Genesis: Historical research - rubric Issues of war and peace
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Issues of war and peace"
Issues of war and peace
Khotko S.K. - Circassia in the OttomanSafavid War of 1578-1591 pp. 1-11

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.4.19792

Abstract: The subject of this research is the process of Circassia’s involvement into the sphere of the military-political influence of Ottoman Empire throughout the XVI century. The highest level of integration of the Circassian political space into the Ottoman Empire was achieved during the 1570’s. In the long Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1591), Circassia appeared as a regional ally, by providing the Ottoman Empire with its territory, manpower and material resources. The author underlines that during this timeframe there was a noticeable political convergence between the Circassian principalities with the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. Such phenomenon was a result of the Russia-Circassia military-political alliance (1552-157), which in turn was caused by the Crimean Khan Sahib I Giray’s military campaigns (1539, 1545, and 1551). Among the main conclusions of this research are the following: 1) a rapid decrease in intensity and political significance of the connections between the principalities of the Western Circassia and Moscow after the year 1562, and Eastern Circassia in 1570; 2) the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1578-1591 became an important milestone in establishment of the Ottoman sovereignty over Circassia.
Mikheev D.V. - English expeditions Strait of Magellan just before the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604 pp. 1-8

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.12.25129

Abstract:   This article examines the questions of Anglo-Spanish maritime rivalry in the second half of the XVI century. The subject of the research is the English attempts to invade the East Indies and Pacific Ocean domains of the Spaniards during the ruling period of Elizabeth Tudor through the Strait of Magellan, which was scarcely used after the first circumnavigation expedition (1519-1522). The chronological framework of the research capture the period just before the Anglo-Spanish War of 1574-1585. The source base contains the journals of the participants of expedition, English and Spanish reports. Methodological base lies in the historical-genetic method that allows tracing the evolution of English projects of using the rout through the Strait of Magellan during the indicated period. Successful outcome of the expedition of Drake and incomprehensible response of the Spanish authorities, convinced the English government in possibility of using the “South route” independent from the Spaniards, for trading with the Eastern countries. Only the actual Spanish presence in the Strait could impede the trade and predatory English expeditions. Regular attempts of the Englishmen to repeat the expedition of Drake served as an additional destabilizing factor prior to the Anglo-Spanish War.  
Sergushkin S. - Deployment of chemical defense system on the Western front of the Russian Army during the World War I pp. 1-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.6.30027

Abstract: The subject of this research is the set of actions taken by command group of the Western front of the Russian Army as a defense against chemical warfare during the World War I. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as the supply of military staff with the personal chemical gear, training on how to use those, creation of the system of meteorological observation; as well as analyzes the combination of orders and instructions that regulated chemical defense on the front line. Special attention is given to cooperation of the various military administration bodies involved in the sphere of chemical defense. In the course of this research, the author applies systemic approach, method of systemic reconstruction, as well as follows the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and verifiability. The conclusion is made that the Western front command group has done everything possible to minimize casualties in the conditions of chemical warfare by supplying the crew with the personal protection gear. The Western front used the Zelinsky-Kummant gas mask; as well as organized training of the crew by deploying mobile detachments. The established system also has a number of flaws, but yet allowed familiarizing the soldiers with the basics of defense against the new type of weapon. At the same time, some fatal mistakes were made in organization of the chemical defense. The front staff neglected the questions of chemical reconnaissance and gas warning, therefore, the corps and army command groups had to rectify such deficiencies, often at the cost of harrowing experience.
Kryukova G.M. - Youth radiobroadcasts during the Great Patriotic War (on the example of Bashkir ASSR) pp. 1-7

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2019.9.30616

Abstract: This article analyzes the youth radiobroadcasting in the Bashkir ASSR during the Great Patriotic War. The subjects of this research is the analysis of the mechanism of implementation of youth radiobroadcasting in the Bashkir ASSR during the time of war. The goal lies in the attempt to reveal the preparation processes of youth radiobroadcasts and their specificity in the context of Bashkir ASSR in the time of war. Due to severe cut in the issuing of periodicals, radiobroadcasting has become the efficient means for providing information to the public. First releases of the youth radiobroadcasts were characterized by vague delivery of information, with prevalence of mainstream topics, and the rare sociopolitical programs diverged from the political-patriotic vector set by the government. Research methodology is based on the fundamental principles of objectivity and historicism. The newly introduced into the scientific discourse archival materials allowed depicting the principle of arranging the youth radio show during the time of Great Patriotic War. In order to prepare the program, radio correspondents were constantly searching and testing the new communicative models oriented towards the targeted audience. The children who distinguished themselves on the labor front were invited for participation in the radio shows to share their experience with the agemates. Radiobroadcasts of the 1942-1945 catered the interests of the rising generation to a greater degree, as well as corresponded with the trends of labor and political education. The ideological components of radio programs contributed to integration of the underage into the youth organizations. The conclusion is made on reasonableness of implementation of radio propaganda during the period of social disturbances.
Torosian A. - The evolution of conceptual grounds of UN peacekeeping activity and position of the Russian Federation in this regard pp. 1-16

