Genesis: Historical research - rubric History and Ideology
Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "History and Ideology"
History and Ideology
Bulatov I.A. - National Association of Russian Explorers: brief history pp. 8-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of development of the National Association of Russian Explorers (NORR) – one of the youth organizations of White émigré. NORR was founded in 1928, and in the 1930s became the largest emigrant youth organization. However, after the World War II it basically ceased its activity. The first members of NORR came from the Scout movement, founding their ideology on the criticism of parent organization. Nevertheless, it did not prevent them from borrowing the most effective methods of scouting and adapt them to their ideology. The ideology was based on the Russian nationalism of imperial type, patriotism and militarism. Peter the Great was selected as the symbol of all the ideas. Leaning on the wide variety of source, including the materials introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time, the article examines the phenomenon of national upbringing in extracurricular organizations. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that the burst in popularity and subsequent decline of the National Association of Russian Explorers were associated namely with the national-patriotic component of upbringing, which was of crucial in the conditions of emigration. The fact that the leader of this association P. N. Bogdanovich, was able to offer a system of Russian national upbringing to general emigrant community was the key factor of its initial success. After World War II, NORR has lost many of its active members and winded down its activity; and the Russian Scouts implemented more national elements into their work, attracting patriotic youth. This brought the activity of NORR to an end.
Makulov S.S. - The role of Italy in Spanish Civil War through the lens of Soviet press (1936-1939) pp. 13-17


Abstract: The subject of this research is the role of the fascist Italy in Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) reflected on the pages of Soviet periodicals of the time. This conflict became the first military clash between USSR and Italy, which resulted in the rapid deterioration of relations between the two stats. The goal of this work lies in studying the key methods applied by the Russian journalists and publicists for describing the indicated events in the context of Soviet-Italian relation and international status of USSR and Italy overall. The author used the historical method, text analysis, methods of scientific generalization, various newspaper and journal publications of the period at hand introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time, as well as works of the contemporary historians and specialists of international relations. Conclusion is made that the confrontation between USSR and Italy within the framework of Spanish conflict forced the Soviet press to strong criticism of the Italian fascism and militarism, however such campaign had certain peculiarities.
Zaretskaya O.V. - Soviet-Norwegian relations and the image of Norway in Soviet printed media over the period of 1955 1960s (using the material of Pravda newspaper) pp. 29-43


Abstract: The subject of this research is the image of Norway in Soviet printed media over the period of 1955 – 1960’s, which was formed under the influence of transnational relations between the Soviet Union and Norway. The object is the Soviet-Norwegian relations under the conditions of crucial changes in the system of global politics and international relations. Special attention is given to the peculiarities of establishment and transformation of the image of Norway alongside the character of Soviet-Norwegian relations in Soviet printed media over the stated timeframe. The concept of myth (generalized perception of the reality) lies in the foundation of this work. Examination of the reflection of reality in the consciousness, as well as effect of the political myths upon the formation of a desired image of any objects is a necessary condition for analyzing the printed media. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to trace the qualitative transformations of Norway’s image in the Soviet printed media over the period of 1955 – 1960’s. The following conclusions were made: in 1954 – 1955 the criticism of Norwegian pro-NATO policy acquires constraint character, which was a result of achieving certain balance in the bilateral relations; the image of Norway becomes neutral. Visit of Einar Gerhardsen to USSR in 1995 alongside the following visits of high officials in 1964 and 1965 positively affected the relations between the state, and thus, resulted in formation of a pleasant image in the printed media. However, the question of Norway’s membership in NATO remained topical. Due to the fact that on the intergovernmental was achieved close cooperation, and within the NATO block have increased centrifugal trends, the media were actively discussing a possible exit of Norway from the organizations. Dissatisfaction of the Soviet leadership by the decision of Norwegian government to remain the member of NATO led to worsening of the bilateral relations in 1970’s.
Mikhailov A.M. - Legal ideology and juridical dogmatic theology pp. 31-52


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the notion of legal ideology and its connection with the dogmatic jurisprudence. The main attention is given to correlation between the notions of legal ideology and juridical dogmatic theology, determination of their differences and similarities, as well as interaction in the process of legal regulation. Revelation of the subject of research is conducted from the perspective of functional approach: the author determines the role and importance of legal ideology and juridical dogmatic theology within the system of law alongside the process of legal regulation, as well as accentuates their practical and pragmatic nature. The article reveals the notion of legal ideology and its functional significance in legal system. The author’s original understanding of the grounds and structure of legal ideology is provided. The work gives characteristics to the process and necessary conditions for establishment of the juridical dogmatic theology. The author reveals the interconnection between the juridical dogmatic theology and legal ideology, as well as complementarity of their action in the process of legal regulation.  
Nasibullin R.A. - "The course of financial law, read by Professor Kolonozhnikov, was held on ideologically low level with presence of major political distortions in form of anti-Soviet formulations": 1937 at the Sverdlovsk Law Institute pp. 35-48


