Genesis: Historical research - rubric Culture and cultures in historical context
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Culture and cultures in historical context"
Culture and cultures in historical context
Tsinpaeva R.S. - Periodical press as the mirror of Russian charity of the late XIX century pp. 1-6


Abstract: The topic of Russian charity is being actively studied in the last decades, however, a number of questions related to the culturological examination of the problematic of charity have not received due attention from the scholars. This article is dedicated to the problem of covering the topic of charity in the Russian periodical press during the second half of the XIX century. Analysis is conducted for the purpose of determining the role of charity in social life, extent of population involvement into this process, and the types of charitable support programs. The descriptive methods and the method of quantitative analysis of the materials in the selected topic allow reconstructing the general picture of charity in Russia in the XIX century, as well as characterize the main trends and processes that unfolded during this period. In conclusion, the author established that the periodical press was a reflection of the main trends in the history of charity, such as change in the social base of benefactors, appearance of the new forms of rendering charitable assistance, spark and halt in charitable initiatives.
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673) and his role in the history of Japanese culture of the Edo period (1603-1868) pp. 1-7


Abstract: The Edo period (1603-1868) holds a special place in the history of Japan. Despite the fact that since 1641, the Tokugawa Shogunate isolated Japan from the outside world, this period is known for significant transformation in various levels of social life. This article is dedicated to the changes in the religious and cultural spheres of the country during the Edo period based on the example of origination of the Obaku School, new movement of Japanese Buddhism founded by the migrants from China. Particular attention is given to the creative path and biography of Ingen Ryuki (1592-1673) as the founder of the school, who familiarized Japan with the cultural achievement of Ming China. The scientific novelty is defined by the absence of special works dedicated to the Obaku School and its founder in the national Japanese Studies. Therefore, the author focused on the writings of English and Japanese authors. Based on the example of separate aspects of Japanese cultural life, such as calligraphy, the author reviews the magnitude of cultural impact of Ingen Ryuki and his followers. The main conclusion lies in the statement that despite Japan’s isolation and conservative policy of the shohunate, the new cultural ideal borrowed from China and passed on through the monks-emigrants has entwined in the culture of Edo period. The emergence of “Chinese styles” in calligraphy and painting are the vivid illustration of the power of creative heritage of the Obaku teaching, as well as the talent and charisma of its founder.
Frenk G.Y. - Cultural genocide of the indigenous people of Canada: from negation to reconciliation pp. 10-13


Abstract: The object of this research is the phenomenon of cultural genocide of the indigenous people of Canada –  Indians, Inuits, and Métis. Since the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867 and until 1970’s, the government policy was aimed at eradication of ethnocultural specificities of the indigenous people, which irrevocably damaged their cultural and historical heritage, language and art. Special role was assigned to the network of boarding schools, which activity became one of the most tragic moments in the history of Canada. Research methodology contains the works of foreign and Russian authors dedicated to examination of the concepts of cultural genocide and cultural assimilation. The scientific novelty consists in the historical-culturological analysis of the concepts of cultural genocide on the example of the indigenous population of Canada. The following conclusions were made: since the middle of the XIX century, Canada conducts the policy aimed at disruption of the cultural, language, religious, and economic foundations of the indigenous community. The main instrument of cultural genocide became the system of education oriented towards the upbringing of a “new person”, who has forgotten all his aboriginal background, including native culture. Reconciliation with the indigenous people and the revival of their national identity is one of the priority objectives facing Canada in the conditions of the modern multicultural society.
Orbodoeva M.V. - Spiritual culture of China during the period of Wei and Jin pp. 18-22


Abstract:  The author gives particular attention to the topic of spiritual culture of China during the period after the collapse of Han Empire, namely the period of Wei and Jin. The era of Wei and Jin represents a breaking point in the history of this country, which was preceded by the time of ruling of the powerful Han Empire and its collapse. The crisis of the empire, disintegration of the unified statehood, destruction of the previous foundations in sociopolitical and economic spheres of Chinese society affected the spiritual culture of China. In writing this article, the author analyzed the works of the Russian, as well as foreign scholars. Special accent is made on the works of Chinese scholars. The main conclusion of this work consists in the facts that the spiritual culture of China during the period of Wei and Jin dynasties was on one hand the reflection of the processes that took place in the stated period; and on the other – served as preparative basis for implementation of Buddhism into the sociocultural space of China.  
Chebotarev A., Leshukov A. - Booktrade advertising in Russia in the late XVIII century: factors of development pp. 25-31


