Genesis: Historical research
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Culture and cultures in historical context"
Culture and cultures in historical context
Tsinpaeva R.S. - Periodical press as the mirror of Russian charity of the late XIX century pp. 1-6


Abstract: The topic of Russian charity is being actively studied in the last decades, however, a number of questions related to the culturological examination of the problematic of charity have not received due attention from the scholars. This article is dedicated to the problem of covering the topic of charity in the Russian periodical press during the second half of the XIX century. Analysis is conducted for the purpose of determining the role of charity in social life, extent of population involvement into this process, and the types of charitable support programs. The descriptive methods and the method of quantitative analysis of the materials in the selected topic allow reconstructing the general picture of charity in Russia in the XIX century, as well as characterize the main trends and processes that unfolded during this period. In conclusion, the author established that the periodical press was a reflection of the main trends in the history of charity, such as change in the social base of benefactors, appearance of the new forms of rendering charitable assistance, spark and halt in charitable initiatives.
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673) and his role in the history of Japanese culture of the Edo period (1603-1868) pp. 1-7


Abstract: The Edo period (1603-1868) holds a special place in the history of Japan. Despite the fact that since 1641, the Tokugawa Shogunate isolated Japan from the outside world, this period is known for significant transformation in various levels of social life. This article is dedicated to the changes in the religious and cultural spheres of the country during the Edo period based on the example of origination of the Obaku School, new movement of Japanese Buddhism founded by the migrants from China. Particular attention is given to the creative path and biography of Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673) as the founder of the school, who familiarized Japan with the cultural achievement of Ming China. The scientific novelty is defined by the absence of special works dedicated to the Obaku School and its founder in the national Japanese Studies. Therefore, the author focused on the writings of English and Japanese authors. Based on the example of separate aspects of Japanese cultural life, such as calligraphy, the author reviews the magnitude of cultural impact of Ingen Ryuki and his followers. The main conclusion lies in the statement that despite Japan’s isolation and conservative policy of the shohunate, the new cultural ideal borrowed from China and passed on through the monks-emigrants has entwined in the culture of Edo period. The emergence of “Chinese styles” in calligraphy and painting are the vivid illustration of the power of creative heritage of the Obaku teaching, as well as the talent and charisma of its founder.
Orbodoeva M.V. - Spiritual culture of China during the period of Wei and Jin pp. 18-22


Abstract:  The author gives particular attention to the topic of spiritual culture of China during the period after the collapse of Han Empire, namely the period of Wei and Jin. The era of Wei and Jin represents a breaking point in the history of this country, which was preceded by the time of ruling of the powerful Han Empire and its collapse. The crisis of the empire, disintegration of the unified statehood, destruction of the previous foundations in sociopolitical and economic spheres of Chinese society affected the spiritual culture of China. In writing this article, the author analyzed the works of the Russian, as well as foreign scholars. Special accent is made on the works of Chinese scholars. The main conclusion of this work consists in the facts that the spiritual culture of China during the period of Wei and Jin dynasties was on one hand the reflection of the processes that took place in the stated period; and on the other – served as preparative basis for implementation of Buddhism into the sociocultural space of China.  
Kulpina A.V. - Representations on musical instruments within the European intellectual tradition of the Early and High Medieval Period pp. 58-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the representations on origin, typology and role of the instruments within the intellectual tradition of Medieval West since the first centuries of Christianity until the XIII century. The author describes the main sources of instrumental lexicon and the nature of records about musical instruments in the Biblical text, as well as examines the tradition of definition of these instruments in the works of Church Fathers, early medieval “Etymologies” ofIsidore of Seville and “Letter to Dardanus” of Pseudo-Hieronymus, Latino-Latin Dictionaries of the High Medieval period. The author analyzes the commentaries to the Holy Scripture, compositions of encyclopedic lexicographic character. The scientific novelty lies in analytical generalization of the key trends in development of representations on the musical instruments within the indicated timeframe. A conclusion is made that the evolution of thought on the musical instruments and instrumental music-making in European culture of the Early and High Medieval Period has passed several stages. Having commenced with antagonism of the Church Fathers towards the practical aspects of instrumental music and strictly allegorical interpretations, the Latin authors synthesized the records of organological nature and descriptions of the symbolic imagery, in order to subsequently come to the need for genus-species systematization of the origin and structure of the actual instruments.
Gurianova M. - Revolution in fashion industry: history of the phenomenon of couturier pp. 58-67