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.5.32635

Abstract: This article reviews the UN peacekeeping activity as one of the key phenomena of the modern international relations, which carries the function of maintaining international peace and security. The evolution of UN peacemaking is explored. Special attention is turned to its new principles founded in the late XX – XXI centuries, reforms conducted in this area, as well as position of the Russian Federation pertinent to peacekeeping operations under the aegis of the United Nations. Methodology leans on the principles of historical reconstruction and comparative analysis. Currently, peacekeeping plays an important role in the world politics, significantly impacts the prevention of escalation of a large number of conflicts despite the fact that there still exist problematic hubs in the UN peacekeeping activity. Peacekeeping greatly benefited the international community since the moment of its emergence; however, it requires changes and reforms for the purpose of increasing its efficiency in settlement of the long-running conflicts.
Ovchinnikov V.M. - Smolensk in the autumn-winter campaign of 1812 according to the memoirs of contemporaries. pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.3.34310

Abstract: The article discusses the main features of the conduct of hostilities in the autumn of 1812 in Russia, and the role of Smolensk in Napoleon's strategic plans for the subsequent period. On the basis of the epistolary heritage, primarily of French contemporaries (both soldiers and officers), the specific aspects of the retreat of the Great Army along the Old Smolensk Road are considered, another facet of the Moscow campaign of the Emperor of all the French is demonstrated. The author also draws attention to the activities of the occupation authorities in Smolensk itself, based on creating conditions for turning the city into a powerful operational base for the entire army.   The main conclusions of the study are the following theses: 1. Numerous memoirs of contemporaries pay rather close attention to the problem of the retreat of the Great Army to the Smolensk region, giving quite detailed descriptions of both the life itself and the possible prospects for the further course of the campaign. 2. A number of indirect evidences demonstrate attempts to turn the city into an operational base that allows preparing troops for the next campaign in the East, which is indirectly confirmed by descriptions of attempts to create local self-government bodies in the city. 3. Smolensk in numerous French memoirs devoted to the campaign of 1812 was presented as a symbol of the drama that broke out in Russia. 4. In the Russian epistolary heritage of the epoch, the corresponding descriptions contain a sense of transformation of mass consciousness, in the conditions of a new practice for humanity called "total war". 5. In general, summing up the general results of the consideration of Smolensk in the autumn-winter campaign of 1812, it can be argued that its role as a moral barrier in Napoleon's desire to continue hostilities and the importance of the city as a strategic point has been insufficiently studied until now and requires a very deep analysis
Kil'yan I.A., Degtyarev A.N., Abramov A.K., Trifonov G.I. - Analysis of the organization of the provision of material resources to the Soviet troops during the repulse of fascist aggression (June 1941 November 1942) pp. 1-15

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.6.36089

Abstract: The subject of the research of the authors of the article is the principles and procedure for organizing the logistics of the workers' and peasants' Red army during the repulse of fascist aggression (June 1941 - November 1942). The authors consider in detail the aspects of the organization of the provision of material resources of the Soviet troops in the early years of the Great Patriotic War. The analysis of the areas of training of troops was carried out, such as material support, provision of ammunition, provision of fuel, provision of food, as well as provision of clothing. Based on the analysis, a conclusion was formed about certain provisions on material support and the work of supply services that were developed before the outbreak of the war. The main conclusion of the study is the understanding that the creation of a new structure of the rear management bodies, the increasing military and economic capabilities of the country, as well as the increase in the capabilities of the rear Center and the transfer of parts of the functions of the operational rear to the Central link of the rear contributed to solving the tasks of supplying troops with material means. The introduction of new material into the practice of providing troops with material means improved the organization of the supply of troops, changed the planning system and made it possible to establish systematic material support of the fronts, obliged the troops to use material resources economically and rationally. At the same time, the shortcomings in the organization of the logistics of the Armed Forces at the beginning of the war are explained by the discrepancy in the composition, organizational structure, technical equipment and combat readiness of the rear to the corresponding indicators of the troops.
Andriainen S.V. - Mechanisms of the emergence and formation of guard units in the Russian Imperial Army pp. 1-14

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.8.38586

EDN: UBMLQO

Abstract: The article analyzes the causes and patterns of the emergence of new guard units in the Russian Imperial Army. The author has identified six periods in this process. The author proposed his own methodology for determining why some regiments of the Russian army received the status of guards. According to the theory of the author of the article, only those regiments that met certain criteria had a chance to become guards. The process of transition of army units to guards was a long one. The author has identified several models for the formation of new guards military units. The reasons for the creation of new military units of the Guard were both military and political. In the era of palace coups, political reasons for the creation of new guard formations dominated. They were created to protect the ruler. During the Napoleonic Wars, a large number of new guard units were created to solve combat tasks. According to the author of the article, by the end of the XIX century, the potential for creating new guards military units was almost exhausted and the process of consolidating the status of guards units began. At the same time, there was a curtailment of the national units that Emperor Nicholas I created as part of the guard. By the end of the XIX century, the division into Old and Young was abolished in the Russian Guard.
Lozin D.I., Bolotova E.Y. - The Problem of Providing Industrial Enterprises of Stalingrad with Technical Personnel during the Reconstruction Period (1943 1950). pp. 1-12