Abstract: The object of this research is the evolution of Russian advertising in the late XVIII century, while the subject is the combination of factors that affected the new trends in development of booktrade advertising. The goal lies in determination of fundamental reasons for the emergence of new form of booktrade advertising relevant until the end of the XVIII century and complexity of text content of the advertisements for increasing their information value and enhancing the effect of advertising. The author meticulously examines the process of establishing legal framework for the development of book-publishing industry, which required proliferation of the effective booktrade advertising. Methodology contains the analysis of legislation regulating the book industry, which define the key requirements to the work of private publishers and their products, as well as the analysis of the content of booktrade advertising. The conclusion is made that the gradual development of the national booktrade advertisement became possible as a result of creation of legislative base for emergence of the system of private book publishing. Booktrade advertising developed in the form of newspaper and magazine advertising: brief advertisement-description, extended advertisement, register-catalogue, and pamphlets. The author underlines the more frequent appearance of long texts with substantiated advertising proposition. The article also demonstrates the influence of other factors such as economic, political, and socio-cultural upon the development of booktrade advertising.
Khatanzeiskaya E.V. - Arkhangelsk Commercial Club (Marfas House) as a center of European culture of the port city of Arkhangelsk of the late XIX early XX centuries pp. 29-39


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the Arkhangelsk Commercial Club (Marfa’s House) – a cultural center of the port city during the late XIX – early XX centuries. The author traces the fates of the representatives of Western European dynasties of merchants and tradesmen who dwelled in the port city for several centuries and were subjected to repressions during the World War I and Soviet time. Currently, one of the paramount tasks of scientific community consists in the preservation of memory on the activity of the prominent people of the past, as not only the region, but also the country as a whole owes them for development of economy, culture, science, systems of state administration, education, and a number of other spheres of life. The theoretical-methodological framework for the research became the set of methods of new anthropologically-oriented branches of historical science, generalized by the concept of “historical anthropology”, which allowed shifting the point of attention from history of government structures towards life of households and separate individuals. The experience of working with cognate disciplines – such as historical sociology and sociology of everyday life became useful, especially when working sources of personal origin. The article employs modern methodology and introduces into the scientific discourse documents discovered by the author in the State Archive of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Archive of the Arkhangelsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, as well as biographical records on the representatives of the prominent Arkhangelsk merchant dynasties – families Leuzinger and Petz from the personal archives of the descendants.
Kulpina A.V. - Representations on musical instruments within the European intellectual tradition of the Early and High Medieval Period pp. 58-64


Abstract: The subject of this research is the representations on origin, typology and role of the instruments within the intellectual tradition of Medieval West since the first centuries of Christianity until the XIII century. The author describes the main sources of instrumental lexicon and the nature of records about musical instruments in the Biblical text, as well as examines the tradition of definition of these instruments in the works of Church Fathers, early medieval “Etymologies” ofIsidore of Seville and “Letter to Dardanus” of Pseudo-Hieronymus, Latino-Latin Dictionaries of the High Medieval period. The author analyzes the commentaries to the Holy Scripture, compositions of encyclopedic lexicographic character. The scientific novelty lies in analytical generalization of the key trends in development of representations on the musical instruments within the indicated timeframe. A conclusion is made that the evolution of thought on the musical instruments and instrumental music-making in European culture of the Early and High Medieval Period has passed several stages. Having commenced with antagonism of the Church Fathers towards the practical aspects of instrumental music and strictly allegorical interpretations, the Latin authors synthesized the records of organological nature and descriptions of the symbolic imagery, in order to subsequently come to the need for genus-species systematization of the origin and structure of the actual instruments.
Gurianova M. - Revolution in fashion industry: history of the phenomenon of couturier pp. 58-67


Abstract: In the late XIX century, the emergence of the persona of Charles Frederick Worth signified somewhat a “revolution” in fashion industry, changing its concept through putting to the forefront the persona of the designer, rather than a dress wearer. Up to the late XVIII century, the authorship of innovations was appointed upon the bright individuals (the powerful persons) who demonstrated them, but not who stood behind its creation. As a profession, the design of fashionable novelties, which founder was C. F. Worth, transformed the clothing manufacturing industry from the craft activity at the service of high officials, to a creative act inherent only to couturier. Such shift of accents regarding the identification of a fashionable novelty from the wearer to manufacturer was significantly associated with “switching” of the costume’s semantics under the influence of French Revolution, after which fashion became perceived as platform for self-expression”, and the dress turned into an important symbol of taste and individual differences. Namely the discourse that a fashionable product is an expression of individual taste in many ways contributed to putting clothing designers to the forefront, as it was also enhanced by the reorganization of guild system in the late XVIII century.
Lugavtsova A.P. - Ōbaku art in the history of Japanese culture of Edo period (1603-1868) pp. 61-73