Abstract: In the late XIX century, the emergence of the persona of Charles Frederick Worth signified somewhat a “revolution” in fashion industry, changing its concept through putting to the forefront the persona of the designer, rather than a dress wearer. Up to the late XVIII century, the authorship of innovations was appointed upon the bright individuals (the powerful persons) who demonstrated them, but not who stood behind its creation. As a profession, the design of fashionable novelties, which founder was C. F. Worth, transformed the clothing manufacturing industry from the craft activity at the service of high officials, to a creative act inherent only to couturier. Such shift of accents regarding the identification of a fashionable novelty from the wearer to manufacturer was significantly associated with “switching” of the costume’s semantics under the influence of French Revolution, after which fashion became perceived as platform for self-expression”, and the dress turned into an important symbol of taste and individual differences. Namely the discourse that a fashionable product is an expression of individual taste in many ways contributed to putting clothing designers to the forefront, as it was also enhanced by the reorganization of guild system in the late XVIII century.
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ōbaku art in the history of Japanese culture of Edo period (1603-1868) pp. 61-73


Abstract: This article examines the transformation of the cultural image of Japan of Edo period (1603-1868), associated with the emergence of Ōbaku School – a new movement of Japanese Buddhism, founded by the migrants from China. Special attention is given to the traditional types of art (painting, calligraphy, and sculpture), which brought the new crazes thanks to the Ōbaku artisans. The transformation of these cultural spheres affected by innovations of Ming China, vividly demonstrates the importance of contribution of the Ōbaku art to the development of artwork of Edo period. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence in the national Japanese studies of special works dedicated to Ōbaku School as a whole and its artistic legacy in particular; therefore, the author focuses on the studies of English and Japanese language authors. The conclusion is made that despite the isolation from the world, there still was a factor of outside borrowings that significantly affected the spiritual sphere of life of Japanese society. Ōbaku art, brought by the immigrant monks to the Japanese islands, made a sizeable contribution to the formation of the unique picture of Edo culture, turning into such driving motive that led to reforming of the traditional styles of painting, calligraphy, and other arts. Even a brief overview of the Ōbaku art illustrates the importance of its role in establishment of the cultural image of Japan of Edo period.
Lepeshkina L. - Animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in traditional rituals of the peoples of Volga Region (XVII-XXI centuries) pp. 63-70


Abstract: The subject of this research is the animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in traditional customs of the peoples of Volga Region (XVII-XXI centuries) and their functional purpose. The goal of this article is the analysis of the most typical and popular symbolic embodiments of animals and birds in the regional culture, determination of their role in the conceptual content of ritualism the Volga Region natives. The scientific novelty consists in perception of these symbols as the manifestation of the will to live and way of protection from nothingness. The empirical foundation for this publication became the historical sources from the regional archives, works of the travelers and ethnographers, field materials of the author. The research leans on the systemic approach that allows identifying the most consistent animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in culture of the Volga Region. A conclusion is made that the presence of the images of birds and animals in various rituals can testify to the primeval fears of human being, when he his dependence on nature. Experiences. Historically, the animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in culture of the Volga Region contributed to strengthening of interethnic relations and ensured interaction between the real and sacred worlds. Belief in the other, sacred being offered hope for the eternal human existence, while the birds and animals were the key of such existence due to their power, cunning and endurance. The research material can be valuable for anthropologists and historians, educators and students of humanitarian disciplines.
Chashkina L.Y. - Pre-sound animation: early experiments pp. 65-71


Abstract: This article explores the first experiences of creating the new type of art – animation: since the first attempts to depict motion on the screen all the way to motion picture films that influenced the development of global cinematography. The work presents the experiments of Charles-Émile Reynaud, Émile Cohl, J. Stuart Blackton, Ladislav Starevich, and other pioneers of animation. The author describes the peculiarities of prerevolutionary Russian animation and its relation with the global animation. Comparative analysis allows tracing the link between the early animation films of the era of silent films with theatrical culture, as well as fair shows. The scientific novelty consists in comparison of the early animation with slapstick comedy, in the course of which the creator of animation piece personally presents it to the public. The drawn conclusions allow considering early animation as one of the types of technical trick experiment, which formed the basis for development of the new type of art.
Khasanova M. - Cultural cooperation of Russia and Belarus in the post-Soviet space pp. 68-78