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.10.38869

EDN: KTPFXF

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the system of recruitment of industrial enterprises of Stalingrad by engineering and technical workers during the recovery period of 1943 1950. With the help of data from the State Archive of the Volgograd region and scientific literature, the reasons for the active activity of factories and the local administration in building a system of training and attracting technical personnel to industrial enterprises are revealed. Therefore, the subject of the study is engineering and technical personnel who were involved in the industrial enterprises of Stalingrad during the reconstruction period. The research is based on a systematic approach that allows us to consider the solution of the personnel problem of Stalingrad industrial enterprises as a system, as well as a functional and structural approach that allows us to consider the activities of various organizations for the formation of personnel support for Stalingrad industry. The novelty of the research is the involvement of archival data that had not been previously introduced into scientific circulation, as well as consideration of the problem of staffing the city affected by the fighting as a system of organizations engaged in personnel training. The results of the study are: the reason for the active formation of the Stalingrad technical personnel training system during the recovery period was the need to restore and launch the industrial production of the city in conditions of severe destruction of factories during the fighting; the personnel training system included three elements, namely, the training of practical engineers directly at enterprises, correspondence training of technical specialists, as well as full-time education in Stalingrad educational institutions. At the same time, if at the beginning of the recovery period 1943-1945 the training of practical engineers directly at the factories plays an important role, then during the second period more and more specialists graduate from educational organizations of Stalingrad; by the end of 1950 the developed system made it possible to somewhat improve the situation with a shortage of qualified engineering and technical personnel.
Semenov M.A. - Healthcare in Eastern Siberia during the Great Patriotic War pp. 9-23

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.1.37290

Abstract: The subject of this research lies in examination of the key trends in healthcare development of Eastern Siberia and implemented activity during the Great Patriotic War based on the statistical data extracted from the USSR People's Commissariat of Health of the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The author traces the dynamics of development the network of in-patient, outpatient-polyclinic and sanitary anti-epidemic medical care facilities of the region, and the state of its human resourcing. The data is provided on the number of patients admitted to the in-patient medical institutions and the amount of visits in out-patient medical facilities. The article reveals key results of the Eastern Siberian medicine activity, as well as the mechanism for their achievement. This author is first to analyze the summary data on the development of healthcare in Eastern Siberia. The conclusion is made on the slow development of medical network and difficult situation with its human resourcing. It is established that the due to the deployment of a network of evacuation hospitals in Krasnoyarsk Krai, this regions faced the most challenging situation. The reduced healthcare capacity entailed the decline in rendering medical aid in Eastern Siberia. However, due to the accurate determination of priority tasks abd competent utilization of the available human and material resources, the healthcare system of Eastern Siberia maintained the provision of medical care to the population at the minimum essential level, as well as fought the group of gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, despite the severe wartime conditions, the healthcare system of Eastern Siberia managed to reduce the mortality rate of the population significantly.
Ogorodnikova S.V. - Patriotism of the nobility during the Patriotic War of 1812 pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.5.38036

Abstract: Examples of military patriotism on the battlefields are considered in detail in the literature, and much less attention is paid to the study of the patriotism of the civilian population. The object of research is literary and archival sources describing the life of nobles during the War of 1812. The subject of study and classification is the manifestation of patriotism of representatives of the nobility in the period under review. The paper provides a comprehensive assessment of various sources devoted to the manifestation of patriotic feelings of the nobility. A critical analysis and comparison of historical documents and their assessments made by scientists has been carried out. The peculiarities of the manifestation of patriotism of representatives of the noble class, taking into account age and gender groups: men, women, children, are shown. The ways of manifestation of secular and religious patriotism are considered. The models of patriotic behavior characteristic of nobles are singled out and described, which is the novelty of this study. The main strategies of behavior are: 1) participation in hostilities as part of military units organized from their serfs; 2) donations to the front in cash and in kind; 3) support for male defenders of the Motherland; 4) indirect participation in patriotic events; 5) personal participation, consisting in interaction with the wounded, orphans and other groups of the population, suffered during the war. The implementation of various patriotic behavioral strategies is shown by the example of specific historical figures: Nadezhda Durova, Margarita Tuchkova, the Konovnitsyn family, the Rayevsky family.
Prigodich N.D., Bogomazov N.I. - Foreign Purchases for the Needs of Russian Transport during the First World War: Problem Statement and Historiographical Aspects pp. 10-18

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.4.40377

EDN: OCMKTU

Abstract: The article discusses general theoretical considerations about the factor of foreign purchases in solving the transport crisis in Russia during the First World War. At the same time, the main emphasis is placed on a historiographical review of the problem, which allows us to formulate a vector for further research. Since the end of 1914, it has become obvious to the political and military leadership of the country that the requirements of wartime in some industries significantly exceed the capabilities of domestic manufacturers. First of all, this applies to railways, front and rear, which constantly needed a huge number of new rails and fasteners to them, switches, bandages, wagons of various types, locomotives and other materials. The inability to produce the necessary materials in the right quantity at Russian enterprises naturally led to the need to purchase them abroad, primarily in the United States and allied countries - Great Britain and France. Since 1915, foreign procurement has been on a wide scale. Military and civilian authorities, trying to improve the operation of transport, which is critical in wartime conditions, are gradually expanding the range of goods ordered abroad for transport purposes, including cars, materials for aviation and the navy.
Osipov E.A. - French Mirages in Libya in 1970 as a symbol of new Arab policy of France pp. 18-26

