Genesis: Historical research - rubric Beliefs, religions, churches
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Beliefs, religions, churches"
Beliefs, religions, churches
Barinov N.N. - Evolution of two practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts in the XIV XX centuries (historical-theological analysis) pp. 1-6


Abstract: This article examines the historical and theological aspects of evolution of the two different practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts in the XIV – XX centuries. Relevance of this topic is substantiated by the recently emerged polemics on correspondence of these practices with the Apostolic Tradition and Patristic Heritage. An attempt is made to consider the historical context alongside the development of two different practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts in the XIV – XX centuries. The goal of this work is the analysis of the historical and theological documents of the indicated timeframe concerning the topic at hand, as well as the historical-theological materials of the matter. A conclusion is made that in the XIV – XX centuries, the Orthodox East retained the established practice to drench Holy Bread in the blood of Christ, which takes its roots from the undistorted Apostolic Tradition and the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Although successionally, the preceding canonists did not recognize such action, which once again is unambiguously proven in the “Pidalion” by Nicodemus the Hagiorite. But the XX century has marked the emergence of some new Greek publications that acknowledge the tradition of soaking the Holy Bread in the blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified that must be considered as derogation from the canons and Apostolic Tradition.
Barinov N.N. - Origination and evolution of two practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts in Ruthenia (Historical-theological analysis) pp. 1-10


Abstract: This article examines the historical-theological aspects of the emergence and evolution of two different practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts in Ruthenia. The acute importance of this topic is substantiated by the fact that it directly touches upon one of the key Sacraments – the Sacrament of Eucharist, as well as the major divine service – the Liturgy. The relevance is stipulated by the currently occurred polemics regarding the correspondence of these practices to the Church Canons and patristic doctrine. The goal of the work lies in analysis of the historical and theological documents on the matter. The author considers the historical context and theological questions of the evolution of two different practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts in Ruthenia. The analysis is conducted based on the critical examination of historical documents and historical-theological research dedicated to the topic at hand. A conclusion is made that with the adoption of Christianity in Ruthenia has originated the practice to imbue the consecrated bread with the blood of Christ for conducting the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts. However, there is no reliable date on the existence in Ruthenia of other practice of not saturating the consecrated bread. The article also demonstrates the merits of Saint Peter Mogila, particularly such associated with the establishment of the Orthodox Practice at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, as well as argues the unjust accusations against him. Based on this fact, as assumption is made regarding his church-wide canonization.
Shiller V.V. - The movement of Baptists-Initiatives in the 1960s as a response to the Soviet ethno-confessional policy (on the example of Kemerovo Oblast) pp. 1-7


Abstract: The object of this research is the ethno-confessional situation in USSR throughout the entire period of its existence. The subject is the movement of “Initiatives” as a response to ethno-confessional policy of the Soviet State on the example of Kemerovo Oblast during the 1950’s – 1960’s. Attention is focuses on the inner structure of the movement of Baptists-“Initiatives”, determining the two main wings with different confessional and ethic compositions and objectives. Alongside the use of general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, the author applies the historical-comparative method in diachronic aspect, and the elements of systemic analysis. The main conclusion of the conducted research lies in the thesis on the not always though out confessional and ethnic policy of the Soviet State, which provokes the origination, development and large scale of the movement. The movement of the “Initiatives” encompasses a number of Protestant confessions and representatives of different nationalities, including Germans, who had a significant impact upon the inner structure of the Protestant religious organizations.
Tatarnikova A.I. - The repressive policy of the Soviet government towards the Church and clergy in 1918-1941 . (on the example of the Tobolsk diocese) pp. 1-13


Abstract: The article characterizes the influence of political repressions carried out by the Bolsheviks on the situation of the church and clergy in the 1918-1941-ies. on the example of the Tobolsk diocese. The object of the study is the repressive policy of the Soviet government in 1918-1941, the subject is the church and clergy of the Tobolsk diocese. The influence of the anti-religious policy of the Soviet government on the functioning of churches in the country as a whole, its impact on the work of churches and monasteries in the Tobolsk diocese is considered. Special attention is paid to the study of the reflection of the anti-religious policy of the Bolsheviks in the destinies of the clergy and parishioners of the Tobolsk diocese, the analysis of statistical data on the number of victims of repression among the clergy. Conclusions are drawn about the results of the anti-church policy of the Soviet government in the diocese: mass closure of churches, removal of bells, seizure of church valuables, arrests of clergy, deprivation of their voting rights, executions. In the Tyumen region during the years of the "great terror" 176 representatives of the acting or former clergy were shot. Of these, 17% are women, mostly former nuns. The persons against whom the execution sentence was carried out were divided into several age categories, and the average age of the murdered clergy was determined. The results of the study show the scale of the tragedy in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church caused by the irreconcilable position of the new government in relation to religion.
Barinov N.N. - The development of two practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts since the first centuries of Christianity until the XIV century (historical-theological analysis) pp. 7-15


Abstract: This article examines the historical-theological aspects of origination of in Church of the two different practices at the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts. Relevance of the topic is substantiated by the occurred at the present time polemics on correspondence of the indicated practice to the apostolic tradition and patristic tradition. An attempt is made to review the historical context alongside the sources of origination of the two practices of preparation of the Presanctified Gifts since the first centuries of Christianity until the XIV century. The analysis is conducted based on the critical examination of the historical-theological studies dedicated to the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts. The goal of the article lies in the analysis of historical and theological documents for the indicated timeframe, as well as the historical-theological materials on this topic. A conclusion is made that one of the practices stems from Monophysites and the Latin West, as well as manifests as a continuation of the practice of self-oblation of the laypeople in ancient Church by a single Body of Christ, which is constitutes deviation from the apostolic tradition, justified only during the persecution. The second one, more ancient practice, takes its roots from the undistorted apostolic tradition and ritual of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. The article proves the inconsistency to the apostolic tradition and patristic tradition of religious faith into translation of the wine by dipping the sacramental bread into it.
Nesterkin S. - The main trends in the renewal movement of Russian Buddhism at the beginning of the XX century . pp. 8-15


Abstract: The object of the study is the renovationist movement in Russian Buddhism. At the beginning of the XX century, some part of the Buddhist community began the process of revising the organizational forms of its existence, revising its theoretical and practical baggage. The work focuses on defining the basic principles of the main directions of this movement, studying their goals and objectives and identifying differences in their approaches to reforming the Buddhist church in the context of the ongoing changes in the socio-political conditions of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result of the analysis of documents and archival materials, the author investigated the doctrinal and ideological foundations of the movements and their organizational forms. The study found that there were two significantly different movements that set themselves very different tasks and used fundamentally different approaches to solve them. On the one hand, the activities of Buryat enlighteners B. Baradin, Ts.Zhamsarano, etc., and such representatives of the clergy as A. Dorzhiev, Ch. Iroltuev, Ganzhurova–Gegen were designed to develop an ideological basis for preserving the national identity of the Buddhist peoples of Russia in the conditions of ideological and political expansion. On the other hand, L.S. Tsydenov and his followers set themselves a significantly different task: to reform Buddhism in such a way that it could develop in a new socio–cultural environment, in the Western culture of Russia. The task here was not so much the preservation of national identity as the development of the Buddhist tradition in a new cultural space, which indirectly solved the first task.
Ulianov O. - The foundation of Kievan Metropolia in light of the latest scientific data pp. 10-23


Abstract: This article covers the foundation of Kievan Metropolia, which remains a stumbling stone for the modern historians. The author draws parallels between the opinions of experts of the past (G. Geltzer, J. Darrouzès, M. D. Priselkov, A. Poppen and E. Honigmann) and the latest scientific data. In the middle of the XX century, the Byzantinist E. Honigmann was first to use in solution of this problem the Byzantine codes of cannon – lists of metropolias of the Patriarchate of Constantinople (notitiae episcopatuum). The modern Russian historiography proves the hypothesis of E. Honigmann that “the Russian Metropolia as a part of Tsarigrad Patriarchate was established by 997 at the latest”. However, the latest research confute the outdated argument that Kievan Metropolia initially was under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. This article is first to introduce the Byzantine source of the late X century – the message of Leo of Synada to the anonymous Metropolis of Ephesus from the collection Österreichische Nationalbibliothek (Cod. Vindob. Phil. Gr. 342. fol. 163v, 166v-167v.). Although, the Vienna manuscript has been subjected to detailed description in a number of works, with regards to realities of the time of Christianization of Rus’ is examined for the first time. The unique information from the message of Leo of Synada about the Metropolis of Ephesus as “Head of the Church” was verified based on the paramount post-Byzantine monument of the XVI century, which is the synodic “assertive” charter of the Patriarch of Constantinople Joasaph II (of December 1560). The comparative analysis of Byzantine sources of the X and the XVI centuries, which contain identical information on this topic, confirms that namely Metropolitan of Ephesus, endowed with patriarchal dignity and nominated as “head of the Church” in the Greek manuscript of the X century from the collection Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, became the legitimate participant of creation of the autocephalous Kievan Metropolia since the time of Christianization of Rus’ by Vladimir the Great.
Tesaev Z.A. - The history of the Imams of the Caucasus and the Gunoy community in the collected works of the late 19th century pp. 14-22