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the aspects of cultural cooperation of Russia and Belarus at the present stage as a foundation for profound integration. The goal of the research lies in determining the type, features, and factors of the development of Russia-Belarus cooperation in the area of culture as a foundation contributing into the integration of both nations within the particular historical context in the late XX – early XXI centuries. The need for studying the intercultural differences is indicated. Relevance of researching the interaction between Russia and Belarus in the area of culture is caused by the dynamically developing sociocultural and political situation in modern Europe and the world in the conditions of globalization. An attempt is made to understand to what extent and by which means the culture conduces integration or disintegration of the state. The article considers various options and prospect for Russia-Belarus cultural cooperation. The author introduces into the scientific discourse newest documents pertaining to the Russia-Belarus relations, as well as analysis all major joint cultural events.
Khairetdinova N.E. - Theatre of war: on the motives of audience activity during the Great Patriotic War (using the materials of Ufa in 1941-1943) pp. 73-96


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the motives of activity of theatrical audience in rear during the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. Theatres, along with the other facilities, continued to function; and moreover, they were never empty. But the understanding of fact that people far from the frontline, working for the victory, suffered deprivations, raised the questions regarding the moral and ethical views, demands, and financial opportunities of population. The research is conducted on the example of entertainment events of Ufa – capital of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The source base for writing this article consisted of the unpublished archive materials, as well as the published materials, including the reminiscences of participants of the events. During the course of the research, it was established that the theatre as far back as 1930’s was viewed by the government as agitation and educational platform, as a powerful and endowed with artistic virtue tool of interaction upon public consciousness that in the severe conditions were boosting the economy of the country. And because the agitation force of the theatre would have been worthless without the full audience halls, the party-state apparatus were putting effort into increasing the popularity of cultural entertainment. Namely during this period, the theatre began to define the personal prestige of a Soviet citizen. In other words, by 1941 the spectator potential in the country, especially in the cities, was rather high. The agitation-educational meaning of theatre highly increased with the beginning of war, which of course, affected the cultural policy of the state. Multiple famous theatrical troupes from Odessa, Kiev, and other cities, were evacuated to Ufa due to favorable circumstances that encouraged the interest towards theatre. The city provided affordable prices for such events, including free service for the wounded in battle and active duty sergeants. Overall, the author notes that the tragicalness of situation did not interrupt the cultural upturn.  
Zamotokhin P.P. - The impact of ideas of D. F. Strauss upon the establishment of philosophical worldview of N. N. Ge pp. 74-80


Abstract: This article explores the impact of works of the German philosopher David Friedrich Strauss upon the worldview of the Russian painter of the mid XIX century Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge. In the context of historical circumstances of painter’s creation of the canvas “Last Supper”, inspired by the work of D. F. Strauss “The Life of Jesus”, the author considers the question on the role of classical hermeneutics in the artistic method of N. N. Ge. The research determines the similarities in the general philosophical views of F. D. Strauss in form as they presented in his work “On the Old and New Faith”, and positions expressed by the painter. For studying the correlation between the philosophy and inner aesthetic mechanisms of the object are used the concept of M. M. Bakhtin. Taking into account the late enthusiasm of the painter with the religious ideas of L. N. Tolstoy, the author formulates a hypothesis on the specific place of the works of German scholar within the entirety of evolution of the philosophical views of N. N. Ge, as a somewhat transitional link from the positivist paradigm towards the philosophical ethical concepts developing Christian maxims.
Khisamutdinova A.F., Khairetdinova N.E. - History of conceptualization of the term excursion: some aspects of historiography of the problem pp. 79-86


Abstract: The subject of this research is the notion of “excursion”, which undergone various interpretations within different historical periods. It had impact upon the character of historical research on this topic. In particular, the history of excursion affairs is currently being studied inseparably with tourism, and the initially educational nature of the excursion has become secondary. It is established that that the reason that tourism eluded the studying of excursion activity lies in insufficient reference of the modern educational facilities towards the excursion methods in the context of organizing the educational process. Prerevolutionary, Soviet, and contemporary works of the theoretician of excursion affairs alongside certain currently existing historical explorations served as a source base for writing this article. The scientific novelty is defined by separating the concept and word “excursion”. In fact, the history of excursion affairs must be considered since the time, when the word “excursion” has not yet introduced to the Russian language. The authors provide arguments, which prove the scientific novelty and relevance of such research.
Bleikh N.O. - Educational activity of the Imperial officials aimed at establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century pp. 101-111