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.12.34569

Abstract: The relations with Arab countries have always been an intrinsic component of French foreign policy, predominately in the de Gaulle's Fifth Republic. Namely in the 1960s the General de Gaulle laid the groundwork for the so-called “new Arab” policy of France, intended for consolidation of the country's role in the Middle East and the Mediterranean, as well as for overcoming issues in the relationship with Arab countries caused the colonial past of France. Leaning on the wide range of scientific literature and sources, including the documents from the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France, the author reviews the circumstances of signing a major contract by France for delivering arms to Libya in 1970, few months after the Libyan Revolution and assumption of power by Muammar Gaddafi. The signed in 1970 Franco-Libyan agreement was congruent with the overall context of “new Arab” policy of Gaullist France, and can be regarded as its symbol. Special attention is given to the factors that prompted French leadership to military cooperation with Libya, although France was aware that it could aggravation relations not only with Israel, but also with the United States. Along with the interests of French military-industrial complex, oil factor, and, prospects for the development of Franco-Libyan cooperation, an important role played rivalry between France, USSR and the countries of socialist camp, the activity of which increased in the third world countries during the 1960s – 1970s. In a way, namely the concerns about the growing influence of Moscow in the Middle East and the Mediterranean accelerated the “new Arab” policy of France.
Khizhnyak A.V. - Military cooperation of Russia with the Syrian Arab Republic as an instrument of the Russia's New Middle East Policy (2000-2008) pp. 19-29

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.5.38078

Abstract: The article examines the key aspects of military-technical cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic in the first two terms of Vladimir Putin's tenure as President of Russia. Relations between Moscow and Damascus in the sphere of arms and special equipment supplies are considered in the general context of the updated foreign policy of the Russian Federation, initiated by Vladimir Putin, and which implied, among other things, the return of Russia's position as an active geopolitical player in the Middle East. Having long-standing political and economic ties with Moscow, Syria was rightly considered by the Russian leadership as the most suitable ally in solving the task mentioned above. Analyzing the history of supplies to Syria of the main articles of Russian military products, the author comes to the conclusion that during the period under review, Moscow managed to lay a new solid foundation for bilateral relations, even though it had to be done to a certain extent with an eye to the position of other regional players and, above all, the countries of the collective West. When building its political course towards the SAR in the period under review, the Kremlin adhered primarily to the principle of restraint and pragmatism, taking into account the realities of international relations in the Middle East region and setting as its main goal the counteraction of the hegemonic claims of the United States, which sought to turn this already conflictogenic point of the planet into a zone of "controlled chaos".
Boltaevskii A.A. - Sarajevo Crisis: Lessons of the First World War pp. 37-52

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2014.3.11459

Abstract: It has been one hundred years since the beginning of the First World War and both historians and all who concern about the past are again interested in the lessons of the First World War. Despite the well known opposition of the two military alliances, the war was quite unexpected by most of regular population. Yet, the war was first perceived as something elated or grandiose. The murderer of the heir presumptive to the Austria-Hungarian throne Franz Ferdinand followed by the Sarajevo crisis led to the global conflict and the crisis of all European civilizations. Based on the memories of the eyewitnesses, feature materials and archive documents, the author of the article re-enact circumstances that led to the murderer in Sarajevo and event afterwards. According to the author of the article, the spiritual crisis of the European civilization was the true reason of the world conflict. The society was inevitably coming to that and encouraged by military and political leaders. Almost all governments of the leading European countries were interested in Franz Ferdinant's death. They wanted to change the situation in the world but need an official reason to take actions. 
Gonta S.N. - War in Rhodesia (1965-1979): fight against terrorists or civil conflict? pp. 45-57

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.7.43415

EDN: TBNIFI

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of the war between the Rhodesian government and the black rebels from 1965 to 1979. The relevance of the work is due to the lack of fundamental research on these events in modern Russian historiography. The object of the study is the armed conflict in the territory of the Rhodesia, which took place in 1965-1979. The subject of the study is the activities of the rebel organizations that opposed the white government of the country. The author studied in detail the main events of the war in Rhodesia. Also, the work defines the role of external influence on the parties to the conflict under consideration, special attention is paid to the study of terrorist acts that were committed by members of rebel organizations. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the war in Rhodesia (1965-1979) was a civil conflict, while also being a local conflict within the global confrontation between capitalist and socialist countries. At the same time, the actions of the rebel organizations were by no means just a struggle for independence, but were accompanied by bloody terrorist acts against the civilian population.The scientific novelty of the article lies in the study of the main events of the military conflict, as well as in the study of the methods of fighting the rebels against the government of Rhodesia. The author's special contribution to the study of the topic is a detailed description of the terrorist acts in Rhodesia that were committed by members of the rebel organizations.
Zalietok N. - British women in the First World War pp. 50-65