Abstract: This article examines the transformation of the cultural image of Japan of Edo period (1603-1868), associated with the emergence of Ōbaku School – a new movement of Japanese Buddhism, founded by the migrants from China. Special attention is given to the traditional types of art (painting, calligraphy, and sculpture), which brought the new crazes thanks to the Ōbaku artisans. The transformation of these cultural spheres affected by innovations of Ming China, vividly demonstrates the importance of contribution of the Ōbaku art to the development of artwork of Edo period. The scientific novelty is substantiated by the absence in the national Japanese studies of special works dedicated to Ōbaku School as a whole and its artistic legacy in particular; therefore, the author focuses on the studies of English and Japanese language authors. The conclusion is made that despite the isolation from the world, there still was a factor of outside borrowings that significantly affected the spiritual sphere of life of Japanese society. Ōbaku art, brought by the immigrant monks to the Japanese islands, made a sizeable contribution to the formation of the unique picture of Edo culture, turning into such driving motive that led to reforming of the traditional styles of painting, calligraphy, and other arts. Even a brief overview of the Ōbaku art illustrates the importance of its role in establishment of the cultural image of Japan of Edo period.
Lepeshkina L. - Animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in traditional rituals of the peoples of Volga Region (XVII-XXI centuries) pp. 63-70


Abstract: The subject of this research is the animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in traditional customs of the peoples of Volga Region (XVII-XXI centuries) and their functional purpose. The goal of this article is the analysis of the most typical and popular symbolic embodiments of animals and birds in the regional culture, determination of their role in the conceptual content of ritualism the Volga Region natives. The scientific novelty consists in perception of these symbols as the manifestation of the will to live and way of protection from nothingness. The empirical foundation for this publication became the historical sources from the regional archives, works of the travelers and ethnographers, field materials of the author. The research leans on the systemic approach that allows identifying the most consistent animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in culture of the Volga Region. A conclusion is made that the presence of the images of birds and animals in various rituals can testify to the primeval fears of human being, when he his dependence on nature. Experiences. Historically, the animalistic and ornitomorphic symbols in culture of the Volga Region contributed to strengthening of interethnic relations and ensured interaction between the real and sacred worlds. Belief in the other, sacred being offered hope for the eternal human existence, while the birds and animals were the key of such existence due to their power, cunning and endurance. The research material can be valuable for anthropologists and historians, educators and students of humanitarian disciplines.
Chashkina L.Y. - Pre-sound animation: early experiments pp. 65-71


Abstract: This article explores the first experiences of creating the new type of art – animation: since the first attempts to depict motion on the screen all the way to motion picture films that influenced the development of global cinematography. The work presents the experiments of Charles-Émile Reynaud, Émile Cohl, J. Stuart Blackton, Ladislav Starevich, and other pioneers of animation. The author describes the peculiarities of prerevolutionary Russian animation and its relation with the global animation. Comparative analysis allows tracing the link between the early animation films of the era of silent films with theatrical culture, as well as fair shows. The scientific novelty consists in comparison of the early animation with slapstick comedy, in the course of which the creator of animation piece personally presents it to the public. The drawn conclusions allow considering early animation as one of the types of technical trick experiment, which formed the basis for development of the new type of art.
Bocharova M. - Mythological motifs in visual ornamentation of orders and medals of the Meiji era in Japan pp. 65-70


Abstract: The Meiji era (1868-1912), since 1875, marks the establishment of the modern award system of orders and medals following the European example. Orders and medals become the method of representation of the power of new elites and a new cultural phenomenon. For ornamentation of the awards are used the symbols and images known from the religious plots, mythological legends, literature and painting. Particular emphasis is put on the imperial symbolism, through which were translated the ideas of military might and advanced country.  The conducted research is structured on the theoretical methods: culturological analysis, and comparison of themes based on the acquired information. The following conclusions were made: orders and medals became one of the forms of representation of the new Japanese elite; the old-time religious and mythological plots were realized through visual ornamentations of the awards; main attention was dedicated to symbols associated with imperial power; this became the new cultural element of social life.
Khasanova M. - Cultural cooperation of Russia and Belarus in the post-Soviet space pp. 68-78


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the aspects of cultural cooperation of Russia and Belarus at the present stage as a foundation for profound integration. The goal of the research lies in determining the type, features, and factors of the development of Russia-Belarus cooperation in the area of culture as a foundation contributing into the integration of both nations within the particular historical context in the late XX – early XXI centuries. The need for studying the intercultural differences is indicated. Relevance of researching the interaction between Russia and Belarus in the area of culture is caused by the dynamically developing sociocultural and political situation in modern Europe and the world in the conditions of globalization. An attempt is made to understand to what extent and by which means the culture conduces integration or disintegration of the state. The article considers various options and prospect for Russia-Belarus cultural cooperation. The author introduces into the scientific discourse newest documents pertaining to the Russia-Belarus relations, as well as analysis all major joint cultural events.
Khairetdinova N.E. - Theatre of war: on the motives of audience activity during the Great Patriotic War (using the materials of Ufa in 1941-1943) pp. 73-96