Abstract: The article traces the dramatic life of Georgy Mokeevich Kolonozhnikov (1880-1958) – the son of a peasant from a remote Russian village, a student of a prominent Russian civilian jurist and emigrant I.A. Bazanov, Orthodox monarchist, professor of Department of Commercial Law and Commercial Legal Proceedings of Tomsk University, professor of the Department of Civil Law and Civil Legal Proceedings of Law Faculty (and then Economic Faculty) of the Don University and other universities of Rostov-on-Don, a professor of finance law and Head of the Linguistics Department of the Sverdlovsk Law Institute (1935-1937). His example demonstrates the methods of fighting the dissenting teachers in higher educational institutions. Professor G. M. Kolonozhnikov was subjected to collective exposure and conviction for «gross political distortions in the form of anti-Soviet language» at a meeting of the Department of Civil and Economic Law of the Sverdlovsk Law Institute on March 7, 1937, and was soon dismissed from the institute and worked at law schools in Rostov-on-Don to 1950. The unpublished archival documents and materials of the Ural State Law University and the State Archives of the Sverdlovsk Region are introduced for scientific use. The article contains two addendums from the previously unpublished documents from the State Archive of Sverdlovsk Region, prepared for publication by the author of the article.
Nasibullin R.A. - Relapses of the past reactionary activity of Professor Antropov are evident and not accidental. Political trust cannot be rendered: year 1937 in Sverdlovsk Law Institute pp. 58-72


Abstract:   This article analyzes the collective exposure and condemnation of Professor I. A Antropov for alleged “gross political anti-Marxist perversions” in lecturing extraordinary and expanded meeting of the department of Civil and Business Law on May 19, 1937 on discussing a note in the regional newspaper “Ural Worker” of 8 May 1937. In the decree of the department on the work of Professor Antropov, all the accusations of the newspaper article were recognized as legitimate; it was proposed to strengthen control over teaching, raise revolutionary vigilance and fight against the distortions of Marxism-Leninism; it was also acknowledged that future institute activity of Professor is impossible. He was dismissed from the institute on July 2, 1937, because he “admitted a number of political mistakes” and became a victim of “witch hunt”. The unpublished archive documents and materials of the Ural State Law University and the State Archives of Sverdlovsk Region are introduced into the scientific discourse; two addendums from the previously unpublished documents from the State Archives of the Sverdlovsk Region are attached to the article.  
Konovalov A.A., Zhurtova A.A., Kugotov Z.A. - Doctrinal grounds of ideology of Slavophiles: European intellectual tradition and its Russian modification pp. 59-70


Abstract: The subject of this research is the conceptual grounds of Slavophilic ideology that formed under the influence of European sociopolitical thought of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries, and undergone substantial transformation in the process of adaptation to the Russian sociocultural reality. The article analyzes such concepts as nation, collective subject, national spirit (Volksgeist), special path (Sonderweg), etc., which were partially borrowed by Slavophiles from intellectual production of the German national romanticism, and gained further development having become the theoretical framework for studying different problems of Russian society and the state. Methodology is based on the comparative and historical-genetic methods, which allowed determining and examining the elements of similarity between the ideas of European and sociopolitical thought and Slavophilic conceptual ground, as well as their modification within the Russian intellectual environment. The main conclusion consists in the thesis that Slavophilism cannot be unequivocally attributed to liberal or conservative ideology. It combined the principles and postulates of both philosophical systems that acquired new synthesized content within the framework of Russian intellectual space. Slavophilic attitude toward Russian society, which marked the defining meaning of spiritual beginning of social life, also drastically differed from the national patriotism in the context of the theory of official nationalism, with its vividly expressed statist principle.
Ivanov A.A. - Social Institution of religion in the Ideology of Bolshevism pp. 66-72