Abstract: The article examines the content of two of the four narratives of the Gunoic collection of works of the late 19th century. The first work devoted to the activities of the three imams Gazi-Muhammad, Gamzat-bek and Shamil received the conditional name History of the Imams; the second is dedicated to the ancestor of the Chechen community Gunoy, his descendants and their movements in the region History of Gunoys. The material is written in Arabic graphics with elements of adjam. Compiled, according to the colophon, in 1316 AH (18981899) for Mazhir Ganukaev, a native of Gunoy. Before the direct translation of the texts of the essays, the author of the article carried out a brief analysis of the content of the sources, based on a comparison of their content with the data of documents or legends. The information in the History of the Imams was compared with the data from the reports of the tsarist officers direct participants in the events described in the essay or the commanders of the Caucasian army and confirmed by them, with the exception of the cases indicated in the author's analysis. The content of the History of the Gunoy is supported by references to other researchers, including pre-revolutionary (Iv. Popov). The publication of the translation and the study of the content of these narratives are being made for the first time. The sources reveal previously known historical information and supplement them with new details, acting as an additional source on the history of the North Caucasus and Chechnya, in particular.
Danilov A.A. - Public practices of the Christian saints in the Eastern Mediterranean during the IV V centuries pp. 23-35


Abstract:   This article examines public practices of the Christian saints in the Eastern Mediterranean during the IV – V centuries, and leans on studying the hagiographic works. The traditional Roman public events in the period of Late Antiquity with the advent of Christianity gradually ceased their popularity, particularly die to the state and church policy. Along with church liturgies, festivities, and sermons, Christianity offered a new type of public events – ascetic pageantry. Publicity as an important aspect of ascetic practices practically is outside the scope of attention of the modern historians. The author reviews public practices as an informal act of impacting viewers with a profound cultural meanings. The conclusion is made that holy ascetics represented a new Christian pageantry that contributed to dynamic Christianization of the empire and fulfillment of important social functions. Public actions of the ascetic resembled the true faith, such as of the martyrs. The first crucial function carried out by the ascetic in performing public asceticism is the concentration of sizeable Christian population that had a need for such event. The second one consisted in teaching to discern who is a real Christian and how to become one.  
Iskhakova R.R., Kolcherin A.S. - The Russian Orthodox Church and the School: View through the Century pp. 26-36



Abstract: In the modern educational space, the task of forming a civic personality as a result of the educational process is invariably relevant. The study of the historical experience of the 19th century shows that during this period there was a model of the educational process, the purpose of which was the formation of personality, its further socialization in accordance with a given place in hierarchically and class-organized Russian society. Orthodoxy and the Church played a decisive role. The article analyzes the main stages of interaction and mutual influence of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ministry of Public Education in the field of formation of primary public schools. Conclusions are drawn that the internal policy of the government and the social movement in the country had a significant impact on public education. The leading discipline of the elementary folk school was the Law of God, the article reveals its place in the educational process. In the first half of the 19th century. The ROC became an important factor in the formation of a mass primary school, during the period of liberal reforms, the ROC weakened its position under the influence of a number of factors, including as a result of the appearance of the zemstvo and city schools. In 1880, a network of CPSH was created, which is a notable phenomenon and has had a significant impact on the development of education in the country.
Sennitskaya E.V. - Socioeconomic orientation of Christianity pp. 28-132


Abstract: The subject of this research is the socioeconomic basis of the key characteristics of Christianity: proselytizing nature, refutation of violence, fasts, baptism, support of feudalism, negative stance on nomadic pastoralism, system of monasteries, use of churchyards as burials, as well as special cult symbols. The article employs the following methods: 1) material-cultural (juxtaposition of religious views with the level of technological development of a particular era); 2) geophysical (juxtaposition of religious views reflected in historical sources with natural conditions affecting economic activity and emergence of a particular ideology); 3) systemic (Christianity is viewed as an element of state policy aimed at the development of secured trade routes, unobstructed tax collection and control over population); 4) linguistic (analysis of names); 5) hermeneutical (interpretation of Christian symbols in the context of economic activity of ancient times). The conclusion is made that initially Christianity was aimed at solution of the following tasks by the government: 1) development of navigation and creation of secured trade routes (namely sea routes); 2) alleviation of social tension in coastal fortress cities via adoption of a special code of conduct and reduction of urban population through implementation of the system of monasteries; 3) creation of the system of wayside markers and fortified strongpoints for sailors in form of temples and monasteries; 4) development of agricultural structure (namely through posts) for the procurement of coastal fortress cities and organizing long-term sea and land expeditions; 5) displacement of caravan trade routes with sea routes 6)  registration of population by securing the name given at baptism.
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ōbaku monk Baisaō and the Development of the Sencha Tradition in Edo Period Japan (1603-1868) pp. 41-50



Abstract: The Ōbaku school, which represents the third major trend of Zen Buddhism along with Rinzai and Sōtō, appeared in Japan during the Edo period (1603-1868) due to the arrival of Buddhist emigrant monks from China. The article discusses the life of Ōbaku monk named Baisaō who played a decisive role in the development and popularization of the tradition of sencha (brewing leaf tea in hot water) in Japan during the Edo period. This method of brewing tea, popular among Ōbaku monks, which at the initial stage of the development of the teaching was represented by ethnic Chinese, was a reference to the traditions of tea drinking by Chinese intellectuals of antiquity and was actually opposed to Baisaō the existing Japanese tea ceremony. The author concludes that it was familiarity with the teaching of Ōbaku, which personified a corner of Ming China in Japan, that determined the life path of Baisaō associated with the Chinese tea tradition and significantly influenced the formation of the cultural image of the entire epoch - the movement for the popularization of sencha after Baisaō's death took on a truly large scale. It can be said that his active activity in spreading tea culture in Japan, in which Baisaō himself reflected his spiritual ideals, led to the creation of a full-fledged alternative to the Japanese tea ceremony, thanks to which many of his contemporaries and their descendants fell in love with tea drinking again in the spirit of the Chinese sages of antiquity.
Kostanenko L.A. - The Cornerstone of the Ecumene: on the question of the medieval Church center of Zichia pp. 43-54



Abstract: The subject of the study is the history of Christianization of the part of the Caucasian Black Sea region located in the South of Russia and the adjacent territory. Since its inception, in the 1st century AD, Christianity has formed a complex structured organization that gradually spread its influence over the territory of the Roman Empire and a number of other states. In the Western Caucasus, the presence of a church organization has been recorded since the sixth century, however, a large amount of archaeological data indicates that the first Christian communities in Southern Russia arose much earlier. Special attention is paid to the consideration of issues related to the formation and development of the Christian mission on the Black Sea coast of the Western Caucasus in the medieval period. The author examines the stages of Christianization of the autochthonous peoples of the region, paying special attention to the complex aspects of their ethnogenesis and political development, as well as the evolution of geographical representations of this territory in the consciousness of the civilized world represented by the Byzantine Empire. The importance of the problem of localization of the largest religious center Nikopsia of Zikhi leads to the need for a thorough analysis of the available narrative sources, the conclusions of which are comprehensively included in the results of this study and are additionally illustrated in the table. The main result of this study is the identification of an obvious contradiction in approaches to the localization of Zikhian Nicopsia. Despite the fact that a fairly large number of researchers have addressed this problem, it should be noted that this problem has not yet been definitively resolved. The main premise characterizing the approach of most researchers who have addressed this topic is the idea of the uniqueness of the oikonym "Nikopsia" for the Caucasian Black Sea region. This idea gave rise to numerous versions of the localization of the famous, according to a number of medieval sources, Nicopsia of Zikhi. At the same time, most medieval literary monuments of Caucasian origin are united in the issue of localization of this, one of the oldest, Christian centers of the Western Caucasus. Nikopsia of Zikhi, which changed its name in the early tenth century, later became known as Anakopia.
Koroleva L., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Youth Policy of the Russian Orthodox Church in Modern Russia: Problems and Perspectives pp. 53-59


Abstract: The article reviews one of the most important parts of the Russian Orthodox Church’s activity as a meaningful institution of the Russian society – working out and realization of the youth policy. From the second half of the 1980s the state lived through a rise of interest to the religion. And the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) aspired to use the new opportunities at maximum to widen its influence, extend and even inculcate the Orthodox spiritual values among young people. The Russian Orthodox Church pays special attention to the youth because it is the youth that makes the future of the Russian society’s development. In 1991 the All-Church Christian Youth Movement (ACCYM) was created at the congress of the Orthodox youth. On the order of the Holy Synod (January, 30-31, 1991) the Moscow Patriarchate Department for the Religious Education and Catechetesis was founded under the chairmanship of hegumen Ioann (I.N. Economtsev). In 1994 the first meeting of rectors of religious schools was conducted by His Holiness Alexis II Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. In 2000 the Synodal Department for the Youth Affairs was opened with the goal to start missions among young people and make the youth more active. Since 2001 eparchial Departments for the Youth Affairs began to open on the canonical territory of the ROC. Since that time the annual All-Russia meeting of the Orthodox youth have been conducted. In 2002 the All-Russia Orthodox Youth Movement and the children’s organization “The Fellowship of the Orthodox Pathfinders” were created. The methodological basis of the research consists of objectivity concepts, concepts of historism, system, full consideration of social and subjective in the subject of the research and the maximum possible neutrality in the researcher’s attitude to the interpretation and estimation of the material.  Where possible, the principle of social and psychological approach have been used as well as the principles of tactfulness in the estimation of facts because the specificity of the confessional practice of the ROC were strong moral and ethical characteristics of its participants. The scientific novelty is based on the attempt to analyze the youth policy of the ROC under the present-day condition.    The reality shows that the priesthood in general accepted the ideas of the Orthodox youth service and felt its taste. And though the Church does not have enough experience in tangible embodiment of such ideas (and that makes it difficult to realize the ideas), its position about the youth service becomes more clear year by year. Giving its general support to the constructive endeavours of the Russian Orthodox Church in the youth upbringing, the government must strictly follow the norms of the Confessional Law not to violate the rights of other religions and the irreligious people of the Russian Federation.
Arapov A.V. - The Main Tendencies of Faith in Christ (Religious Essay) pp. 61-69