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.2.14066

Abstract: The study of the peculiar position of British women and their involvement in the military campaign during the First World War are of great interest to scientists in the context of a large-scale struggle for the women’s emancipation that covered Britain in the early XX century. Activities of British women as members of the women’s auxiliary services and rear workers largely predetermined their future position in the society. The goal of this article is to analyze the main types of employment of British women during the military campaign of 1914-1918, as well as their attitude towards the war through the prism of social stereotypes. In the course of the study a historical-comparative method, a problem-chronological method, an analytical and psychological method, a statistical method, as well as methods of analysis and synthesis were used. The author concludes that in the period of the First World War, due to the conscription of a large number of men in the army, the list of jobs available to the female population significantly expanded. This case concerned members of the women’s auxiliary services as well as women rear workers. In addition, in this period women were active participants of campaigns that represented polar ideological directions – from pacifism to direct appeals to men to join the army. Traditional gender views on the role of women in this period, due to the military situation, were slightly diminished. At the same time, along with admiration for isolated examples of women's sacrifice, the majority of ordinary British women – members of the women’s auxiliary services and rear workers – were often subjected to condemnation by the society.
Mironiuk S. - Discussion of the Japanese intervention in the Far East and Siberia in the House of Commons of Great Britain on March 14, 1918 as an event of the British policy of intervention in Russia pp. 54-64

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.6.43439

EDN: HIOMOW

Abstract: The subject of this study is the discussion on March 14, 1918 in the House of Commons of Great Britain of the Japanese intervention in the Far East and Siberia as the events of the British intervention in Russia. In this regard, the speeches of deputies from various political forces and a high-ranking official of the Military Cabinet of the United Kingdom in the lower house of parliament are disclosed and analyzed. Thanks to the content analysis method and the system method, not only the positions and arguments of the participants in the discussion are presented in detail, but also the connection of their speeches with the military-political and international situation that developed in March 1918 and which influenced the dynamics of the discussion is revealed. The scientific novelty is that for the first time in the historiography of the Civil War and foreign intervention in Russia, a meeting of the lower house of Great Britain on the Japanese intervention in the Far East and Siberia is considered in the context of the history of British intervention policy in Russia and the significance of this event for this policy. The main conclusions of the study are that, despite the lack of a unified position in the House of Commons on the issue of Japanese intervention in the Far East and Siberia, the War Cabinet has caught the trend in favor of Japanese intervention in these Russian regions. As a result, he cautiously began to build a policy of intervention against Russia and to determine the place of Japanese intervention in it. Only large-scale events could force the House of Commons to adopt the policy that the Cabinet considered necessary to pursue in the current circumstances.
Adeshkin I.N. - The participation of African Americans in the American Expeditionary Forces during the World War I pp. 57-63

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.5.35717

Abstract: This article examines the participation of African Americans in the World War I in the ranks of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during the 1917 – 1918. The author studies the attitude of the African-American community towards participation in the World War I, describes the peculiarities of military service of African American soldiers in the American Expeditionary Forces, and reveals the manifestations of racial discrimination. The article also reviews the attitude of French soldiers and officers towards African American soldiers of the U. S. Army, analyzes the impact of the acquired combat experience and sociocultural interaction with foreign soldiers upon the activity of African American population in fighting for their rights and freedoms in the United States. In Russian historiography, the participation of African Americans in the American Expeditionary Forces during the World War I, peculiarities of their service, and the impact of war on self-consciousness of this category of military servicemen have not previously become the subject of special research. Based on the article. The conclusion is made that the attitude of African American community towards participation in the World War I was quite ambiguous. Their soldiers faced different forms of discrimination during their military service: they could not serve in the Marine Corps and other elite units, and most of the time were engaged in the rear. A different experience received African American soldiers from the units transferred under the leadership of the French Army, whose officers treated them with respect; the blood shed for their country, combat experience and respectful of the allies enhanced desire of the African Americans to gain equal civil rights and freedoms in their homeland.
Ilyichev A.V. - The Russian Army on the Eve of the Crimean War: Between Myth and Reality pp. 57-78

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.9.38690

EDN: ZXNDFN

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problems of the military system of the Russian Empire in the years of the reign of Nicholas I. The subject of the study is the military organization of the Russian Empire in the middle of the XIX century. The object of the study is the Russian army in the Crimean War (1853-1856). The focus is on the organization of the armed forces of the Empire, the training of enlisted and officers, logistics and pensions, as well as military production in the middle of the XIX century. Traditionally, in Russian historiography, the main drawbacks of the military system were called the technical lag of the Russian Empire from the European armies and the serfdom structure of the domestic power. During the study of the topic, it was revealed that the issue of armament was not the fundamental reason for the defeat of the empire in the conflict. Soldiers recruited according to the recruitment system could not equivalently resist European armies based on a system of consription or voluntary recruitment. The difficult conditions of service in the army of the Russian Empire in the XIX century, led to the complete depletion of the reserve stock, which was clearly manifested in the years. The Crimean War (1853-1856). In combination with significant shortcomings in the training of private and officer, this led to the absolute hegemony of the Allied army in field battles. Many of these problems were known to the highest military and political leadership of the country, which initiated a number of military reforms to correct them. Nicholas I failed to implement these changes before the outbreak of the Crimean War. Already after the conflict, under the leadership of the Minister of War Milyutin D.A., within the framework of the "Great Reforms of the 1860s", many of these problems were resolved to one degree or another. The study is of a general nature, and this topic requires further detailed study of each of the aspects mentioned in the work.
Bondareva V.V. - Discipline of the 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment during 1915-1916 pp. 80-86

