author reviews the materials of the publishers “Cumhuriyet” (the Republic), “Ulus” (the People), “Tan” (the Dawn), “Son Posta” (the Last Message), “Akşam” (the Evening), “İkdam” (the Promotion), and “Vakit” (the Time). The article compares the materials of seven publishers, as well as make conclusions on their similarities and discrepancies. The scientific novelty is substantiated by comparing the materials of the publishers that have not been previously examines in the Russian language literature. A conclusion is made that the indicated timeframe (September 28 – October 29, 1939), from the perspective of the considered in the article publisher, was paramount for the Republic of Turkey in selection of the political course.
Salamatova M.S. - The recall of a deputy in Soviet Russia: legislation and practice of realization (1917 – 1936) pp. 48-60


Abstract: The subject of this study is the terms, conditions and implementation of the recall of deputies in the period of the Soviet political system. The opinion of the Deputy had a limited distribution in the world and domestic practice, in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Came to power, the Bolsheviks introduced a recall of a Deputy in the Soviet electoral system, considering it an important form of direct democracy, revising the mechanism of interaction of deputies and voters. Contrary to initial plans, the recall of a Deputy in the Soviet reality, did not become a form of "genuine proletarian democracy" was implemented under the directives, top-down, and was not supported by any broad initiative of the population. However, the recall of the Deputy was not and meaningful way of dealing with opposition deputies, the Bolsheviks used the more cruel political practices to displace disloyal members of the councils.The study is based on the methodological principles of historicism, system analysis and objectivity. The principle of historicism allows us to consider the evolution of the institution of recall of deputies in the context of the historical era. Systems approach and structural-functional analysis allowed us to determine the mechanism of recall of deputies as well as the place of the Institute in the Soviet electoral system.The novelty of the research consists of a comprehensive study of the legal regulation of the grounds, conditions and procedure for the implementation of the recall of deputies at the stage of formation of the Soviet electoral system. For the first time introduced into scientific circulation sources helped to reveal the mechanism of functioning, the real value of the Institute and the problems of implementation of the recall of deputies in Soviet political practice.Until the mid-1920's the institution of recall of deputies could not find the real development in the Soviet legislation and practice. During the period of implementation of the policy of "revival" of the Soviets (1925-1929) opinion was considered as a measure of the revitalization of the Council deputies, in the Soviet law there were specified grounds, conditions and order of revocation. In practice, the recall of a Deputy remained unclaimed. The recall of a Deputy of the forms of direct will of the voter has become one of the forms of organizational-mass work of the Soviets. In the 1930s the recall of a Deputy was one of the elements of the mechanism of identification and suppression of "class enemies", but not widespread.
Salamatova M.S. - Cancellation of the elections of 1924 in Soviet Russia: new materials and interpretations pp. 53-66


Abstract: The subject of this research is the reasons and conditions of mass cancellation (cessation) of the election results of the winter of 1924/25, which was a unique event in the Soviet political history. The established within historiography position on this matter, as a result of high level of absenteeism of population and formalization of electoral process, must be subjected to significant amendment. The causes of mass cancellation of the elections should be examined in the context of opposition inside the party, as well as socioeconomic and political development of the country. Essential factors, which justified the declaration of a “new course” and cancellation of elections, became the strive of grouping in party leadership that insisted in implementation of the more liberal course (in contradiction of the one suggested by L. Trotsky) for ensuring the advantage in retention of power alongside the support of population. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the introduction into the discourse of the new sources and innovative interpretation of the events associated with the mass cancellation of the elections of 1924, as well as development of the Soviet electoral system. The author underlines the transformation of the electoral model, characterized by the weakening of party-state pressure upon population and implementation of the limited alternativeness. The common electoral practice in the late 1920’s was the involvement of broad range of urban and rural population in the elections, free nomination and discussion of the candidates, requirements and mandates to the new Councils. The new reality became the rejection from the formal semi-mandatory voting for previously approved lists of candidates. Within the framework of the achieved consensus on the elections of the late 1920’s, the country’s leadership was able to expand the trust towards the authorities; the population received the opportunity of a direct dialogue with the government, as well as the ability to delegate their representatives and voice their demands.
Agapov I.O. - Lobbying in Great Britain: history of development and problems of regulation pp. 54-73