Abstract: The article is devoted to one of the movement in Russian religious sectarianism that is usually called 'faith in Christ' or 'Khlyst's movement'. The author of the article describes the main sects that are usually related to the 'faith in Christ' movement including 'God's People', 'Postniks', 'Old Israel' and 'New Israel'. The author gives an insight into their religion and history. Each movement was created based on the preceding movement. Most of the followers started to follow the new movement but the old movement also continued to exist. The author gives examples of their religious literature and describes the main forms of their mystic practices. The 'Faith in Christ' movement is viewed as the expression of the two tendencies typial for the Russian religion. Firstly, it is the focus on emotions when emotional mystic experience takes the central place and the internal state of mind and spirits is more important than the ritual. The second feature is the desire to see Christ in a new human (a spiritual leader). Of course there are not the only tendencies in Russian religion. There have been some opposing tendencies as well but they have been practiced by other religious communities. 
Korolev A.A., Koroleva L.A., Gar'kin I.N. - Islamic Religious Leaders of the Middle Volga Region in 1940 - 1980 pp. 62-77


Abstract: The subject matter of the research is the structure of Muslim clergy (age criterion, an education level, etc.), activity of attendants of an Islamic cult (the organizational device, religious practice, elements of modernization of a cult, etc.), the main directions of the Soviet state and religious policy concerning Islam in the 1940-1980th at regional level - on the average the Volga region. Multinational and polyconfessional Central Volga Area was typical regional formation of Russia. The main tendencies in activity of confessional associations, as a whole, Muslim, in particular, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country were rather accurately traced on the example of multinational Central Volga Area, having thus the specifics. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles were chosen: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemacities, d) the objective account social and personal in an object of research and the most possible neutralization of the subjective relation of the researcher at an assessment and interpretation of the facts. Novelty of research is that for the first time the special massif of archival sources which earlier wasn't demanded owing to the various reasons is introduced into scientific circulation; the main directions and forms of activity of Muslim clergy in the USSR in the 1940-1980th on the example of Central Volga Area are revealed. Conclusions.The Muslim clergy of Central Volga Area was characterized by the high age qualification and a low education level, as the general, and spiritual. In some villages in connection with small number of priests of Islam of their duty foreign persons or old men-babai carried out. The mullah, especially in rural areas, enjoyed indisputable authority that was expressed and in a material form. The Muslim clergy developed vigorous activity, applying the most various methods of work among the population. The most important element of religious practice of an Islamic cult was the sermon. The Muslim clergy of the Middle Volga region was guided by the maximum adaptation of ideology of Islam and activity of religiousness of associations to conditions of socialist society, modernization of religious doctrines of the Koran, rapprochement of the social and moral principles of Islam and communism, religion and culture. Mullahs, being in the main weight tolerant concerning the Soviet power, nevertheless sometimes entered open opposition, as on fundamental questions of belief (mainly, in Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Kuibyshev area), so sometimes and from mercenary motives.
Tauber V. - Religion and Politics in Early Modern Royal Travels: Queen Elizabeth's Progress to Kent in 1573 pp. 65-78



Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of the summer travels of the English royal court of early Modern times. This practice, originating from the traveling courts of the Middle Ages, flourished in England in the second half of the XVI century. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth Tudor, summer progresses became an integral part of the court ceremonial, an important means of representing the monarch and a mechanism for implementing royal policy. The article focuses on one of these trips, namely, a summer trip to Kent in 1573, whose central episode was a reception hosted for the Queen by Archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Parker. The author examines the preparation and course of this reception, analyzes the motives and expectations of all participants in the events and fits the royal visit into the context of church history and religious policy of England in the second half of the XVI century. The scientific novelty of the work lies in a detailed, based on a wide range of sources, consideration of the royal visit of 1573, which had not previously attracted special attention of researchers. The main conclusion of the study is the observation about the peculiar nature of the reception in Canterbury, due to the increased attention of all participants to the religious and political content of this event. For Elizabeth, this reception was an occasion to emphasize her image of a pious monarch and defender of the true faith. On the other hand, such a visit in the first half of the 1570s, during a harsh period for the Church of England, was on its part a gesture of support for the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the latter sorely needed. Parker, in turn, made considerable efforts to extract the maximum benefits for himself from this reception. Thus, the conducted research shows how the royal progress could be used for the purposes of religious policy and complements our understanding of the methods and mechanisms of its implementation in early Modern England.
Balin M.A. - Missionary Practices of the Russian Orthodox Church in the eastern Outskirts of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX early XX centuries (based on the materials of the Orthodox missions of the Tobolsk Diocese) pp. 67-77



Abstract: The article is devoted to the actual problem of the organization of missionary practices of the Russian Orthodox Church and the functioning of Orthodox missions of the Tobolsk diocese, which entered in the second half of the XIX early XX century as an actor of colonization of the eastern outskirts of the Russian Empire. The object of this work is the communicative space of the activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the second half of the XIX early XX century. The subject of the study is the missionary practices of the Russian Orthodox Church as an actor of colonization of the eastern outskirts of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX early XX centuries (based on the materials of the Orthodox missions of the Tobolsk diocese). The purpose of the article is to identify and characterize the missionary practices of the Russian Orthodox Church in the territorial borders of the Tobolsk province as part of a vast and ethno-confessional mosaic of the West Siberian region, within whose boundaries missionary societies positioned themselves as a force that performed important colonization tasks of the State. In methodological terms, the formulation of the problem, its solution and conclusions are provided by the application of a socio-cultural approach and appeals to the practices of a new local history. The source base of the work consisted of a wide range of materials of a clerical and regulatory legal nature, published statistical information, publications in the periodical diocesan press, certificates of personal origin, which ensured the representativeness of conclusions regarding practices in the activities of the missions of the Tobolsk diocese in the chronological boundaries of the second half of the XIX early XX centuries. The article concludes that the missionary work of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia and, in particular, the Tobolsk province becomes an effective tool of internal colonization and is constructed within the framework of the foreign policy of the Russian Empire on the eastern outskirts, which was based on the principles of paternalism and the idea of creating conditions for the "maturation" of indigenous peoples.
Ostapenko R.A. - Motivation for adopting Christianity by Adyghe people (1842-1869): documents from the funds of Krasnodar Krai State Archive pp. 70-76


Abstract: The subject of this research is the examination of factors that impelled certain representatives of Adyghe society to adopt Christianity in the second of the XIX century. Based on the archival documents, describing various aspects of such phenomenon, the author conducts a comprehensive analysis of Christianization of the Adyghe people. Three groups differ in motivational message were determined: 1) Adyghe people imprisoned during the Caucasian War; 2) Russian people taken captive by highlanders; 3) Adyghe people who were eager to adopt Orthodoxy not by the dogmatic, but worldly interest, particularly for liberation from servitude. The author was able to systematize the factors that became a motivation for changing religion, which allowed arranging and generalizing the case material. The relevance lies in the fact that the determined motivation requires a detailed examination from the perspective of increasing the effectiveness of interethnic and interreligious relationships, forecasting and levelling the possible negative results. The problem of adopting Christianity by Adyghe people in the second half of the XIX century represents a complicated question that requires a comprehensive grasp ad the established source framework. The scientific novelty lies in introduction into the scientific discourse of the documents discovered by the author in the funds of Krasnodar Krai State Archiive that allow expanding the representations on the topic of adopting Christianity by Adyghe people formed within historical science.
Vetluzhskaya L.L. - Soteriological principles of Vajrayana Buddhism pp. 77-83


Abstract:   This article examines the system of philosophical-soteriological principles of Vajrayana Buddhism, interrelation between the concept of Three Vehicles of Buddhism teaching and three turns of the Dharma Wheel, as well as the main soteriological principles of Vajrayana Buddhism in the context of Mahayana doctrine. The author considers the problem of dating of the origination, establishment, and final formation of the direction of Vajrayana in India; the time of final composition of Vajrayana correlates with the process of infiltration of the extensive text of Vajrayana from India to China in the VIII century AD. In conclusion, the article provides the fundamental principles of salvation in Vajrayana Buddhism. As the accents in achieving freedom in Vajrayana Buddhism shifted from the gradual path of accumulating merits towards the ability of reaching “enlightenment” in earthly life, attention is focused on the basic principles of its achieving through using the three aspects of Buddha: body, speech, and mind; the principle of the oneness of the adept’s nature and Buddha’s nature is revealed. Reaching the ultimate soteriological goal – liberation – requires the cognition of yourself; the key significance in Vajrayana practice attains the work with personal consciousness through meditation.  
Romanovskaya L.R., Ostroumov S.V., Fomichev M.N., Soloviev S.A. - Protection of Religion in Western European Countries During the Early Middle Ages pp. 82-95


Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to define the place of protection of state religion in the domestic policy of different countries since ancient times till the early middle ages, in particular, in the Roman Empire, Ancient Judea and early medieval kingdoms: Frankish Kingship, Ostrogothic Kingdom, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom of the Lombards, etc. The subject of the research is the religious crimes (violation of sacred places, violation of sacred times, idolatry, blasphemy, bewitchery, perjury, defiling of graves and dead bodies, heresy) and their dependence on and relation to different factors of social and political life of those times. In their research the authors have applied the following methods: dialectical method as a general philosophical method, general scientific methods such as systems analysis, synthesis, deduction and induction and particular legal methods such as methods of comparative law, historical law, legalistic method and others. The main conclusion of the research is that protection of state religion was an important function of government both in the early middle ages and ancient times. That policy allowed to ensure the domestic security and keep the ideological integration of the society. 
Lugavtsova A.P. - Japanese preachers of Chinese Buddhism during the Edo period (16031868) - Sen no Rikyū and Tetsugyu Doki pp. 89-98