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the motives of activity of theatrical audience in rear during the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. Theatres, along with the other facilities, continued to function; and moreover, they were never empty. But the understanding of fact that people far from the frontline, working for the victory, suffered deprivations, raised the questions regarding the moral and ethical views, demands, and financial opportunities of population. The research is conducted on the example of entertainment events of Ufa – capital of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The source base for writing this article consisted of the unpublished archive materials, as well as the published materials, including the reminiscences of participants of the events. During the course of the research, it was established that the theatre as far back as 1930’s was viewed by the government as agitation and educational platform, as a powerful and endowed with artistic virtue tool of interaction upon public consciousness that in the severe conditions were boosting the economy of the country. And because the agitation force of the theatre would have been worthless without the full audience halls, the party-state apparatus were putting effort into increasing the popularity of cultural entertainment. Namely during this period, the theatre began to define the personal prestige of a Soviet citizen. In other words, by 1941 the spectator potential in the country, especially in the cities, was rather high. The agitation-educational meaning of theatre highly increased with the beginning of war, which of course, affected the cultural policy of the state. Multiple famous theatrical troupes from Odessa, Kiev, and other cities, were evacuated to Ufa due to favorable circumstances that encouraged the interest towards theatre. The city provided affordable prices for such events, including free service for the wounded in battle and active duty sergeants. Overall, the author notes that the tragicalness of situation did not interrupt the cultural upturn.  
Zamotokhin P.P. - The impact of ideas of D. F. Strauss upon the establishment of philosophical worldview of N. N. Ge pp. 74-80


Abstract: This article explores the impact of works of the German philosopher David Friedrich Strauss upon the worldview of the Russian painter of the mid XIX century Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge. In the context of historical circumstances of painter’s creation of the canvas “Last Supper”, inspired by the work of D. F. Strauss “The Life of Jesus”, the author considers the question on the role of classical hermeneutics in the artistic method of N. N. Ge. The research determines the similarities in the general philosophical views of F. D. Strauss in form as they presented in his work “On the Old and New Faith”, and positions expressed by the painter. For studying the correlation between the philosophy and inner aesthetic mechanisms of the object are used the concept of M. M. Bakhtin. Taking into account the late enthusiasm of the painter with the religious ideas of L. N. Tolstoy, the author formulates a hypothesis on the specific place of the works of German scholar within the entirety of evolution of the philosophical views of N. N. Ge, as a somewhat transitional link from the positivist paradigm towards the philosophical ethical concepts developing Christian maxims.
Khatanzeiskaya E.V. - Church of the Nativity of Christ in the village of Purnema of Onezhsky District of Archangelsk Region as an example of stave temple architecture of the late XIX century in the European North of Russia pp. 74-85


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of temple complex of the rural settlement of Purnema of Onezhsky District of Archangelsk Region, where in the early XX century was situated the three-part ensemble comprised of two churches – tent-roofed Nikolskaya (1618), Church of the Nativity of Christ (1860-1861), and a bell tower that survived until the early 1930s. Relevance of the topic is substantiated by the fact that the monuments of stave architecture, masterpieces of temple architecture of the Russian North are vanishing, and the North loses its cultural uniqueness. The aforementioned temple complex is one of the few preserved in the Russian North. Attention is turned to the current state of the temple complex, status and significance of monuments, their boundaries, current state protection regime, and the need for taking immediate measures to preserve them as the objects of cultural heritage in the historical environment. The goal of this research consists in determination of the distinctness of temple complex in the village of Purnema within the cultural-historical landscape of the Russian North and its present significance. The scientific novelty is defined by the fact that the history of the Church of the Nativity of Christ has not previously been the subject of special research among historians and art historians. The article employs archival data and documentary photographs that are newly introduced into the scientific discourse. The acquired results allow concluding that the monument should become state registered. The practical importance of this work is that the presented materials can be used in elaboration and implementation of the state strategy aimed at preservation and development of unique Northern and Arctic cultural landscapes, historical settlements, monuments of religious and civil architecture, their scientific restoration, museification and revalorization.
Khisamutdinova A.F., Khairetdinova N.E. - History of conceptualization of the term excursion: some aspects of historiography of the problem pp. 79-86