Abstract: The subject of this research is the lobbying in Great Britain. A special attention is given to the close connection between the promotion of private interests by the high rank officials of the British governments and the corruption scandals. The author thoroughly examines the legal frameworks of the collaboration on the Royal servants with the representatives of major corporations, a so-called, actively developing practice of “rotating doors”. The law on transparency of lobbying is being analyzed; the conclusion is made about its inability to improve openness of the relationship between the authorities and the business in the United Kingdom. In addition to that, the author demonstrates a number of examples typical for the unbalanced lobbyism. Among the main conclusions are the following: lobbyism in Great Britain is tightly linked to the manifestations of corruption; British mass media is filled with headlines on the controversial actions of one or another politician; the acting legal frameworks of the collaboration between the lobbyist and the officials cannot provide any notable restrictions on the lawlessness of the reputable economic constituents; the fundamental law regulating lobbying in the United Kingdom requires significant changes.
Pripisnova E.S. - On the certain issues of definition and work of the analytical centers in UK pp. 56-62


Abstract: This article analyzes the issues in studying the practical activity of the British analytical (think) centers in light of transformation of the state policy from Keynesian social democracy to free market (since 1970’s). The subject of the research is the UK think centers which act as “mediators” between the informed public opinion and political and government institutions. In the first part of the article, the author examines the problem of terminology of the “think centers”, as well as definition of these groups in the context of British politics of the XX century. In the second part, the author reviews the genesis of the think centers in UK, as well as the theoretical and practical aspects of their work. The following conclusions are made: there is no unified and accurate definition of the “think centers”; an opinion about the recent appearance of the thinks centers in UK is false; the work of the think centers is aimed at influencing the opinion of the establishment, and the provision of information for making the current decisions in the area of public policy.
Priymachuk D.V. - Historical and political aspects of the US strategy in relation to Afghanistan and the Soviet Central Asia pp. 67-77


Abstract: The subject of this research is the United States  foreign policy doctrine in relation to Afghanistan and states of the Soviet Central Asia, which undergone a drastic transformation in the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI century due to geopolitical changes, associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. The conceptual structuring of Zbigniew Brzezinski defined content of the US foreign policy doctrine; and its major priority consisted in the attempt to establish the unipolar world and reconstitute the “neocolonial” system under the new circumstances. The main conclusion of this work consists in the scientifically substantiated positions on the fact that after the military Operation Desert Storm, the United Stated conducted the utilitarian policy in Central Asia and Afghanistan, which suggested the achievement of certain results within the framework of implemented foreign policy concept at minimum costs. Since the mid 1990’s, the United States established the “foundation” for the future “strategic breakthrough” in the region, the prerequisite for which were the economic interests, activation of the competitors, as well as the growing “Islamic threat”.
Nikulin V.V. - Political doctrine and composition of the ruling party (regulation of social composition of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) – All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks in 1920’s: goals, specificity, results) pp. 78-97


Abstract: Based on the primary sources this article analyzed the complex of measures conducted by the Soviet leadership regarding the changes in social structure of the Communist Party over the period of 1920’s. The author examines the crisis phenomena in the party, which became evident in the early 1920’s, as well as determines their causes and consequences. The article explores the process of formulation of decisions by the supreme leadership of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) – All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks aimed at overcoming of the crisis phenomena in the party. It is defined that the key task of the actions taken in this direction consisted in strengthening of the social foundation of authority as the basis of domestic political stability. The author reveals the conceptual content of the process and forms of its manifestation along with the content and goals of particular measures of regulatory character pertaining to transformation of the social composition of the Communist Party, including purges of the party, “Lenin’s summon” into the party, as well as development of coarse criteria of formation of party’s composition, etc. The conclusion is made that the crucial consequence of the complex of measures taken in 1920’s on changing the social composition of the party, became the intensively developing process of division of the party members according to social estates – bureaucratic principle, creation of workforce potential of the government.
Sosenkov F.S. - The problem of retention of the Soviet Union in documents of the State Committee on the State of Emergency pp. 85-93