Abstract: The Ōbaku School that represents the third major sect of Zen Buddhism along with Rinzai and Sōtō, emerged in Japan during the Edo period due to the arrival of Buddhist monks from China. The article examines the biography of the prominent Japanese Ōbaku monks – Sen no Rikyū and Tetsugyu Doki, which gives a better perspective on the peculiarities of establishment of this school. In light of the Chinese origin and novelty, the Ōbaku teaching initially gained significant popularity in Japan, that adhered to the policy of self-isolation; however, its success is largely the merit of the Japanese followers of the teaching, since the Chinese monks hand neither a command of the language nor permit to travel the country, and this incapable of fully interacting with the local authorities and population. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence of special research within the Russian Japanese Studies dedicated to Ōbaku School; therefore, particular attention is given to the works of foreign authors. The conclusion is made that the role of personality greatly contributes to the success of the Ōbaku teaching, since the effective interaction with the government, their financial support, and the growing number of new converts largely depended on reputation and charisma of the prominent Japanese Ōbaku monks Sen no Rikyū and Tetsugyu Doki. They saw a chance to cognize the true Buddhism traditions, which at that time were neglected in Japan. The versatile activity of the monks contributed to surge in the popularity of Ōbaku in Japan, as well as harmonious interaction of the Chinese and Japanese traditions and cultures that left a mark on the unique multifaceted image of the Edo period.
Koroleva L., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Islamic Religious Workers in the USSR in 1940s (on the Materials of Tatar ASSR, Penzenskaya, Ulyanovskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions) pp. 95-119


Abstract: The article researches the Islamic clergy of the Middle Volga Region (Tatar ASSR, Penzenskaya, Ulyanovskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions) in the 1940s: the age, level of education, nationality, social position of the Islamic religious workers, forms and methods of their confessional practice (organization, religious practice, elements of the religious modernization), relations with the Soviet power representatives (with the representatives of the Religion Affairs Council). The mosques of the Middle Volga region are reviewed as a material basis of the social consolidations of the Muslims, spiritual centers for the Muslim population. The following principles were takes as a theoretic and methodological basis: a) objectiveness; b)historism; c) systematicity; d) objective measurement of the social and personal in the subject of the research and the most possible counteraction of the subjective attitude of a researcher when estimating and interpreting the facts.     The following special historical principles have been used in the research together with the methodological ones: historical comparative, actualization, problematic chronological, diachronic. Also, general scientific principles have been used: structural systematic, statistical, classification. All of the principles let analyze the evolution of the relation between the State and the Islam, view the Soviet/Russian Muslims in the set of their constituents, analyze and compare different data to find out the main peculiarities and existential characteristics.   During 1940s the number of mosques in the Middle Volga region remained more or less constant. Most mosques were situated in the countryside, in Penzenskaya and Kujbyshevskaya Regions in the regional capitals mosques did not function. The number of the Muslim religious workers remained on the same level (corresponding to the number of mosques) after an increase during the period after the war. The Islamic religious workers in the Middle Volga region were mullahs and muezzins. In some villages there were no imams and muezzins because of a very small number of Islamic religious workers. Sometimes there duties were performed by other people or old men – babajs.    The Muslim religious workers were quite active in working with the local people. The most important element of Islamic religious practice was a preach.  The Muslim religious workers of the Middle Volga region were characterized by high age limit and low level of education, both general and religious. The imams were rather old and some of them did not often preached, especially in Penzenskaya region. In the middle of 1940s the Soviet government allowed the Soviet Muslims to go on journeys to Mecca. A mullah, especially in the countryside had great authority. The main Muslim ceremonies in the Middle Volga region were janazah, nikah, isim, sunnet.
Babich I.L. - Evolution of the Orthodox Church During the Period of the Bishopric of Ignatius Bryanchaninov pp. 96-137


Abstract: Rerformations of the government and economy that took place in the Caucasian Region in 1860s involved religious reforms, too. The present article is devoted to the history of religious reformations in that region. The blossom of Orthodoxy in the Caucasus is mostly associated with a public and religious figure of Russia of the XIXth century, the bishop Ignatius Bryanchaninov. He had lived and worked in the Caucasus since 1858 till 1861. This is the period the present article is devoted to. The author of the article bases the research on the two types of sources, archive materials taken by the author from the two funds of the Russian state historical archive, Holy Synod and Caucasian Committee, and the published letters of Saint Ignatius to his brother Petr Alexandrovich, the Governor of Stavropol, and Nikolay Nikolaevich Muraviev-Karssky, an outstanding military and political figure. The article is also based on the chronological principle and covers the following points: consecration of the archimandrite Ignatius to the position of Bishop of the Caucasus, Ignatius Bryanchaninov's plan on what needed to be done in the Cauasus, the nature of Ignatius' communication with the civil authorities in the Caucasus, measures undertaken by Ignatius to change the borders of the Caucasian bishopric, retirement of Ignatius Bryanchaninov and, finally, consecration of a new bishop.  The results of the research evidently show that even though Ignatius Bryanchaninov had been a Bishop of the Caucasus and Black Sea Region for not such a long period of time, he made a great contribution to the expansion and promotion of Orthodox beliefs and style of life in the North Caucasus. 
Averyanova D.V. - Clergy and parishioners of Minusinsky District: struggle for abstinence from alcohol in Minusinsky Districts during the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 100-108


Abstract: The object of this research is the parish clergy of Minusinsky District of Yeniseysk Governorate. The subject is the participation of priests in fighting for the sober lifestyle of the parishioners. The goal of this article lies in examination of the most popular methods of battling with alcoholism in their congregation during the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author determines the role of temperance societies on reducing alcoholism among parishioners. Attention is given to the peculiarities of battling with alcohol intemperance among indigenous population of the district. Based on studying the materials of Yeniseysk eparchial departments, the author analyze the results of the priests’ activity. This topic becomes the subject of research for the first time, which defines the scientific novelty of the article. The conclusion is made on the importance of participation of parish clergy of the south of Yeniseysk Governorate in struggle for abstinence from alcohol among the parishioners of Minusinsky District, as well as underlines the causes of its insufficient effectiveness.
Lugavtsova A.P. - The impact of China under the ruling of Ming dynasty (1368-1644) upon the formation of ritual and customs of the early Ōbaku-shū and its perception in Japan pp. 103-117


Abstract: The Ōbaku-shū (Ōbaku School) is a new trend of the Japanese Zen Buddhism, which was brought to Japan by the Chinese monks who arrived the islands during the Edo period (1603-1868). The Ōbaku teaching of Chinese origin was an absolute novelty for Japan with its policy of isolationism from the outside world, which at the initial stages led to surge in its popularity. This article examines some peculiarities of the ritual practice and routine of the Ōbaku-shū, which most vividly characterize its connection with the mainland and sparks particular interest of the Japanese population of Edo period.  The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence of special research in the Russian Japanese studies dedicated to the Ōbaku School, therefore, special attention is given to the English-languae and Japanese-language sources. The conclusion is made that despite the fact that the Ōbaku School eventually did not succeed in revolutionizing the Buddhist community of Japan, it still saw some level of success on the islands. The popularity of the new teaching in many ways was justified by its “otherness”, and “Chinese flavor”. The foreign origin and cultural peculiarities attracted people to the Ōbaku temples. The external decor and exoticism: musical instruments, colorful rituals, Chinese garments, hairstyles, monastery food, etc. formed a peculiar image of the school in the minds of Japanese people, and led to surge in its popularity in the new land.
Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N., Vazerova A.G. - Activity Performed by the Soviet Evangelican Christians and Baptists in the Second Half of the 1940 - 1960th (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 106-119


Abstract: Object of research is the functioning of the religious organizations of evangelical Christians and Baptists andinteraction between the government and associations of the Evangelican Christians and Baptists Union in the second half of 1940 - 1960 in the Penza region.Territorial framework of research is defined by the Penza region, typical regional formation of the Central Russia. The main tendencies in activity of confessional associations, as a whole, evangelical Christians and Baptists, in particular, foldings and developments of the relations of the state and religious formations in scales of all country are rather accurately traced on the example of the Penza region, having thus the specifics. Besides, this territorial framework corresponds to borders of the modern Penza region. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles of objectivity were chosen; historicism; the systemacities, the full account social and subjective in an object of research and the greatest possible neutralization of the prejudiced relation of the scientist at interpretation and an assessment of the facts. The principles of social and psychological approach and the principle of a correctness and tactfulness in an assessment of the actual material as feature of religious practice of evangelical Christians baptists I was rather strong moral and ethical a component of its participants were as far as possible applied. Novelty is that activity of religious associations of evangelical Christians and Baptists in the Penza region in the 1945-1960th in various directions - involvement of new believers is for the first time studied, increases in commission of cult ceremonies, improvements of personnel structure of presviter, expansions of material base of communities, activization of administrative practice, etc.; the mechanism of relationship of power structures and groups of evangelical Christians and Baptists in a sotsioistorichesky foreshortening is studied.Conclusions:- activity of religious groups of evangelical Christians and Baptists of the Penza edge reflected the characteristic regularities inherent in confessional practice of the USSR in 1945-1960: strengthening of social and material positions during the post-war period, deterioration of position of evangelical Christians and Baptists in the late fifties, etc.;- regional religious communities of evangelical Christians and Baptists in all measure felt on themselves pressure of state and church policy during the studied period – a rigid regulation of activity of religious associations, large-scale scientific and atheistic work, control of observance of performance of the legislation on cults, restriction of financial activity of religious groups, etc.
Markhanova T.F. - Leading Scientific Associate, Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences pp. 109-124