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.9.27263

Abstract: The object of this research is the 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment of 108th infantry division. The 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment was created from the militia troops on June 11, 1915 (regiment of 3rd class). The subject this research is the discipline in the regiment during the first year of its existence. The goal is to characterize discipline in the 431st regiment, name the types of offences committed by the lower ranks, establish their causes, consider the problem of discipline of the officer corps, determine the factors that affected discipline in the regiment. The research is based on the analysis of documents of the 431st regiment (F. 2980) preserved in the Russian State Military Historical Archive, as well as the materials of corps court of the 43rd army corps (F. 16142). The materials of the 431st Tikhvin Infantry Regiment are revealed for the first time. The author is firs to set a task for studying the discipline of militia based on its genuine documents. The types of offences committed by the lower ranks, such as absence, disposition of property, desertion, and their causes are analyzed. The problematic of examination of discipline of the officer personnel of the regiment is demonstrated, so are the factors that affected the discipline. The research materials can be used in the generalized work on the history of Russian Army during the World War I.
Kuchumov I.V. - The impact of evacuation of population and factories from western regions of the USSR upon socioeconomic processes in Bashkiria during the Great Patriotic War pp. 84-93

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.10.27448

Abstract: The subject of this research is the role of Russian population in the socioeconomic processes of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) during the Great Patriotic War. This event let to substantial quantitative and qualitative changes in socio-demographic composition of population of the Bashkir ASSR, which affected the economic potential of the region, as wells as had direct or indirect influence on the role of Bashkortostan in political space of the country. Reminiscence of those years define the specificity of ethnic, social, economic and to a certain extent political development of Bashkortostan at the present stage. The article applies the comparison of statistical data on demography and economics with the records derived from the narrative sources. The article demonstrates that despite the severe economic and humanitarian losses, the Great Patriotic War led to a surge in the economic regard, including influx of the evacuated workforce and acceleration of urbanization. Dwelling of the evacuated academic, university and engineering-technical personnel in Bashkiria contributed to significant economic and cultural progress of the region. Thus, in the beginning of 1990’s, the region became one of the initiators and leaders of the “sovereignty parade”, influencing the character of political processes in post-Soviet Russia. Moreover, the formed during the wartime industrial capacity of the republic allowed partially compensating the difficulties, caused by the transition to market economy in the 1990’s.
Shchegolikhina S.N. - The Impact of World War II on the Status of European Monarchies pp. 85-94

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.1.39473

EDN: CQSTZW

Abstract: World wars were the key moments that had a significant impact on the transformation of monarchical rule in the twentieth century. They served as catalysts in the process of changing the European political system, determining the direction of development. The subject of the study are the European monarchies. The object of the study is the transformation of the traditional form of government in the countries of Europe. Using the historical-anthropological method, as well as historical-systemic and historical-comparative approaches, the question of general and special in the process of transformation of monarchical rule in the middle of the twentieth century is considered. The author focuses on the question - Is the tendency of monarchies to leave the historical scene objective, colored by national peculiarities, or depends on the specific situation and the particular ruler? After World War I, the revision of government affected all parts of the world. The Second World War was a new challenge to the historic system of governance. As a result, the transformation of centuries-old interaction between the state and society has become irreversible. It has institutionalized democratic royalism as the main social and political perception of traditional forms of government. Only as long as the monarch follows the established rules will the monarchy exist. It has lost most of its key characteristics, remaining only a historical and cultural symbol - without real power or significance for political and social life, depending on social and political sentiments.
Vlasov A. - Franco-Prussian campaign of 1870-1871 in perception of the novice British war correspondent A. Forbes pp. 101-111

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.7.33521

Abstract: The object of this article is professional activity of the British war correspondent Archibald Forbes during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. The subject is the perception and reflection of military realities (1870-1871) by the novice journalist. The goal consists in determination of the mechanisms of perception of participants and realities of the Franco-Prussian confrontation of 1870-1871 by the British correspondent A. Forbes. Intellectual history and imagological approach comprise the methodological framework of this research. Based on the analysis of documentary evidence left by A. Forbes, which describes the events of 1870-1871, the author was able to trace the evolution of Forbes’ perception of the Franco-Prussian campaign of 1870-1871. The conclusion is made on gradual changes in Forbe’s perception and reflection of war realities. The initial admiration was replaced by the professional subject-object description. However, his stance on parties to the conflict remained unchanged. The author assumes that A. Forbes had particular personal attitudes, but his perception of the war of 1870-1871 has evolved. The acquired results may be valuable in studying journalistic practice, as well as mutual perception of European ethnoses. The scientific novelty lies in a comprehensive approach towards the phenomenon at hand: the author examines not only the mechanisms of perception as such, but also their transformation influenced by various factors. This research made a transition from the widespread study of biographies and activity of correspondents of the XIX century to an extensive culturological and intellectual approach in consideration of professional practice of journalists of the past.
Yakupova D.V., Yakupov R.A. - Bread for the People and National Security: Soviet commercial diplomacy during the period of détente pp. 103-119