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ideas of state unity and combating separatism, expressed in documents of the State Committee on the State of Emergency (GKChP of USSR). The author underlines the compulsory character of establishment of this agency. The main crisis trend of the Soviet statehood of the end of 1980’s – the beginning of 1990’s became the territorial disintegration of USSR and the threat to its collapse. The developed by various political powers projects of restructuring the Soviet State by means of decentralization of administration lead to transformation of the Soviet Union into confederative institution, which legitimized capture of authority by the union republics as violation of the Constitution of USSR. The main goals of formation of GKChP reflected in its documents: “Declaration of the Soviet leadership”, “Address to the Soviet people”, “Appeal to the leaders of states and governments, and UN General Secretary”, and others. These acts list the reasons of the weakening of unity of USSR, as well as defines the measures on overcoming the separatist trends. The scientific novelty consists in attraction of the materials, which were insufficiently involved into the study of the needs of history of state and law, as well as teachings on state and law. The accessible documental heritage of GKChP allows concluding that the key goal of formation of this agency consisted in retention of the territorial integrity of the county, which also defines its “political face”. Despite the established stereotypes, the Communist component in ideology of GKChP was not as high; it was rather the expression of political will of the group of conservatively oriented Soviet leaders. The failure of GKChP accelerated the disintegration of USSR, and allowed assessing the idea of retention of the unified state as reactionary on the official level. Perhaps partially because of this, the agreement between Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus signed on December 8, 1991 that practically liquidated the Soviet Union, did not cause the tangible resonance in society.
Zhuravlova L., Honchar Y.B. - Space Policy of the United States in the context of cessation of the arms race pp. 87-100


Abstract: The object of this research is the space policy of the United States as one of the leading factors in the process of cessation of the arms race. The authors turn attention to a special role of the space activity of the Unite State in the process of transition from the large-scale build-up of armaments towards the constructive dialogue between two hyperpowers in the late 1980’s. Based on the guidelines of American presidents, international treaties, and extensive research, the work substantiates positive impact of the space theme in the process of détente as an efficient instrument for cultivating bilateral relations in the conditions of retention and even aggravation of the economic and military-political antagonism. The authors also actualize the role of commercial component of space policy of the United States as a tool for accessing the technical potential of countries – successors of the Soviet space program. The scientific novelty consists primarily in application of the complex approach towards examining space policy of the United States in the period of cessation of the arms race, which yet had not been a subject of study within the modern historical science. The conclusion is made that the process of détente of the late 1980’s approved and consolidated the potential of space as a ideologically and politically neutral sphere of the mutually beneficial intrastate cooperation. Space policy of the United States, not lacking in the destructive impact upon escalation of competition between the two hyperpowers, demonstrated significant potential of the positive effect upon the détente of international relations.
Ovanesyan I.G. - Style of the work of Komsomol organizations of the 1950’s as a factor of evolution of political culture of the Soviet youth pp. 110-129