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of Buddhist temples of East Asia over the period of the V and VII centuries. The article review the layouts of Buddhist temples of China, which were similar to the monasteries of Korea and Japan. The author argues that Buddhist monasteries of Korea were built on the basis of Buddhist monasteries of Imperial China due to the cultural exchange between countries. The Chinese culture, in turn, has disseminated over the Japanese Archipelago. Some archeological materials allow concluding on the presence of the close religious contacts between the representatives of Korean Peninsula and Japanese Islands, among which was Harima Fudoki" (Jap. 風土記, "Description of the customs of lands") that depicts life, activities, and beliefs of the Korean migrants in Japan and their great impact upon the culture of local residents. The author used the principles of objectivity, historicism, determinism, systematic approach, method of quantitative data processing and comparative-historical method. The scientific novelty is define by the fact that the subject of comprehensive research for the first time in historical science become the Buddhist monasteries of China, Korea, and Japan since the V-VII centuries until the present time. A conclusion is made that the Chinese monasteries have become a prototype of the monasteries of Korea and Japan. Thus, the layout of Chinese monasteries "Central Pagoda and with Buddha Hall behind it" were the main type of layout in the Buddhist monasteries of the late V century, continuing until the beginning of the VII century. Such design of monasteries of the northern and southern dynasties with its Chinese peculiarities had a strong influence on the construction of early Buddhist monasteries of the neighboring countries, particularly Korea and Japan.
Babich I.L. - Fate of the Church Of Our Lady Life Giving Spring In Tsaritsyno in the 1920s 1930s pp. 114-121


Abstract: This article leans on the new archival materials alongside the oral history – interviews with the successors of the priests and congregation of the Church in Tsaritsyno. Examination of the life of clergy at micro-level – using the example of single temple – helps the researchers to structure the holistic image of the fate of Orthodoxy in the 1920’s – 1930’s in Soviet Union. Until present, there was not a single scientific article on the history of the indicated church of this period. The author has already published several article about the life of the temple during other historical periods. Currently in Russia, are gathered all materials on the history of clergy repression during the Soviet time. This article allows filling such gap. This work conducts a historical reconstruction of the life of the temple during 1920’s – 1930’s. The scientific novelty lies in introduction of the archive materials (investigation cases of the priests and congregation members, State Archive of the Russian Federation), (archives of the Vvedensky and Kazantsevy families), as well as compilation of the oral history materials – the successors. This allowed providing the description of life of the Church Of Our Lady Life Giving Spring In Tsaritsyno in the 1920’s – 1930’s.
Yuzlikeev P.V. - Relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in the territory of the United States in the early XX century pp. 118-126


Abstract: Due to the fact that the tradition of close relation between the Orthodox Church and the state has formed since the time of the Byzantine Empire, the reflection of foreign policy ambitions of the Greek government on the foreign activity of the Patriarchate of Constantinople seems absolutely justifiable. In the early XX century, North America was a center of Greek migration, and simultaneously, the territory of proliferation of the authority of the Russian Orthodox Church; therefore, the United States spark particular interest in this case. The Patriarch of Constantinople attempted to dispute the jurisdictional affiliation of the United States by issuing the corresponding tomos. This article is dedicated to interaction between the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Russian Orthodox Church in the territory of the United States during the 1908 – 1924. The author explores the influence of Greece upon the relationship between the two Orthodox jurisdictions in North America. The activity of the Patriarchate of Constantinople in the United States is compared to political events of Greece. The history of Orthodoxy in the United States in the first quarter of the XX century is highly researched however, the actions of church organizations are not always viewed from the perspective of the foreign policy of the countries involved. The conclusion is made on the possible influence of the Greek governmental forces on the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which in turn, stepped into the jurisdictional conflict with the Russian Orthodox Church.
Koroleva L., Korolev A.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Relationship between Government and Orthodox Church in the USSR During 'Reconstruction' (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 120-130


Abstract: In article evolution of the state and confessional relations at regional level - on the example of Russian Orthodox Church in the Penza region in 1985-1991 is analyzed. The state religious policy of this period continued to adhere to the Lenin principles concerning religion: the religious outlook admitted a prejudice, tasks of strengthening of atheistic work of the authorities were staticized. The representative of Council for the Penza region continued the activity in a former format; atheistic literature was issued. In the Penza region active work on replacement of religious holidays and ceremonies from the Soviet life was still carried out. In the region activity of the commissions of assistance to control of observance of the legislation on religious cults considerably amplified.At the same time in the state and orthodox relations some moments of liberalization were traced. Procedure of registration of the religious organizations was simplified. And though in the Penza region the number of orthodox churches and houses of worship until the end of the 1980th remained a constant, but the number of the registered priests of an orthodox cult gradually increased. The number of believers increased, their educational level, as well as at local orthodox clergy increased. Some temples were returned to the Penza diocese. Certain changes in the plan of liberalization of the state and church relations were traced, but as a whole the deideologization current went to the USSR very roughly, the Soviet management had no accurate program and as a whole understanding of essence and the mechanism of democratization of the country.
Mol'kin A.N. - Some Aspects of the 'Revival' of Islam in Russia (the Case of the Penza Region) pp. 120-130


Abstract: Object of research - the reasons and prerequisites (internal and external), forms of manifestation of a phenomenon of Islamic "revival" in the USSR / Post-Soviet Russia (activization of confessional practice of Muslims - increase in ceremonialism, growth of number of petitions from believers in various instances, etc., restoration of mosques, training of new shots of attendants of an Islamic cult, formation of system of Islamic education and education, etc.) at regional level - in the Penza region in the late eighties - the 1990th. As a teoretiko-methodological basis of research the principles were chosen: a) objectivity; b) historicism; c) systemacities, d) the objective account social and personal in an object of research and the most possible neutralization of the subjective relation of the researcher at an assessment and interpretation of the facts. Except the methodological principles in work the special and historical principles were used: comparative-historical, updatings, problem and chronological, diakhronny; also general scientific principles: structural and system, statistical, the classifications, allowed to analyse evolution of the state and Islamic relations to consider / the Russian Moslem in a complex of its components, to analyze and compare various data for determination of the main features and intrinsic characteristics.New sources have been introduced in science and and that allowed to draw the following conclusions:- process of basic changes begins with the middle of the 1980th in the USSR in a context of reorganization in the relations between the state and church, limits on activity of the confessional associations, operating for many years that created conditions for active involvement of believing citizens and their religious organizations in social and economic and spiritual life of the country were gradually lifted. In the second half of the 1980th considerable surge in religiousness in the country, caused, first of all, by crisis of the Russian society - social, economic, political and moral was observed. Besides, a certain role in this phenomenon was played by discredit and withdrawal pains dominating in the society of socialist ideals and values. Change of a vector of cultural and moral reference points in mass consciousness of the population promoted revaluation of a role and a religion place in society, positioning it, first of all, as a phenomenon of world and national culture, as a moral support of society. Serious value had also crash of system of atheistic education. However deideologization process in the country went very roughly, the Soviet management had no accurate program and in general understanding of democratization of the country. Contacts of the state and confessional associations, including Muslim, often had spontaneous character, were under the influence of tactical political situations and sometimes personal interests. - from the 1990th the process of Islamic "revival" that was expressed, first of all, in growth of religious consciousness, active revival of Islamic ceremonialism, increase in quantity of mosques, folding of system of religious education, etc. began. The impulse to the Islamic Renaissance was external and was a consequence, first of all, activity of the secular authorities, on the one hand, and weakening of the central power in the years of reorganization, with another.
Babich I.L. - Ecclesiastical dynasties and spiritual crisis in the prerevolutionary Russian (on the example of the Kazantsev hereditary Orthodox priests) pp. 122-132


Abstract: The subject of this research is the ecclesiastical Orthodox dynasties of the XIX century in Russia. The object of this article is the evolution of spiritual life of the hereditary priests Kazantsevs, who served in the Church of the Life-Giving Spring Icon of the Mother of God in Tsaritsyno (presently Moscow) that was a part of the unfinished by Bazhenov and Kazakov Catherine Palace. Ecclesiastical ministry of the Kazantsevs was suppressed in the end of 1903, when the next successor refused to accept the ministry. The goal of this work consists in demonstrating the causes for spiritual crisis in the prerevolutionary Russian, as well as its impact upon the events of 1917. The research is prepared based on the archive materials from the Central State Historical Archives of Moscow and Moscow Region, archive of the Kazantsevs family, and verbal discussions with the descendants of the family. Leaning on the collected materials, the article portrays the history of ecclesiastical Orthodox dynasty of the XIX using the method of historical reconstruction. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that based on the example of church ministry of several generations of the Kazantsev family, the author was able to trace the trend established in Russian in the late XIX – early XX century, namely the beginning of spiritual crises and infiltration of the revolutionary ideas into the families of priests. As a result, people with theological education refused from the ministry, preferring the various secular professions but remaining Orthodox in their soul. It is worth noting that the spiritual life of several generation of the ancestors could not “confront” the strength and pressure of the new ideology of the late XIX century. The author believes that the description of history of a single Orthodox dynasty helps understanding the inevitability of the following events in 1917.  
Galibina-Lebedeva E.S. - The role of Evangelical churches in development of the African-American civil rights movement, on the example of the United States and Carribean countries (1920s 1940s) pp. 122-137