Abstract: In the current conditions of a shift in the moral values and ideological focus, the questions of interaction of various social institutions that ensure the integration of society based on the achievements of national culture are gaining relevance. Thus, there is heightened interest in the Church theme, namely the history of relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the government. Lately, many political leaders alongside the church hierarchs, stand for integrating efforts aimed at countering national and global challenges, as well as developing a consistent system of social norms to overcome legal nihilism and build an effective civil society. In view of this, the study of the historical forms of relations between the Church and the government in Russia would facilitate the indicated processes by taking into account the experience of previous political regimes. The content of social experiments of the Bolsheviks in the territory of the former Russian Empire is explicitly described in the scientific and historical literature; however, the reasons and ideological prerequisites of confrontations between the Church and the government require clarification. This article aims to answer the question on inevitability of this conflict. For solving this problem, analysis was conducted on the works of the founders of Marxism-Leninism, which reveal the specificity of representations of the adherents of this ideology on the religious institutions prior to coming to power in Russia.
Nasibullin R.A. - Professor I.A. Antropov enemy herald at the scientific department: 1937 in the Sverdlovsk Law Institute pp. 68-81


Abstract: This article traces the tragic fate of Ivan Aleksandrovich Antropov (1888-1938) – Associate Professor of the department of Civil Law and Procedures of the Law Faculty of Kazan University, Chairman of the Legal Meeting at Ufa Directory, Legal Adviser and Deputy Governor of the Supreme Ruler A. V. Kolchak and the Council of Ministers (1918-1920), Professor of Department of Civil Law and Legal Theory of the Irkutsk State University, Head of department of Economic Law of the Siberian Institute of Soviet Law, and the Sverdlovsk Law Institute (1931-1937). Based on his example are demonstrated the methods of fighting the dissenting teachers in the higher educational facilities. Professor I. A. Antropov was exposed as an "enemy herald at the scientific department" in the regional newspaper note "The Ural Worker" of May 8, 1937 and "in the distortion of the Marxist-Leninist doctrine" in the peer review by Professor G. Rivin on the lecture report, which reveals the features of Marxist polemics. The unpublished archival documents and materials of the Ural State Law University and the State Archive of Sverdlovsk Region are introduced for scientific discourse. The two annexes from the previously unpublished documents from the State Archives of Sverdlovsk Region, prepared for publication by the author, are attached to the article.
Sidorchuk I.V. - Historical memory for the limitrophe state: policy with regards to medieval Lithuania during the post-Stalin period pp. 92-97


Abstract: The subject of this research is the policy in the field of historical memory during the period of late Stalinism explored on the example of medieval history of Lithuania. Having referred to an extensive range of published and archival sources, the author analyzes the factors and transformation character of historiographical paradigms in studying the history of relationship of the two nations and countries. Special attention is given to the examination of specificity of state order that required mandatory refusal from the Lithuania’s image as a historical enemy and adversary of Russia. The conclusion is made that the policy in the area of historical memory in the postwar Lithuania represented a fusion of imperial and Marxist heritage, which formed a unique and controversial image of the country’s past, called to revise historical memory of the citizens of Soviet Lithuania. This concept viewed the coexistence of Russians and Lithuanians within the boundaries of a single, Moscow State, as natural and necessary in the context of constant threat from the West. The idea of friendship of two nations aligned with the perception that the Russian territories have always been on a significantly higher level of development of social relations. The decisive role of Russian territories in the fight against the major external enemies of Lithuanians – German knight, merchants and Catholicism, was consistently emphasized.  
Dorozhkin A.G. - Sino-Albanian split of 1977-1978 reflected in TASS correspondence pp. 93-104