Abstract: This article makes an attempt to comprehensively evaluate the style of the work Komsomol organizations of the 1950’s and its impact upon the political culture of Soviet youth. In the author’s opinion, the study of the political culture of the society during one of the pivotal stages of historical development alongside the clarification of the factors influencing its formation, creates the prerequisites for the establishment of high culture of political relations as a sign of civil society, as well as for their rationalization and intellectualization.  This material increases its relevance due to the 100th anniversary of the Communist Union of Youth. Komsomol is being viewed as a peculiar Soviet “ministry of youth”, a so-called interlink between the government and the youth. The research demonstrates that many negative trends in life of the union have not been determined even at the end of a decade. The triumph of bureaucratic tendencies in Komsomol contributed into manifestations of nihilism within the youth environment, youth’s disbelief in their own strength, as well as indifference towards everything. The style of the Komsomol activity encouraged the entrenchment of double standards among youth, the difference between the words and actions, official and daily behavior. At the same time, the author notes the rise of tendencies which overall played a positive role in formation of the youth’s political culture in the life of Komsomol, such as: strengthening of the elements of self-governance; riddance of the campaigns against “public enemy”; criticism of welfare mentality; rejection from the practice of mass transference of Komsomol personnel; consideration of age peculiarities of the youth; increase of attention towards organization of leisure among the members of Komsomol and the youth.
Matsievskii G.O. - The state and Kozakdom in the XVI – the beginning of the XIX centuries (the evolution of political relations) pp. 122-136


Abstract: The subject of this research is the evolution of political relations between the state and Kozakdom in the XVI – the beginning of the XIX centuries, when Russia was turning into a major Eurasian state, as well as the foundations of its Imperial policy were establishing. The goal of this work consists in determination of the characteristic features and specificities of the main stages of the history of these relations, when throughout the three centuries there was a complex process of integration of Kazakdom into the state sociopolitical structure as the “service social class”. The main method of this research lies in the historical approach which suggests the study of the sociopolitical phenomena and events through their origin and evolution. The author makes a conclusion that the history of political relations between the state and Kozakdom going through number of stages, evolved from “free union” to “class service”. As the result, by the beginning of the XIX century, Kazakdom was definitively assigned as the military-service class of the Russian Empire, the inner life and service of which was fully regulated by the authorities.
Weber M.I. - The mutiny of workers of Polevskoy factory against the Bolshevik authorities (17-18th of June, 1918): causes and consequences pp. 170-182


Abstract: The paper is devoted to the curious phenomenon of the Russian Civil War - uprisings of workers against the dictatorship of proletariat, namely, rebellions of mining population of the Urals against the Soviets in the spring and summer of 1918. One of the largest anti-Bolshevik rebellions of mining population in the Urals occurred in June 1918 in the village of Polevskoi factory, located 54 miles south-west of Yekaterinburg. These events are poorly described both in Soviet and modern Russian historiography. Based on the archive documents, memoirs and newspapers, the author reconstructs the events of the mutiny of workers of Polevskoy factory. The paper examines the complex of reasons, which provoked the mutiny against Bolsheviks. The paper also describes consequences of the mutiny, including comparison of the number of victims of red terror with the number of victims of white terror in Polevskoy factory. The author makes a conclusion about the need for national reconciliation and establishment of the general monument to the victims of the Russian Civil War in Polevskoy.
Salamatova M.S. - “The city council in under threat of being captured by the foreign element…”: participation of non-proletarian layers of the city population in electoral campaigns of the RSFSR in the 1920’s pp. 384-407


Abstract: The subject of this research is the cooperation of the non-proletarian layers of city population with the government during the electoral campaigns of the 1920’s. A retrospective analysis of the mechanism of cooperation between the government and the population during the electoral campaigns of the 1920’s promotes understanding of the modern electoral issues in the post-Soviet space, and thus, in addition to the scientific significance, there is also an important political one. The 1920’s represent a unique period within the electoral history of Russia, which marked the formation of behavioral stereotypes of the population at the election, and the mechanisms of cooperation between the people and the government. Based on the archive materials, the article analyzes the number of the electoral body of the non-proletarian portion of the city population, dynamics of the activeness of participation of citizens in the elections, peculiarities of the formation of electoral behavior, as well as the problems of cooperation between city dwellers and the government. The research demonstrates that the non-proletarian layers of the city population comprised a significant portion within the electoral body of the cities of 1920’s, numerically exceeding in the smaller provincial cities.
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