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of Evangelical Christian churches upon the development of African-American movement for their rights, freedom, and identity using the example of the United States and some Carribean countries during the 1920’s – 1940’s. Relevance of this topic is substantiated by the fact the despite the military victory over Fascist ideology in May of 1945 and official ban of race discrimination in the late XX century, the modern world again faces the appeals to divide people by the religious, ethnic, and race attributes, as well  as the level of their success in society. Based on the comparative-historical analysis, the article reviews the important events in three continents: North America, partially South America, and Africa, which greatly affected the emergence and development within the Afro-American environment of the ideas of black nationalism, black Judaism, and Rastafarianism. The scientific novelty is defined by the attempt to determine the role of church in Afro-American environment through establishment among its successors of the religious, cultural, economic, and political preferences. The importance of the religious institution in the XXI century is expressed in the fact that the representatives of various Evangelical Christian churches demonstrate different response to the claims of the contemporary political leaders, for example, in the United States, regarding their Afro-American citizens, colored migrants, and recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, thus affecting the establishment of the domestic and foreign policy of the country.
Korolev A.A., Koroleva L.A., Mol'kin A.N. - Pentecostal Movement in the USSR. 1950 - 1980 pp. 125-131


Abstract: In article the provision of a pyatidesyatnichestvo in the USSR in the 1950-1980th is analyzed. In 1944-1945 Pentecostals were combined with baptists, but the part the pyatidesyatnicheskikh of communities refused to obey to this "project".The geography of distribution of Pentecostals in the USSR covered Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia.Some Pentecostals followed the doctrine "nonresistance to the evil" and refused to take in hand the weapon, for what were exposed to persecutions in the USSR.From the second half of the 1960th fight for emigration becomes the main content of oppositional activity of Pentecostals. Till 1974 the Soviet management at all didn't consider the application of Pentecostals on emigration as there were no calls and visas. Pentecostals used in the fight as the main means, - appeals to the international organizations, to specific officials; besides - hunger strikes, press conferences, unauthorized penetrations into foreign embassies, attempts of illegal emigration, etc. However it should be noted that unlike baptists, activity of Pentecostals didn't meet a wide resonance in the West. The Moscow human rights activists tried to give real help to Pentecostals.In 1979 in the USSR "Council of churches of Pentecostals" was created. In 1980 the human rights group of evangelical Christians Pentecostals of RSFSR was formed.Since the end of the 1980th in the state and confessional relations there is a change. Now on the territory of Russia operate the Russian church of Christians of Evangelican Faith;  United Church of Christians of Evagelical Faith and Russian Union of Christians of Evagelical Faith. 
Baksheev E.S. - 'Two Deaths' in Japanese and Ryukyu (Okinawa) Cultures: Two-Stage Funeral Ritual in Traditional Societies as a Historical and Cultural Issue (in Terms of Asian Pacific Region's Cultures) pp. 129-191


Abstract: The author of the article offers a concept of the 'two-stage funeral ritual'. The author of the article was the first one to introduce this term to Russian academic community. The two-state funeral ritual includes a whole set of funeral and commemorative traditions an customs. The phenomenon of such rituals used by traditional societies is viewed as a historical and cultural issue based on the example of Japan and Ryukyu (Okinawa), China and other Asian Pacific cultures.  Based on the ideas of such famous European scientists as R. Herz, Arnold van Gennep and Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, the author of the article uses reseaches of Japanese philosophers and his own pilot researches carried out in Japan and Ryukyu.  The author of the article iews the period between preliminary (temporary) and permanent (final) funerals as the most important element in the structure of individual life cycle and society functioning. It is shown that in traditional societies of the Asian Pacific region (Japan, Ryukyu, China and others) one's body and relics are presented as symbols of cultures of these societies.  The author of the article makes a hypothesis that such a two-stage funeral ritual is not an exception but known behavior in many traditional cultures and societies. This allows to define new approaches to studying these cultures.  The article is illustrated by the photographs made by the author himself. 
Pashkov N.O. - The influence of Renovation schism upon the establishment of Ukrainian Orthodox Church in 1917-1932 pp. 131-141


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical analysis of causes and consequences of the so-called Renovation project manifested after the October Revolution as a result of “release” of the Orthodox Church from state support. In particular, the author examines the development of Renovationism in Ukraine over the period of 1917-1932, when the Orthodox Church faced the short-term prospects for strengthening of their influence upon the society. However, the new atheistic “proletarian” state could not let it happen, due to the ideological opposition to Christianity alongside the reason that it had to “make arrangements” with the new serious public power, which undoubtedly would become the Church over time. The scientific novelty of this work lies in the fact that the examined scientific historical problematic opens the new comprehension of the meaning of autocephalous movement in Ukraine that significantly differed from such in  Russia, Belarus, Georgia, and other countries. Namely, the motive for creating the autocephaly in Ukraine became the idea of separatist nature. In addition, the distinct feature of Ukrainian Renovationism lied in the appeal to the nationalistic ideas. Author’s special contribution is the introduction of the new historical facts base on the previously unknown documents, particularly the correspondence of the Ukrainian supporters of Renovationism with the local churches, especially the Cyprus Church. The aforementioned correspondence testifies to the fact that the leadership of Cyprus Church held off on acknowledging the Ukrainian autocephaly, which can be interpreted as a manifestation of the political and canonic carefulness in the situation of political uncertainty of that period.
Arapov A.V. - External Acts of Worship in the Voronezh Region During the Khrushchev's Persecutions and Afterwards pp. 132-137


Abstract: One's religious beliefs is a very personal business. To investigate an interior not easy. But in case of Orthodoxy the task is facilitated by that in it there is a set of forms of external expression of internal religious feelings. Such sacraments and ceremonies as a baptism, communicating and burial service are obligatory for each orthodox Christian. In the 1960th - the 1980th years Representatives of Council for affairs of Russian Orthodox Church and, then, Council for affairs of religions collected data on the main religious ceremonialism in temples of the Voronezh region, special sociological researches were conducted. It is possible to find a lot of valuable information on these questions in the State archive of the Voronezh region. Unfortunately, detailed data contain only for 1960-it – 1980-its N. S. Khrushchev, as we know, carried out the aggressive antireligious company. The task of full eradication of religion and church was set. This company included both administrative measures, and massive atheistic promotion. Unfortunately, there is no opportunity to determine number of baptisms and burial services at the time of the beginning of Khruschev's board. At this time in temples of the obligatory accounting of baptisms it wasn't conducted, and representatives had no right to demand exact figures from priors and other church officials. Probably, any statistics gathered state security bodies, but to it access at the moment isn't present. Such figures as absolute burial service of the dead in three regions of area, growth in 1963-1965 of number of burial services on area for 10% and a baptism more than a half of the been born children in six areas in 1965 in itself tell about a failure of the antireligious company. At L.I. Brezhnev heat of antireligious fight significantly decreased. Atheistic promotion was conducted, but had considerably formal character. As a whole the administrative norms accepted during the previous period, however, pressure upon church structures from government bodies considerably kept the force decreased. It agrees given above given from 1965 to 1985 religiousness gradually, small rates I decreased. It is possible to assume that the main role in this process was played not by atheistic promotion, and the general secularization of the life, coming to the end transition from agrarian to the modernized society.
Babich I.L. - The fates of Orthodox monasteries in the Soviet time (1916-1929) pp. 133-146


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Soviet history of one of the male monasteries – Ascension of David Desert during the first two decades after the establishment of Soviet government (1920-1930’s). The author demonstrates the relationship between monastery and Soviet authorities in the 1920’s – the time of depletion of the monastery, when Soviet government started to limit the monastic life. A noticeable place in history of David’s Desert of the 1920-1930’s hold the repressions towards the monks of the monastery: many of them suffered for their beliefs, and some were executed by a firing squad. Only some of them have lived to old age. The article is prepared based on the collected by the author and introduced for the first time archive material; using the method of historical reconstruction, the author reviewed the Soviet history of one of the male monasteries of Moscow Region – Ascension of David Desert. As an additional source, the work attracts the data from the conducted field ethnographic surveys of the native residents of local villages of Chekhov District. The scientific novelty first and foremost is defined by the application of new archive material on the history of Orthodox monkhood in Russia during the first decade of the Soviet government, including investigation cases of the period of clergy repressions in the 1930’s. The author meticulously describes the previously unknown period of the history of the Ascension of David Desert monastery, as well as concludes that the monks were able to preserve the monastic life until the late 1920’s.
Galibina-Lebedeva E.S. - Society of Jesus right before 500th anniversary of the Reformation pp. 135-157


Abstract: The goal of this article consists in the attempt to prove that the Society of Jesus, which was created for the purpose of fighting the ideas of Reformation 477 year ago, did not lose its significance in modern world and continues to assert the Christian ideals and resolve new challenges faced by humanity in the XXI century, including the threat of a new world war, international terrorism, loss of moral and ethical values, lack of resources, and at the same time, reckless consumption, impose of the values of individualism and intense rivalry. The subject of this research is the ideology of the Society of Jesus and arising from it domestic and foreign policy of its successors. The article analyzes broad material regarding the life and activity of the Roman Catholic Church as a whole, and Society of Jesus in particular over the period of the late XX – early XXI centuries. Special attention is given to such issues as: struggle of the Society of Jesus against their ideological opponents - Masonic lodges, "Opus Dei" and liberalism; search for the allies for protection of humanistic ideals and a fair economic system, among different political powers and traditional religions, as well as atheists – the supporters of the Communist values and Marxist ideology. The scientific novelty consists in the comprehensive examination of the modern political role of Society of Jesus in Vatican and internationally. The aforementioned questions become especially relevant due to the anniversary dates that fall onto the second half of 2017: the 500th anniversary of Reformation, 30th  anniversary of the Masonic Grande Lodge, and 100th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.
Vorobev K. - The siege of Constantinople of 626 AD and liturgical remembrance of the Akathist Saturday pp. 139-151