Abstract: The subject of this research is the notion of “excursion”, which undergone various interpretations within different historical periods. It had impact upon the character of historical research on this topic. In particular, the history of excursion affairs is currently being studied inseparably with tourism, and the initially educational nature of the excursion has become secondary. It is established that that the reason that tourism eluded the studying of excursion activity lies in insufficient reference of the modern educational facilities towards the excursion methods in the context of organizing the educational process. Prerevolutionary, Soviet, and contemporary works of the theoretician of excursion affairs alongside certain currently existing historical explorations served as a source base for writing this article. The scientific novelty is defined by separating the concept and word “excursion”. In fact, the history of excursion affairs must be considered since the time, when the word “excursion” has not yet introduced to the Russian language. The authors provide arguments, which prove the scientific novelty and relevance of such research.
Tikhonova V.B. - Russian landowners in the XVII century: lifestyle and mentality pp. 86-109


Abstract: The subject of this research is the mentality of Russian landowners of the XVII century. This topic remains insufficiently studied, therefore the author sets a goal to identify the peculiarities of lifestyle and most characteristic mental features of the Russian provincial landowners of the XVII century. The authorial concepts is based on the assumption on possibility of deriving the mental attitudes of this social estate from their typical lifestyle. Due to the lack of direct testimonies on everyday life and apperception of the landowners of the period prior to Peter the Great, the author uses the research and sources on the social, military and agrarian history of the XVII century. A better understanding of the topic is achieved by means of attracting most substantial sources on the history of Russian nobility. From the perspective of the history of mentality, within the framework of interdisciplinary approach, the article generalizes the studies of various scientific disciplines that contain records on the typical lifestyle of Russian landowners of the XVII century. At the same time, features of the mentality of Russian landowners are viewed on the background of cultural worldview of Moscovian State of the XVII century. The mentality of Russian landowners of the XVII century was substantiated by a number of factors defining their lifestyle. The character and conditions of service contributed to mobility, modesty and adaptability. The specificity of conditional landownership, perhaps, accustomed to self-reliance and responsibility. The need to defending interests of the estates formed situational awareness. A peculiar factor for the mentality of landowners was an affiliation to the privileged estate. The “borderline” position with regards to unprivileged ranks classified the poorest landowners to the lowest ranks of service classes; actualized distancing with the latter and imparted e mentality of country landowners of the XVII century with such trait as a desire to preserve their privileged status.
Tikhonova V.B. - On the concept of honor in mentality of the Russian landowners of the XVII century pp. 89-120


Abstract: The interdisciplinary approach that takes into account various points of view allows revealing the representations of honor in mentality of the Russian landowners of the XVII century. These representations are analyzed both in the context of national mentality of the XVII century overall, and within the privileged class. The article examines different meanings of honor typical to Russia of the XVII century: ancestral, official, corporate, spiritual, as well as assumptions on the presence of personal honor. Plausible mental representations of the honor of county landowners of the XVII century are viewed from the social, legal, spiritual, moral, and military-professional perspectives. The author goes along with the concepts that attribute honor to the fundamental concepts of national mentality of the XVII century. There are several meanings of honor: the medieval ideal of honor as virtue prevalent in Moscow society, honor of the rank, although the complete dominance of the latter in mentality of the XVII century seems exaggerated. The entire privileged class of the Russian society attached great importance to the meaning of “homeland”, while the provincial landowners valued the length of service. The author believes that the idea of syncretism of honor expressed by the scholars about Middle Ages also pertains to the Moscow period. The honor of noblemen and children of court nobility on the ancestral, corporate and personal levels was an achievement based on “accumulative” principle. The resentment of duels by the Russian privileged ranks of the XVII century, who defended their honor in a lawful manner, deserves particular attention. The representations of honor of the county landowners was stressed by mass poverty and closeness to the lower social classes, which encouraged to stay in the privileged environment. This was accompanied by continuous struggle for retaining paternal, official, corporate, personal honor.
Bleikh N.O. - Educational activity of the Imperial officials aimed at establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century pp. 101-111


Abstract: This article examines the questions regarding the educational activity of imperial officials aimed establishment of unitary social space in North Caucasus in the early XIX century leaning on the introduced for the first time archive sources. It is noted that in the course of educational work the Caucasian administration resorted not only to the political and economic reform of the region, but also the ideological effect, which namely consisted in propaganda of the state ideas and values using the missionary organization or national education. Methodology of this research applies the philosophical provisions on correlation of social development and education, historical-social institutionalization of pedagogical thought, as well as dialectics of the general and particular. Conclusion is made that the missionary work  became an actual way for bringing together the North Caucasian peoples with Russia; and the school policy, despite the inaccuracy of Royal culture-carriers and inadaptability to the local circumstanced, led to the positive results: by the mid XIX century, the entire North Caucasus appeared to be integrated into the Russian educational space.
Markov N.A. - Experiment in the Soviet cinematography: Experimental Creative Association (1965-1976) pp. 102-111