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relations between the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the People's Republic of China in the period of 1977-1978. The subject of this research is the reflection of the then existing state of these relations in correspondence of the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS). During these years the relations between China and Albania have experienced major difficulties and almost reached the verge of collapse. The accredited abroad TASS correspondents dedicated the attention to this problem, but the indicated category of sources is yet insufficiently studied. The goal pf this work is to fill such gap. The information sources for this article include the TASS correspondence stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, periodical press, featured materials, as well as the works of E. Hoxha. The author concludes that Maoism’s endorsement of the right course in 1970’s led to alienation between the recent allies – China and Albania, and eventual collapse of their relations. Leaning on the materials of foreign news media, TASS correspondents regularly reflected the process of escalation of tension in bilateral relations during the 1977-1978, underlining the fraught debate between the ruling parties of these countries and the shift of ideological discrepancies into the intergovernmental sphere. The authors of foreign publications, which served as the reference materials for TASS correspondents, usually did not overestimate the possibility of restoring the relations between Albania and Soviet Union, which perhaps, affected the position that was ultimately held by Moscow.
Danilova V. - The cult of Imperial house during at the time of Trajan pp. 102-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the role of the cult of imperial house in ideology of the Roman Emperor Trajan (98-1170). The article reveals correlation between the image of Trajan’s family and the formation of the image of the emperor himself within the official ideology. The author examines the peculiarities of the cult of imperial house pertaining to such relatives of Trajan, as his adoptive father Nerva, biological father Trajan Senior, wife Plotina, sister Maricia, and niece Matidia. The author highlights two stages of development of the imperial house cult at the time of Trajan. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that this article is first in the Russian historiography to thoroughly explore the role of the imperial house cult in Trajan’s ideology. The immediate circle of the emperor had to correspond the image of the emperor himself. At the beginning of Trajan’s reign (98-105) we can observe moderation in favors, modesty, honor of his adoptive father Nerva, and respect for other family members. At the second stage (105-112), we can observe a significant amplification of the imperial house cult, which expressed in deification of Trajan’s the dead relatives and glorification of those alive. The author also notes the uniqueness of the situation, in which the Emperor Trajan simultaneously had two deified fathers, as well as reveals the essence of the conflict between honoring the biological father and the adoptive father.
Pokrovskaia D.M. - The principles of liberal internationalism in diplomatic reality of Lester B. Pearson pp. 104-112


Abstract: The subject of this research is the practice of liberal internationalistic approach to foreign affairs, which form many decades is a defining factors in studying Canada’s foreign policy. The Canadian liberal internationalism emerged after the World War II, and the concept of its ideology received its development in the 1950’s being inextricably linked to the name of Lester Pearson. The object of this research is the views, ideas and main approaches of Lester Pearson, who held a post of Undersecretary of State and later Prime Minister of Canada, towards the formation of foreign policy of the country. Methodology contains the analysis of personal sources of Lester Pearson and his colleagues, public speeches, official documents of Canadian Department of Foreign Policy, as well as writings of the leading Russian and foreign scholars. The author highlights the key principles of the liberal internationalistic approach towards conducting Canada’s foreign policy, among which is the institutional approach, participation of Canada in world politics as a “medium superpower”, mediation in settlement of international disputes, peacekeeping activity and adherence to the ideas of collective security, etc. A detailed analysis is carried out on the personal views and techniques of conducting diplomacy of Lester Pearson that influences the development of the Canadian liberal internationalism.
Ovanesyan I.G. - Upbringing of the youth based on the revolutionary traditions in the practice of Komsomol of the late 1950s pp. 107-121


Abstract: This article makes an attempt to determine from the current perspective the reason why particularly in the late 1950’s we can observe a growing interest of the Komsomol leadership towards the upbringing of the youth based on revolutionary traditions, as well as define its specificities and in which way such experience can be didactic. Special attention is given to the establishment of military-patriotic upbringing as one of the priority directions in the activity of Komsomol, and propaganda of the advanced practices in unity with respect to the revolutionary past. The work of the Komsomol is assessed primarily from the government and general human positions. Komsomol is being views as the original Soviet “department of youth affairs”, interlink between the government and the youth. It is demonstrated that in the 1950’s Komsomol has established a new approach: to revive the memory of the past of fathers, mothers, and brothers was the foremost responsibility of each initial Komsomol organization, as well as each district or municipal committee of Komsomol. The author believes that the principle of unity of educating the youth based on the traditions of the past, heroic spirit of the present, and ideals of the future in many aspects remains relevant even today. At the same time, it is highlighted that turning to the past, we should focus not on the destructive, but constructive traditions.
Vorontsova I.V. - Anton Vladimirovich Kartashev as a publicist and social activist of the early XX century: analytical review of articles in the Russian Word (1911-1913) pp. 124-133


Abstract: This article is a sequence of publications on the role of Anton Vladimirovich Kartashev in religious movement for the Russian church reform of the XX century. The subject of this research is his journalistic activity during the 1911-1913. After participating in the Petersburg religious-philosophical gatherings, Kartashev joined the intelligentsia movement for the church reform; tried his hand at journalism; and picked the topic “Russian Church and Modernity” to write about for the liberal “Russian Word”. Observing Kartashev’s publicistic writing the author underlines his role as a social activist in the movement for church reform. For studying the systemic approach of A. Karthashev towards the problem of church reform in Russia, the author applies the historical method allowing to correlatie the evens of the history of Russian Church, crisis stage of religious movement and response in Kartashev’s publicistic writings. The period from 1911 to 1913 is one of the insufficiently studied periods in social activity of the future Minister of Religious Confessions of the Provisional Government and the last last Ober-Procurator of the Most Holy Governing Synod of the Orthodox Church in Russia (1917). The content of his works during this period were not viewed in the context of the upcoming church reform. However, it demonstrated Kartashev’s ideas on what impeded the Russian Church in becoming the center of historical-cultural and economic modernization of Russia.
Naumov A.O. - Soft power and public diplomacy of Germany: past and present pp. 133-145