Abstract: The object of this research is the Byzantine legends telling the tale of enacting the celebration of Akathist during the 5th Saturday of the Great Lent in connection with the war events. The article examines the question of valid historical connection between the siege of Constantinople of 626 AD and the liturgy of the 5th Saturday of the Great Lent (Akathist Saturday). The research also touches upon the question of connection between the 678 and 717 AD sieges with the aforementioned sacred service, as well as determines the possible causes for association of liberation of the Byzantine capital and the liturgy of the Akathist Saturday. The author proposes a new solution to the problem of inconsistency between the notes of various historical tales regarding the Akathist Saturday and liturgical sources. Possible causes are established for association of the liturgy of the Akathist Saturday and the memory of the siege of 626 AD. The author sequentially analyzes all available legends regarding the enactment and liturgical remembrance of sacred service of the Akathist Saturday.
Pul'kin M.V. - Northern Old Believers and Russian elite of the XVIII century: problems of relationship pp. 142-148


Abstract: This article examines the essential mechanisms of adjustment of the Old Believer communities to the new situation established in Russian State of the XVIII century. It implies the refusal from the most severe forms of persecution of the Old Believers and rendering them a special legal status. The faced by society complicated economic tasks required the mobilization of efforts of the maximal number of lieges. Since now on the government considered the less radical Old Believer communities as the potential allies in resolving the administrative and economic tasks. At the same time, the reciprocal substantial changes took place within the Old Believer environment, which were aimed at justification of the need for closing with the Russian society and refusal from the most radical forms of protest against the Nikonian reforms. Hence appeared the multiple and extensive op-ed materials, which were called to explain the specificity of a new approach of the Old Believers towards connection with the new world. Methodology of this work applies the combination of historical-comparative and historical-hermeneutic method that allows tracing the peculiarities of evolution of the state policy with regards to the Old Believers. The scientific novelty consists in identification of the specific features of relations between the Northern Old Believers and the elite of Russian society. It is determined that the highest officials of the Empire symphasized with the religious dissidents. Government’s position with reference to the Old Believers became the subject of discussion within the highest government circles. However, the advantage was on the side of the pragmatically oriented administrators who were ready to compromise in the confessional questions. In turn, the Old Believers appeared to be capable of introducing the drastic changes into their eschatological views.
Baimov A.G. - The experience of implementing military temples in the Russian army pp. 152-160


Abstract: The subject of this research is the experience of development of the military temples. The term “military temple” implies the church, mosque, synagogue, and other facilities of accommodation of military units and organizations indented for church service. The construction of military temples intensified is a result of restoration of the institute of military clergy, and represents an attempt to satisfy the rights of military servicemen to freedom of religion. The goal of the work consists in identification of the key problems with subsequent propositions for its resolution. The author provides a brief analysis of the normative legal base on the topic at hand, arguments for development of military temples, description of their most popular types. The article is written based on the facts acquired in the course of interviewing the officials of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation as well as assistant commanders involved in the work with the religious servicemen. The work is the first attempt of scientific approach towards the description of military temples located in the territory of establishment subordinate to the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. The ideas can be applied in the area of legislation, architecture, and constructions. The author introduces into the scientific discourse the empirical data that can be valuable in further research on history and other disciplines.
Martynenko A.V. - Main tendencies in the development of the intellectual culture of Islam in the modern and contemporary history pp. 168-211
Abstract: The purpose of the article is to compare and analyze the Muslim concepts of modernism and Salafi Islam. This study is based on a civilizational approach. In this article the author analyzes both contemporary concepts of Islam (al-Afghani, Abduh, Gasprinsky, etc.), and Salafist doctrine (al-Wahhab, Sayyid Qutb). The scope of this work includes oriental studies, political science, religious studies. The main conclusion of the article: the modernist and the Salafi approach to Islamic traditions define the basic discourse of Muslim culture XVIII – XXI centuries.
Zhukova L.V. - Fraternal gatherings of military clergy and interdepartmental charity initiatives (late XIX early XX centuries) pp. 172-190


Abstract: The object of this research is the fraternal gatherings of military clergy in the late XIX – early XX centuries, while the subject is the charity initiatives suggested by arch-presbyter and regimental priests, which were discussed during such gatherings. The author examines the initiatives that have been adopted or rejected, as well as conducts their classification and traces the process of implementation, since the discussion to the beginning of work. The article reviews the new approaches towards charity, proposed by A. A. Zhelobovsky – structure of companies, which revenue can serve as the financial support of the interdepartmental charity. Analyzing the social importance of interdepartmental charity and its impact upon the consolidation of the institution of military clergy. The conclusion is made that the fraternal gatherings of military clergy during the arch-presbyterate of A. A. Zhelobovsky become a form of consolidation of the military priests, gradually capturing not only the St. Petersburg District, but also the remote suburbs. They allow taking into account the experience and difficulties in work of the priests, thus contributing into consolidation of the military clergy and improvement of the methods of work of the local priests. Fraternal gatherings also become an important form of organization of the interdepartmental work, steadily transitioning from the information about synodic and ministerial orders towards the discussion of questions namely pertaining to the military clergy. Therefore, despite the fact that decisions of the gathering did not carry a legislative power, they became a specific form of collegial administration of the department in the arch-presbyterate of A. A. Zhelobovsky. He put a lot of effort into improving the financial situation of the military priests, as well as contributed into social charity, helping the widows and orphans, which increased the prestige of military clergy alongside the number of candidates for the positions. This, in turn, allows gradually replenishing the staff of military clergy, by selecting the more educative and active applicants.
Kozlov M.N. - Late pagans of the Ancient Rus pp. 205-215


Abstract: For the first time in Russian science, the subject of this research became the history of the late pagan communities of Ancient Rus (the end of the X-XII centuries), their socioeconomic structure and lifestyle. The author presented several dominant in the modern historiography antagonist theories associated with the problems of Christianization of Ancient Rus during the pre-Mongolian era. Based on the analysis of the written sources and data, the archeologist were able to trace the main directions of the escape of the population from the forced Christianization (the end of the X-beginning of the XI centuries), as well as demonstrate the types of the late pagan communities, and presence of pagans in multiple Russian cities of the early Christian epoch. On the example of the pagan community of the Zbruch cult center, the author carries outs a historical analysis of the socioeconomic structure of late pagans, and partially follows their lifestyle. The conclusion is made that a certain part of Eastern Slavic people did not accept Christianity, and under the leadership of the priests of the pagan cult migrated to the sparsely populated wooded regions of the Western, Northern, and Northeastern Rus. They were able to preserve a part of their pagan sanctuaries in many of the large cities and villages of Rus, as well as establish a major pagan complex in the territory of Galicia Province, which became a shelter for the highest representatives of the pagan cult headed by the ruling priest.
Tarasov Y.S. - The system of eparchial administration of Voronezh and Tambov eparchies during the period of 1917-1937 pp. 207-229


Abstract: The subject of this research is the system of eparchial administration in Voronezh and Tambov eparchies, as well as the processes of its transformation during the early Soviet period. The changes in the Church were taking place under the influence of Soviet authorities; therefore, they cannot be presented separate from the surrounding reality. The daily life of the Church (structure of ecclesiastical subordination, responsibilities of the archpriests, administration of the eparchy, clerical work, etc.) in that specific case should not provoke a feeling of closeness, because it is not isolated from the context of historical research the Church over the period of 1920’s – 1930’s, and in many ways completes them. In conceptual aspect, the author prefers the theoretical positions of the leading researchers of the Russian Orthodox Church M. V. Shkarovsky and archpriest Vladislav Tsypin with regards to the provided by them periodization of the state-ecclesiastical relations, key principles of state religious policy, and formulated essential components (theoretical-ideological and legal grounds, organizational-administrative sub-departments) of historical models of the state church policy. The article is based on the archive sources and represents the reconstruction of the system of ecclesiastical administrative authorities, including personal aspect. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that for the author is first to examines the question of transformations in the system of eparchial administration during the years of state cataclysms – wars, revolutions, changes in governorates’ administration.
Rozin V.M. - History of the formation of monasticism as a social institution pp. 212-263
Abstract: On the basis of the Western cultural history the article examines the process of monasteries and monasticism turning into a social institution. The author analyzes the social and cultural preconditions, the actual process of monasticism becoming a social institution, the rise and fall of this institution. The article presents the main hypothesis of monasticism – a special kind of mundane esoterism and a hypothesis of monasticism development – from the secular esoterism to the secularization of monasticism. The article characterizes the specifics of monasticism as a social institution.
Baimov A.G. - Religious objects in closed establishments as a marker of state-confessional relations in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation (on the example of Southern Ural) pp. 213-223


Abstract: The subject of this research is the temples and mosques locates in the territory of such government institutions as army and penal system. For convenience the author refers to such constructs as military and prison chapels regardless of the confessional affiliation. The article examines exceptionally the on-site religions object. Emergence of temple in the territory of closed government institutions is usually a result of a long-term and productive cooperation of the administration of these establishments with the religious organizations. The larger is the number of temples in the region, the higher is the activity of religious organization and level of trust of the administrative authorities to them. The goal of this works is to trace the activity of religious organizations in the indicated regions of Southern Ural (the Republic of Bashkortostan, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Orenburg Oblast) through the analysis of quantitative data. Comparative method and method spatial visualization are also applied in the course of the research. The novelty consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of the new statistical data as of 2019. The article tests the techniques for assessing the activity of religious organizations with regards to cooperation with the government institutions. The chart of activity of the religious organizations may be created using the method of geoinformation cartography, marking the “green” (successful), “yellow” (satisfactory), and green (unsatisfactory) zones. Such recourse would be valuable for the administrative authorities of the institutions and regional governments in recruitment and other areas decision-making.
Iryshkov A.V. - Literary heritage of William Penn pp. 216-230