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of the Experimental Creative Association of Grigory Chukhray, which purpose lied in the attempt to implement the market principles into the management system of Soviet cinematography. The leading films that became the classics of Soviet cinematography were shot within the framework of this association. At the end of the 1960’s were prepared the projects for distributing this system across the entire Soviet cinematography; thus its principles underlied the new system of cinematography in 1989. The object of this research is the principles of the Experimental Creative Association, circumstances of its organization, its achievements and role in development of the national cinematography. Methodological foundation contains the principles of historicism, systematicity, and objectivity. Following the principle of historicism implies the examination of the history of the association in terms of the specific historical situation of 1960’s – 1970’s. System approach suggests considering the entire complex of factors that affected the establishment, development and dissolution of the Experimental Creative Association. The author’s contribution into the research of this topic lies in the systemic learning of the establishment, development, crisis, and dissolution of the association as one of the most remarkable events in the history of Soviet cinematography. It is concluded that the formation of the Experimental Creative Association was attributed to the overall situation in the country during the period of “thaw” that marked the expansion of the ideological and stylistic frameworks of art, as well as the reforms of A. Kosygin; the crises of film studio of G. Chukhray in 1968 led to the deprivation of independence and rejection of the general reform of cinematography; this crises was due to the common trend towards strengthening of control and spate of the ban on films thought the period of 1966-1971; the abrupt partial implementation of the principles of association in 1989 did not results in the replication of its success.
Prokopieva A.N., Yakovleva K.M., Sleptsova A.A. - Mammoth tusk jewelry in the Yakut culture: retrospective analysis and current state pp. 120-132


Abstract: This article is dedicated to the history of making jewelry from mammoth tusk in the Yakut culture. The hypothesis is advanced that Yakut mammoth tusk carving stems from the local traditions of wood carving and scrimshaw, and represents the raw material for making household items for the local population, and use of tusk as a raw material is associated with the appearance of the first professional scrimshaw craftsmen in Yakutia. The first part of the article examines the history of tusk carving and the prerequisites for the emergence of the new direction in jewelry. The second part of the article describes the peculiarities of making mammoth tusk jewelry in the modern Yakut culture. The current problems of taking, sale and use of mammoth tusk are relevant topics in the scientific discourse. However, jewelry and souvenirs from mammoth tusk, as well as the origins of modern scrimshaw in Yakutia have not previously become the subject of special research. For giving a better perspective on the problem the author interviewed the Soviet and contemporary artisans. It is established that influence of the Soviet scrimshaw school is still traced in modern neo-mythologized representations. The pliability of the material and availability of the raw materials for the Yakut craftsmen substantiated the popularity of the mammoth tusk and its adaptability to modern fashion trends.
Golovlev A. - Russian music at the Metropolitan Opera: repertoire analysis in the sociocultural context of contemporary history of the United States pp. 126-146


Abstract: The subject of this research is the dynamics of performing Russian music on the stage of Metropolitan Opera in New York and development of public discourse viewed through the prism of socioeconomic history and dynamics of Russian-American and Soviet-American relations in the XX century. Throughout the entire existence of Metropolitan Opera (1883-2016), the article analyzes the history of premieres, format, frequency and distribution of the representatives of the Russian opera and ballet, as well as feedbacks of the leading critics that allow singling out the basic elements of comprehension of the Russian music and image of Russia among the educated audience of New York, as well as their transmission into the wider social strata (publications in newspapers, TV, radio, Internet broadcasting). Using the digitalized archive of Metropolitan Opera, the author conducts a quantitative analysis of the most prominent composers and operas of the “Russian” repertoire, as well as their conceptualization on the background of the general repertoire policy, sociopolitical and economic conditions of the key periods in American history of the XX century. Particularly, the author underlines the prewar period, especially the decade between the beginning of the Great Depression and World War II, Great Patriotic War and U.S.-Soviet alliance, Cold War, and contemporary period after 1991. The author also considers the selection of critical feedbacks from the leading journalists of the United Stated and Great Britain. The scientific novelty lies in the comprehensive repertoire and discursive analysis from the sociopolitical perspective. The main conclusion is defined by the clear distinction of leading composers – Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky in classical music of the XIX century and Stravinsky in contemporary classical music. Along with the dominance of the limited number of classics, in which regards the Metropolitan Opera followed the trends of conservative reductionism inherent also to other opera theatres, there is an evident distancing from the contemporary Soviet school until the end of the Cold War. A brief alignment with the Soviet Union during the World War II, on the contrary, did not led to the expansion of Russian repertoire, while the economic conjuncture directly affected the frequency, diversity, and public response towards the compositions of Russian music. Anti-Communism did not result in the negative image of Russian culture, but affected the perception of the contemporary music, as well as aggravated cultural-political distancing with regards to Russia. Enriching the existing comprehension of the cultural transfers from Russia into the United States, this article realizes the cross-disciplinary integration of the issues of musicological character into social and political history, which represents interest to the U.S. historians, international relations in broad sense, nations and nationalism, as well as cultural and discursive processes.
Tushkanov D.I. - What was being read in Tsaritsyno at the end of the XIX century? pp. 130-136