Abstract: The concept of “soft power”, which gained popularity in recent years, was developed by the United States at the end of the Cold War. However, Germany has been using similar foreign policy tools long before the emergence of this term in 1990. The subject of this research is the German strategy of “soft power” with its own tradition and specificity that differs significantly from other countries. Public diplomacy remains the key instrument in building the “soft power” potential of Germany. Therefore, analysis is conducted on the evolution of the main vectors of “soft power” policy of the country and the activity of the key actors of its public diplomacy for the past 150 years. The article describes the use of “soft power” strategies by various political regimes that were in power in Germany. The conclusion is made that in foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, which appeared on the world map in 1949, “soft power” and public diplomacy have played and continue to play an important role, allowing to achieve significant gains on the international arena in light of restrictions imposed after the World War II regarding the use of “hard power” tools. However, the German experience shows that excessive enthusiasm for building the internationally attractive image of the country may lead to quite unpredictable consequences.
Yakimov K.A. - Peculiarities of the political education in Komsomol during the period of 1937-1938 pp. 148-165


Abstract: The relevance of this research is substantiated by the necessity of historical cognition of the role of Komsomol in political education of the youth. Based on the materials of the State Archive of the Sociopolitical History of Tambov Oblast, this article examines such compositional elements of political upbringing as participation of Komsomol members in the work regarding the struggle against the “public enemy”, well as anti-religious and educational activity of the Komsomol organizations. The author conducts the analysis of the impact of political education upon the formation of specific feature of the Soviet youth, as well as gives assessment to the quality of education in political schools and groups. The article also examines the influence of political upbringing on the character of public moods of the youth, which allows more objectively evaluate the sociocultural phenomenon of the Komsomol. The scientific novelty consists in reframing of the controversial sociopolitical moods of the youth during the most difficult stage in the history of Komsomol. The author underlines the influence of Komsomol organization in the field of political education and upbringing of the young generation upon the establishment of specific features among the Soviet youth.
Zipunnikova N. - Ideologemes in the Russian legislation on education and science of XVIII XX centuries (to the issue of positions of politico-ideological component of state functions) pp. 355-383


Abstract: This article examines the little-studied historical-legal issue of ideologemes within the education and scientific sphere of Russia during XVIII – XX centuries, as well as their reflection in legislation. The saturation with ideologemes of various layers of legislation, which regulated education and science, is characterized as one of its essential features. Ideologemes and ideological formulas are being viewed as concepts that bind and form the policy and ideology in the area of science and education, as well as the channels of their realization. The article sets the task to determine the ideologemes, ideological formulas, and clichés within the Russian legislation on science and education, and systematize and understand them creatively. It proposes classification of the “science and education” ideologemes. A special attention is given to the formulation by the legislator of tasks for preparation of professional juridical personnel during both, the Imperial era, as well as through the Soviet decades. The author provides a complex demonstration of widely known ideologemes such as Uvarov’s triad or the model of Soviet jurist, as well as the formulas that did not get as much attention from the researchers.
Korobitcyna L.V. - Socialistic ideas in the works of the British historian A. J. P. Taylor pp. 552-559


Abstract: The subject of this research is the political views of the XX century British scholar A. J. P. Taylor, who made a significant contribution into the development of historical science during the period of 1930-1960, as well as provoked an extensive discussion in professional historical science and public circles with regard to the problem of origins of the World War II. Throughout his life, Taylor was an active member of the British Labor Party and supported the ideas of socialism, which significantly affected his professional and social activity. The author examines such aspects as the process of formation of political views of the scholar, as well as the reflection of socialistic views in his works. The foundation for this article became the typology of biographies proposed by Donald Walker that includes the biography of personality, professional biography, and biography of the environment. The personality and professional activity of A. J. P. Taylor is little-studied in the Russian historiography, while his contribution into the development of historical science of the XX is quite significant. During the course of this research, the author underlines that the political views played a key role in Taylor’s professional growth as a historian and public figure, as well as determined the problematics of a whole number of his historical works.
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