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.11.34328

Abstract: The relevance of this research is defined by the need for analyzing the historical experience of adaptation of foreign economic activity of the Soviet State to the challenges of Western policy deterrence, the imperatives of which are being applied to Russia in the current context. The subject of this research is the Soviet grain procurement crisis and foreign policy ways for its overcoming. The object of this research is trade and diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and the United States. The scientific novelty lies in elaboration of the concept of “commercial diplomacy” – the foreign economic activity of the USSR government aimed at solution of the domestic problems and tasks of modernization. Leaning on the newly introduced sources, the conclusion is made that the policy of commercial diplomacy implemented by the Soviet Union suggested the use of international dialogue within the framework of cooperation between the governments and public-private business circles on achieving the economic goals associated with the national interests of the Soviet Union. The critical need for grain procurement, discovery of the oil resources potential, and détente in the international relations between the two superpowers led to a new round in the Soviet Union – United States relations. It is underlined that grain and oil manifested as the factor of maintaining domestic political stability and the object of foreign policy exchange. The article answers the question: how the grain procurement problem has transformed from the economic into social issue, and the grain import has become the vulnerable spot of the Soviet Union in the ideological confrontation with the United States, and the object of international relations.
Khodorov O.I. - The role of the steamship Grand Duke Konstantin in the liberation of Abkhazia and forced crossing of the Gagra Gorge by the Sochi detachment in August 1877 pp. 112-130

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.32728

Abstract: The object of this research is the military actions on the Caucasus-Asia Minor Theatre of the Russo-Turkish War in 1877. The subject is the participation of the steamship “Grand Duke Konstantin” under the command of Stepan Osipovich Makarov in the liberation of Abkhazia from Turkish occupation and aid to the Sochi detachment of Shelkovnikov Boris Martynovich in forced crossing the Gagra Gorge. The goal of this research lies in comprehensive examination of the actions of Makarov and his team during cruising at the east coast of the Black Sea, as well as in determination the role and importance of their participation in the military actions in the beginning of August 1877. The conclusion is made that successful actions of Makarov helped the Sochi detachment to avoid heavy losses in Gagra; and that damages inflicted on the Turkish warship “Asar-i Tevfik” during Makarov’s night attack suspended it from evacuation of the Turks from Sukhumi. The reconstruction of the results of torpedo attack and comparison of the tactical and technical characteristics of ships draw particular interest. The author concludes that the Turkish warship that attacked by Makarov at Gagra, was not “Asar-i Şevket”, as described in the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern Russian historiography.
Tverdyukova E.D. - Work of medical and nutritional healthcare facilities in Leningrad (January April 1942) pp. 116-126

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2020.11.34460

Abstract: The hierarchy of food supply in besieged Leningrad is one of the most polemical questions in historiography. The subject of this research is the measures taken by the city administration during the first winter of blockade (1941-1942) aimed at maintenance of vitality of Leningraders who were highly valued for economy of the city or regarded as creative elite of the city. The goal consists in clarification of facts on the work of medical and nutritional inpatient facilities intended for persons suffering from dystrophy, including municipal inpatient facility for emaciated workers of science, technology, art and executive personnel, located the Hotel Astoria. The work of medical and nutritional inpatient facilities in the period from January to April of 1942 had not previously become the subject of separate research for national or foreign historians. The conducted research demonstrate that the establishment of such healthcare facilities was the first attempt to organize food supply for citizens suffering from dystrophy. In the conditions of severe shortage of food resources, the city administration was able to help only a limited circle of people. Working in the extreme conditions with no electricity, water, shortage of qualified medical personnel, limited food funds, medical and nutritional inpatient facilities were could not fully solve the tasks imposed on them.
Vasilchenko M.A., Zakharov A.M. - A Foreign City: Dr. František Langer and the battles for Kazan in August September 1918 pp. 131-137

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.4.35379

Abstract:   The object of this research is the participation of the soldiers and officers of Czechoslovak Corps on the Volga front of the Russian Civil War reflected in the documentary novel by F. Langer. The goal of this work consists in the analysis of evolution of the relations of Czechoslovak legionnaires on the Russian events in the context of the large-scale socioeconomic crisis. The research is based on the novel by F. Langer, which was written in 1920 but became available for scholarly reflection almost a century later. This novel introduces new records on the events of 1918 in Kazan, which became a turning point in the battle for the Volga Region, and allows revising the chronology of protest moods within the Czechoslovak Corps. The most well-known manifestation of the refusal from participation in combat operations is the actions of the personnel of the 1st regiment of the corps under the command of the Colonel Y. Shvets, who committed suicide in the late autumn of 1918. This fact is regarded as most striking manifestation of demoralization of the military personnel; however, these symptoms could be traced in September if referred to the text of F. Langer’s chronicles, which has not previously become the subject of scientific analysis. The documentary novel expand the boundaries of protest moods in the soldier environment; it forms a solid representation on the intrapersonal conflict among the participants of the events back in the early September of 1918, which adds more details on the motivation of the participants of combat operations. The conclusion is made that the Czechoslovak Corps, solving virtually pointless battlefield tasks, not only suffered heavy losses, but also lost the meaning of its actions in general. The work of F. Langer indicates the first protest moods among the soldiers in the early autumn of 1918.  
Osipov Y.A. - Submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the eve of the Great Patriotic War pp. 131-146