Abstract:  The subject of this research is the sociocultural image of the district city of Saratov province in the late XIX century. The article also explores the question of what newspapers and magazines were subscribed to and read by the inhabitants of the town of Tsaritsyno at the end of the XIX century. The object of this study is the provincial periodicals of the late XIX century. Special attention is given to the establishment and development of the first Tsaritsyno newspaper "Volga-Don paper", which reflected various issues and problems of the local life of the late nineteenth century, including consideration of the question of subscription of the citizens to the periodicals. The research methodology stems from a sociocultural approach, which means study of the culture as a wide range of social phenomena, which represent the tools and results of social development. A special place also belongs to the periodicals, which on the one hand represent a sociocultural phenomenon, while on the other – means of reflection of various sociocultural processes of reality. The author concludes that the city had a great need for periodicals and, in particular, the establishment of local press. Based on the materials of the first Tsaritsyno newspaper the author presents previously unpublished information about what periodicals the Tsaritsyno residents subscribed to in the last quarter of the XIX century. 
Synieokyi O.V. - Retrospective view upon the history of development of national rock within the Soviet gramophone recording from the position of social communications pp. 137-167


Abstract: This article presents a chronology of the main events and trends in the history of Soviet rock in the context of the development of the system of music communication in USSR, in other words one more version of formation and establishment of the Russian rock music – the author reconsidered a number of position, complemented many of them with the newly revealed facts, and determines the new correlations.  The subject of this work is the peculiarities of formation of the national rock music within the framework of evolution of the gramophone recording system in USSR. Due to this fact the phenomenon of our inquiry is presented in a form of dual socio-communicational construct that functions in the cultural space (sound recording + rock music). The author suggests and argues a thesis, according to which the dual nature of the rock music recording is expressed in the fact that the aforementioned musical phenomenon also represents an institution of social communication. The author is first to comprehensively explore the category of “rock music recording in USSR” as an intrinsic part of the system of social communication. On the example of rock clubs, the author expands the idea about music organizations in the conditions of socialism. The main conclusion consists in the following: as a result of a joint action of socio-historical, political, information, and economic-technological factors, by the middle of the 1970’s several regional-national schools of rock music recording were formed in USSR as a “mosaic system” of sociocultural communication, which was founded on the complicated multilevel correlations.
Khairetdinova N.E. - Control over repertoire of the Ufimian theatre at the initial state of the Great Patriotic War pp. 140-151


Abstract: The subject of this research is the relationship between the censure apparatus of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic  and the theatres of Ufa at the initial stage of the Great Patriotic War. The article confirms a generally known fact that the highly ideological and heroic-patriotic spectacle was considered exceptionally relevant. Nevertheless, the understanding that the war had divided the audience into various categories, indicated a number of serious questions that pertain to serving each of the category of spectators. During the course of this research, it was established that for performances in the military recruiting stations, was selected primarily the ideological repertoire, aimed at increase of the battle spirit of the recruited, and mostly the concert format has been chosen for realization of work. The ideological and political orientation was dominating in the theatrical activity, which looks rather obvious. Public festivities occasioned with various events were regularly taking place in Ufa; extreme popularity gained the genre of operetta. In addition to this, the provincial theatres has certain contacts with the local censure; there is a record of precedent, when the representative of the central censure apparatus criticized the Ufimian theaters for excessive freedom and noncompliance with the all written rules for the pre-premiere approval of a spectacle. The author notes that there is no common image of the Soviet censure; it is a product of its time, a complicated social phenomenon.
Borisov A.A., Pavlova-Borisova T.V. - To the question on the origins of regional cultural policy of Yakutia (XVIII early XX centuries) pp. 141-147