Abstract: This article examines the questions regarding the educational activity of imperial officials aimed establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century leaning on the introduced for the first time archive sources. It is noted that in the course of educational work the Caucasian administration resorted not only to the political and economic reform of the region, but also the ideological effect, which namely consisted in propaganda of the state ideas and values using the missionary organization or national education. Methodology of this research applies the philosophical provisions on correlation of social development and education, historical-social institutionalization of pedagogical thought, as well as dialectics of the general and particular. Conclusion is made that the missionary work  became an actual way for bringing together the North Caucasian peoples with Russia; and the school policy, despite the inaccuracy of Royal culture-carriers and inadaptability to the local circumstanced, led to the positive results: by the mid XIX century, the entire North Caucasus appeared to be integrated into the Russian educational space.
Markov N.A. - Experiment in the Soviet cinematography: Experimental Creative Association (1965-1976) pp. 102-111


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of the Experimental Creative Association of Grigory Chukhray, which purpose lied in the attempt to implement the market principles into the management system of Soviet cinematography. The leading films that became the classics of Soviet cinematography were shot within the framework of this association. At the end of the 1960’s were prepared the projects for distributing this system across the entire Soviet cinematography; thus its principles underlied the new system of cinematography in 1989. The object of this research is the principles of the Experimental Creative Association, circumstances of its organization, its achievements and role in development of the national cinematography. Methodological foundation contains the principles of historicism, systematicity, and objectivity. Following the principle of historicism implies the examination of the history of the association in terms of the specific historical situation of 1960’s – 1970’s. System approach suggests considering the entire complex of factors that affected the establishment, development and dissolution of the Experimental Creative Association. The author’s contribution into the research of this topic lies in the systemic learning of the establishment, development, crisis, and dissolution of the association as one of the most remarkable events in the history of Soviet cinematography. It is concluded that the formation of the Experimental Creative Association was attributed to the overall situation in the country during the period of “thaw” that marked the expansion of the ideological and stylistic frameworks of art, as well as the reforms of A. Kosygin; the crises of film studio of G. Chukhray in 1968 led to the deprivation of independence and rejection of the general reform of cinematography; this crises was due to the common trend towards strengthening of control and spate of the ban on films thought the period of 1966-1971; the abrupt partial implementation of the principles of association in 1989 did not results in the replication of its success.
Golovlev A. - Russian music at the Metropolitan Opera: repertoire analysis in the sociocultural context of contemporary history of the United States pp. 126-146


Abstract: The subject of this research is the dynamics of performing Russian music on the stage of Metropolitan Opera in New York and development of public discourse viewed through the prism of socioeconomic history and dynamics of Russian-American and Soviet-American relations in the XX century. Throughout the entire existence of Metropolitan Opera (1883-2016), the article analyzes the history of premieres, format, frequency and distribution of the representatives of the Russian opera and ballet, as well as feedbacks of the leading critics that allow singling out the basic elements of comprehension of the Russian music and image of Russia among the educated audience of New York, as well as their transmission into the wider social strata (publications in newspapers, TV, radio, Internet broadcasting). Using the digitalized archive of Metropolitan Opera, the author conducts a quantitative analysis of the most prominent composers and operas of the “Russian” repertoire, as well as their conceptualization on the background of the general repertoire policy, sociopolitical and economic conditions of the key periods in American history of the XX century. Particularly, the author underlines the prewar period, especially the decade between the beginning of the Great Depression and World War II, Great Patriotic War and U.S.-Soviet alliance, Cold War, and contemporary period after 1991. The author also considers the selection of critical feedbacks from the leading journalists of the United Stated and Great Britain. The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive repertoire and discursive analysis from the sociopolitical perspective. The main conclusion is defined by the clear distinction of leading composers – Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky in classical music of the XIX century and Stravinsky in contemporary classical music. Along with the dominance of the limited number of classics, in which regards the Metropolitan Opera followed the trends of conservative reductionism inherent also to other opera theatres, there is an evident distancing from the contemporary Soviet school until the end of the Cold War. A brief alignment with the Soviet Union during the World War II, on the contrary, did not led to the expansion of Russian repertoire, while the economic conjuncture directly affected the frequency, diversity, and public response towards the compositions of Russian music. Anti-Communism did not result in the negative image of Russian culture, but affected the perception of the contemporary music, as well as aggravated cultural-political distancing with regards to Russia. Enriching the existing comprehension of the cultural transfers from Russia into the United States, this article realizes the cross-disciplinary integration of the issues of musicological character into social and political history, which represents interest to the U.S. historians, international relations in broad sense, nations and nationalism, as well as cultural and discursive processes.
Tushkanov D.I. - What was being read in Tsaritsyno at the end of the XIX century? pp. 130-136