Abstract: This article summarizes the political-religious work of the leader of the Quakers movement William Pen, as well as offers their conceptual categorization. The author gives characteristics to each of the group of his work and provides examples and main emphasizing motives. The article also analyzes the essential and reference compositions of W. Penn, which reveal his innovative ideas of social structure and understanding of religious policy. The goal of the research consists in formulation of classification of the William Penn’s literary heritage, which is still absent in the Russian historical science, as well as compilation of a full list of the Quaker’s works. The methodological basis for this research is the principle of historicism, which is perceived as study of the object in question in its development. Applicable to this research, it suggest the examination of W. Penn’s literary heritage since his conversion into Quakerism until his death. Study of the ideological structures is impossible without framing them into a precise political context of its time. This can explain why only certain ideas have emerged and how they evolved. The scientific novelty lies in the review of the previously unknown works of W. Penn, their evaluation and classification. The conclusion and results can be useful in study of the history of Pennsylvania, Society of Friends, socio-political thought of England at the brink of the XVII and XVII centuries, as well as religious research regarding the establishment of Protestantism.
Khomyakov S.V. - The relationship between Old Believers of Buryatia with imperial power in the late XIX century: problems and compromises pp. 224-231


Abstract: The subject of this research is the problem of relationships between Old Believers and imperial power, which existed since the beginning of history of the schism. The object of this research is the Old Believers of Verkhneudinsky District of Zabaikalsky Region. The author examines such aspects of the topic is the government decrees on the general questions of the activity Old Believers of Verkhneudinsky District in the late XIX century, as well as characteristics of the existed restrictions related to the freedom of faith and worship among the Old Believers. The comparative-historical method was applied in the analysis of policy tools of the local authorities with regards to the Old Believers; historical-genetic method was uses in characterizing the enhancement of restrictions towards the freedoms of Old Believers since the middle to the end of the XIX century. The author concludes that the identification of Old Believers in eyes of the government as “separatists” and their large human potential suggested the presence of special control of the authorities, which was growing in the second half of the XIX century. The novelty of this work consists in introduction into the scientific discourse of archival records proving that the Old Believers passively resisted the escalation of attention towards their internal affairs; however, demonstrated a high level of loyalty to the government. It was reflected in the absence of protests despite the enhanced limitations for religious freedom, although there were multiple violations of such restrictions, which testifies to the prevalence of religious identity over state among the population.
Polovnikova M.Y., Nemchaninova E.N. - Bishop Sergius (Serafimov) and his contribution to the development of religious-educational activity in Vyatka diocese in the late XIX century pp. 232-242


Abstract: This article based on the archival material and published sources examines the activity of Sergius (Serafimov) in the post of the Vyatka and Sloboda bishop. The authors analyze the work of the Bishop Sergius from the perspective of religious-educational and missionary activity in the Vyatka diocese in the late XIX century. For the development of religious-educational activity, Bishop Sergius collaborated with the representatives of secular authorities of Vyatka province, mainly with the governor. Application of prosopographic method allows reproducing the pivotal moments in the life and work of the bishop in Vyatka province. The results of his activity led to the establishment of the Vyatka branch of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society and Women’s School of the Brotherhood of Vyatka of Saint Nicholas. The conclusion is made that the Vyatka and Sloboda Bishop Sergius was an active supporter of expansion of the religious-educational and missionary activity (particularly among the Old Believers of Vyatka province) and made a significant contribution to consolidation of the Vyatka diocese.
Babich I.L. - Archimandrite Paisios (Sokolov) as a hegumen of the Ascension Desert of St. David (middle of the XIX century) pp. 237-269


Abstract: This article examines the activity of one of the prominent hegumen of the Russian monastery – Ascension Desert of St. David – Archimandrite Paisios (Sokolov). Being an educated nobleman he decided to dedicate his life to the Orthodox monasticism. He was influenced by the reputable Russian elder Makary Optinsky. Paisios contributed a lot into the prosperity of the monastery (increase the number of monks, improved their living conditions, level of ethics, financial situation of the monastery, as well as construction of the new buildings, particularly the bell tower). The research is based on the historical method, with attraction of the new archive materials extracted from the Moscow archives, and the important written sources such as the letters by Paisios Sokolov. Since his appearance in the Ascension Desert of St. David monastery in 1843, he conducted a number of reforms that allowed the monastery to reach prosperity; it is marked as a long period of modernization of the community, which has started back in the end of the XVII-beginning of the XIX centuries.
Nanzatova E.L. - Soteriological aspects of the School of Amidism pp. 242-249


Abstract: The subject of this research is the soteriology of Amidism as a single formative force that contributed to the spread and acquisition of new features of the doctrine. The object of this research is the theory of salvation and rebirth in the Pure Land, which undergoes modification and adopts the elements of other schools and denominations. This article examines soteriology of the School of Amidism as a driving force that develops and promotes the doctrine of the Pure Land in the Far Eastern region during the Middle Ages. Comprehensive approach towards studying the system of soteriological aspects of Amidism allows comprehending the patterns of the process of establishment and strengthening of the doctrine in new sociocultural realms. An attempt is made to trace the peculiarities of the impact of other schools of Buddhism upon soteriology of Amidaist doctrine. The scientific novelty lies in the original approach towards examining the soteriological representations of the Buddhist direction. The soteriological aspects of Amidism are viewed as a single substrate, linking element, foundation for the doctrine of the Pure Land, which promotes its development and distribution on the Asian continent and neighboring states. Amidaist teaching has walked a long path, since conception of the idea of Pure Land to development of the complex doctrinal system. In the spatial context, Amidism transcends the boundaries, growing from the local belief to a major trend of Mahayana Buddhism. Soteriology of the doctrine has become the foundation, formative force, which contributed to strengthening and development of doctrine.
Nasonov A. - Emotional impact upon the believers during the process of distribution of Orthodoxy and Buddhism in the south of Western Siberia on the brink of the XIX XX centuries pp. 243-249


Abstract:   The object of this research is the process of distribution of world religions in South Siberia. The subject is the used strategy of emotional impact upon the believers of Orthodox Christianity and Buddhism during the spread in the south of Western Siberia. The article reveals the meaning of the emotional impact in realization of rituals from the perspective of the establishment of connection between the believers and the supernatural, as well as demonstration of the unity inside the religious congregation. Using the comparative-historical method, the author correlates the application of visual, audial, and sensible means emotional pressure upon the potential believers and neophytes by the Orthodox and Buddhist adepts. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that based on the specific historical material of the south of Western Siberia characterizes the tactics of emotional impact implemented by the ministers of the Altai Ecclesiastical Mission and the adepts of Burkhanism, as well as public forms of manifestation of the forming regional variation of Buddhism. The author makes a conclusion on the large variety and productivity of the tactics of emotional impact upon the believers of Burkhanism.  
Ioshkin M.V. - Unregistered religious congregations of Tambov Oblast: their influence upon youth (1958-1964) pp. 416-445


Abstract: The fight for youth always had high priority among the political, as well as religious communities, because it was considered as the fight for their future. Thus, it would be interesting to study the influence upon youth of such communities as the Subbotnik Jews, Khlysts, Molokan, and other officially unregistered groups. Analysis of the activity of the devotees of the untraditional religions in Tambov Oblast during the period of so-called “Khrushchev’s campaign against the Church” is first and foremost based on the materials of the Scientific Research Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the authorized representative of the Religious Cults Council of Tambov Regional Executive Committee. Method of retrospective inquiry was used to determine the prime causes of the activity of the religious communities during the researched period of time. For the first time the spectrum of recently declassified documents from the State Archive of the Socio-Political History of Tambov Oblast is introduced to the scientific discussion. The author comes to a conclusion that barely surviving themselves, all of the small religious congregations were still trying to increase their influence upon youth. Members of the illegal congregations were using the extremist calls that carried anti-governmental and anti-social sentiment. The distinctive feature of these religious groups was their orientation towards the social transformation of public.
Golovushkin D.A. - Image of Renovationism and Renovationists in the Russian Literature of the 1920th pp. 458-474


Abstract: Renovationism is one of the most complex and contradictory phenomena in the Russian Orthodoxy of the 1st half of the XX century which still remains not entirely comprehended and understood. Its organizational and ideological formation and development took place under various cultural and historical conditions and under the influence of various religious and philosophical ideas and concepts that naturally affected versatility of this phenomenon and diversity of its appraisal. A visible role here is also played by the fact that, being the intra-church opposition, the Renovationism in the 1920th was involved in the resolution of sharp ideological and intra-church conflicts, having been influenced by challenges and drawbacks of ideologization and mythologization. Their overcoming is substantially contributed to the contextual analysis. The image of the Renovationism and its leaders as it was depicted in the Russian literature of the 1920th allows to create their objective portrait. Addressing to the works of Ilya Ilf, Evgeny Petrov, Olga Forsh and Sergey Yesenin helps to understand the flavor of the historical era when the Renovationist movement of the 1920th developed as well as the Movement’s internal heterogeneity and inconsistency and the way the society perceived the Renovationism and the Renovationist Church.
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