Abstract: This article is firs to discuss an early stage of origination of the regional cultural policy of Yakutia in the Russian Empire of the XVIII – early XX centuries. Emphasis is made on the regional community: the representatives of traditional cultures – peoples of Yakutia and representatives of Russian culture (service class, government officials, taxed estates). The subject of this research is the historical prerequisites of such policy in the region, as well as the government structures that realized its key trends. The research is carried out in the all-Russian context, namely the context of transformations that took place during the Governorate Reform of 1775, as well as further evolution of the local administrative authorities that carried out cultural policy in the region. The questions is raised on the dynamic development of cultural processes in this suburb of the Empire, where the traditional cultures influencing the representatives of Russian provincial community, simultaneously became familiarized with the cultural trends from Russia. Despite the previous perceptions on the cultural backwardness of Yakutia as an imperial suburb, the conclusion is made on the relatively successful actions of imperial authorities in this field.
Gruzdev A. - The development of musical and singing culture and sociopolitical situation on the Korean Peninsula from the liberation to the Korean War pp. 161-170


Abstract: The subject of this research is the impact of sociopolitical situation on the Korean Peninsula upon the establishment and development of musical culture of the Koreans since 1945 to the beginning of the Korean War. The goal is to demonstrate the effect of political and social situation upon music and songs of the Koreans, as well as outline the vectors of their development during the period under review. In the course of research, the author analyzes the historical, political and social background, within the framework of which was formed the musical and song tradition of the Koreans of that time. The article also traces the evolution of Korean music and song genre and the factors that exerted influence on it. The Russian Korean studies do not feature comprehensive research dedicated to musical and song culture of the Koreans of the period after liberation from the Japanese Rule, which defines novelty of this work. The conclusion is made that the political and social situation on the Korean Peninsula significantly influences the development of music and song genre. The two categories of music performers were determined: politicized and non-politicized. Politicized performers were represented by the supporters of left-wing views or right-wing views. The adherers of left-wing views sought for a new path of development of the Korean music, while the right-wing supporters used the motifs already familiar to the Korean public. Non-politicizes music performers and singers followed the popular trends among the audience, which was influenced by the presence of US military on the Korean Peninsula.
Drozdov A.I., Karachakova O.M. - Interethnic relations in the Republic of Khakassia in the early XXI century: historical-statistical analysis pp. 190-199


Abstract: The object of this research is the entirety of relations between the ethnic groups of Khakassia in the early XXI century, while the subject of the main trends and patterns in development of interethnic relations in the region. The goal lies in the analysis of evolution of interethnic relations in the Republic of Khakassia during the period in question based on the demographical statistics data and results of sociological surveys. The authors determine the following tasks: 1) reveal the dynamics of demographic indexes in the area of interethnic processes (ethnic composition of the population, internal and external migration); 2) examine the assessment of the state of interethnic relations as perceived by collective consciousness. Interethnic relations are a complicated socio-psychological process of communication between ethnic groups, which undergoes dynamic transformations. The novelty of this work consists in introduction of statistical data into the scientific discourse, including such acquired as a result of calculations, generalization and systematization of material within the framework of the topic. The character of interethnic relations in Khakassia in the early XXI century remained fairly stable. It was substantiated by the reforms in all spheres of life of the region, and strive of the peoples of Khakassia for preservation and development of national identity alongside the need for the establishment of the single ethnocultural space.
Tikhonova V.B. - Government official of Polish order G. K. Kotoshihin: representative of intelligentsia, Russian European, Westernizer? pp. 200-212


Abstract: At the core of this research is the mentality of government official of Polish order G. K. Kotoshihin. Leaning on interdisciplinary approach, the author generalizes and analyzes the works dedicated to Kotoshihin and his era. The key objectives of the article consist in determination of mentality traits of the representative of Russian service bureaucracy of the XVII century; assessment of whether or not it is fair to associate G. K. Kotoshihin with the Russian Europeans, representatives of intelligentsia of the XVII century, or early national Westernizers. Based on well-known studies, the author determines a number of crucial, invariant patterns of mentality of “classical” Westernism. Although some personalty traits of Kotoshihin correspond with neither “Europeanness” nor intelligentsia, comparison of the peculiarities of mentality of the fugitive government official with worldview orientations of the national Westernism of the XIX century brought positive result. Such attributes as high assessment of European achievements, pursuit of Western education, development of secular and personal mentality in its European version, tolerance to the “someone else’s”, critical attitude with regards to national tradition – are viewed by the author as the criteria for resembling “prototype”. The majority of characteristic to Westernism mental orientations are present in G. K. Kotoshihin to a greater or lesser degree, namely the respect to European culture, tolerance, as well as critical attitude towards the national religious tradition. It would seem that Kotoshihin belonged to the category of early Russian Westernizers, who fell to the “temptation” of the European culture and became its spiritual prisoner.
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