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the sociocultural image of the district city of Saratov province in the late XIX century. The article also explores the question of what newspapers and magazines were subscribed to and read by the inhabitants of the town of Tsaritsyno at the end of the XIX century. The object of this study is the provincial periodicals of the late XIX century. Special attention is given to the establishment and development of the first Tsaritsyno newspaper "Volga-Don paper", which reflected various issues and problems of the local life of the late nineteenth century, including consideration of the question of subscription of the citizens to the periodicals. The research methodology stems from a sociocultural approach, which means study of the culture as a wide range of social phenomena, which represent the tools and results of social development. A special place also belongs to the periodicals, which on the one hand represent a sociocultural phenomenon, while on the other – means of reflection of various sociocultural processes of reality. The author concludes that the city had a great need for periodicals and, in particular, the establishment of local press. Based on the materials of the first Tsaritsyno newspaper the author presents previously unpublished information about what periodicals the Tsaritsyno residents subscribed to in the last quarter of the XIX century. 
Sineokii O.V. - Retrospective view upon the history of development of national rock within the Soviet gramophone recording from the position of social communications pp. 137-167


Abstract: This article presents a chronology of the main events and trends in the history of Soviet rock in the context of the development of the system of music communication in USSR, in other words one more version of formation and establishment of the Russian rock music – the author reconsidered a number of position, complemented many of them with the newly revealed facts, and determines the new correlations.  The subject of this work is the peculiarities of formation of the national rock music within the framework of evolution of the gramophone recording system in USSR. Due to this fact the phenomenon of our inquiry is presented in a form of dual socio-communicational construct that functions in the cultural space (sound recording + rock music). The author suggests and argues a thesis, according to which the dual nature of the rock music recording is expressed in the fact that the aforementioned musical phenomenon also represents an institution of social communication. The author is first to comprehensively explore the category of “rock music recording in USSR” as an intrinsic part of the system of social communication. On the example of rock clubs, the author expands the idea about music organizations in the conditions of socialism. The main conclusion consists in the following: as a result of a joint action of socio-historical, political, information, and economic-technological factors, by the middle of the 1970’s several regional-national schools of rock music recording were formed in USSR as a “mosaic system” of sociocultural communication, which was founded on the complicated multilevel correlations.
Khairetdinova N.E. - Control over repertoire of the Ufimian theatre at the initial state of the Great Patriotic War pp. 140-151


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relationship between the censure apparatus of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  and the theatres of Ufa at the initial stage of the Great Patriotic War. The article confirms a generally known fact that the highly ideological and heroic-patriotic spectacle was considered exceptionally relevant. Nevertheless, the understanding that the war had divided the audience into various categories, indicated a number of serious questions that pertain to serving each of the category of spectators. During the course of this research, it was established that for performances in the military recruiting stations, was selected primarily the ideological repertoire, aimed at increase of the battle spirit of the recruited, and mostly the concert format has been chosen for realization of work. The ideological and political orientation was dominating in the theatrical activity, which looks rather obvious. Public festivities occasioned with various events were regularly taking place in Ufa; extreme popularity gained the genre of operetta. In addition to this, the provincial theatres has certain contacts with the local censure; there is a record of precedent, when the representative of the central censure apparatus criticized the Ufimian theaters for excessive freedom and noncompliance with the all written rules for the pre-premiere approval of a spectacle. The author notes that there is no common image of the Soviet censure; it is a product of its time, a complicated social phenomenon.
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