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2022.9.36453

EDN: OJOXBL

Abstract: The subject of the study is the state of the submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, in particular, the issues of the operational and tactical situation in the theater, combat and political training of personnel, the level of organization of supplies and medical and sanitary support, as well as military discipline of the Red Navy and commanders. The purpose of the work is to determine the level of combat readiness of the submarine forces of the fleet at the time of the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War. On the basis of archival documents, sources of personal origin, as well as specialized literature, the author analyzes the peculiarities of the activities of Baltic submariners in 1940 the first half of 1941. For the first time within the framework of this topic, along with the analysis of the capabilities of warships, the most important criteria for the combat readiness of large naval formations are considered the issues of moral and psychological state, as well as its factors formations. This approach determines the scientific novelty of the research. When developing the question, the author resorted to the use of a set of methods of historical research. The historical and systematic method allowed us to present the structure of the submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, its organizational and combat capabilities. The historical-comparative method made it possible to identify the features of general processes and their impact on the combat training of brigades and a division of submarines of the fleet. The quantitative method also played an important role in the study of the issue, which made it possible to generate statistics on a number of important issues: disciplinary practice, medical and sanitary provision, numerical characteristics of personnel. In conclusion, a conclusion was made about maintaining a high level of combat readiness of submarine brigades, however, a number of negative phenomena were identified, such as a low level of military discipline, significant difficulties in organizing supplies, the need to develop new operational areas, which somewhat reduced the combat readiness of the submarine forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in the conditions of a possible confrontation between Germany and the USSR.
Okhota V.S. - Organization of the food service for civilians of a base city during the wartime (on the example of Krasnoyarsk) pp. 138-143

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2018.2.24438

Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the questions of organization of public food service in Krasnoyarsk. The period of Great Patriotic War marked the intensification of centralization in planning, allocation of state resources, expansion of food service for the workers. However, the sphere of public food service has experienced certain problems. The subject of this research is the analysis of organization of food service for civilian of a base city during the wartime on the example of Krasnoyarsk. Special attention is given to the emerging problems and methods of their resolution in the indicated sphere. Methodological foundation is the theory of modernization transition. The review of archival documents demonstrated that the provision of food product and durable goods to the population, as well as organization of public food service of a base city during the wartime, turned out to be a task of immense complexity, thus required immediate solution. As a result of analysis, it was determined the for solution of the aforementioned problem were established the allowance rates; government structures, production companies, nongovernmental organization, and population itself were enlisted in organization of provision. Besides the already existing canteen facilities for employees and dietetic refectories, were added the canteen facilities for civil servants, children, students, families of war veterans, evacuated civilians, and disabled veterans of the Great Patriotic War. The conducted research underlines that the experience of different countries marks the intensification of government intervention into the economy at the time of social instability during the war. The distributive form of relationship between the government and population has established in the country. Action of the local government authorities on expanding and improving the public food service chain during the war period, played an important role in prevention of mass famine.
Skripnik A.N. - Social life aspects of the problems of labor discipline in the Soviet defense companies pp. 142-158

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.9.21598

Abstract: The World War II determined the crucial importance of industrial economies in conducting warfare. War became a competition of the economies. Efficiency of operation of the companies during the wartime in multiple ways depended on the labor discipline, which indexes in turn, were influenced by the of social life aspects, living and working conditions of the employees. A difficult situation with housing, food, and clothes throughout the period of 1941-1942 significantly affected the low indexes of labor discipline, as well as led to the fact that many staff members of the Soviet industrial companies were wilfully leaving their workplaces. The subject of this article is the correlation between the factors of social life and indexes of labor discipline. The problem is studied using the new archive data, with consideration of the existing research on related issues. The author determined the most prone to the violation of labor discipline categories of Soviet workers, as well as the key types of such violations. The main violators of the regime are the graduates of the job-industrial training and trade and factory schools, who have been conscripted into the plants. The article provides an explanation to this situation, as well as the main causes.
Boltaevskii A.A. - Salonika Battle Front During the First World War pp. 143-162

DOI:
10.7256/2306-420X.2013.2.700

Abstract: The article shows the role and important of Salonika battle front during the First World War. The author of the article describes the nature of military actions and diplomatic discussions. Russian literary sources still focus rather on the Western and Eastern fronts. At the Salonika front the Entente forces consisted of English, French, Italian, Russian and later Greek people. Therefore, it would be interesting to study historical experience of cooperation of allies as a coalition. Personal interests of coalition participants interfered with their strategic cooperation. The author of the article also shows the influence of the Russian February Revolution and the phenomenon of 'brotherhood' in 1917.  In 1918 in the Salonika front the 'Entente Cordiale March' was created to celebrate the withdrawal of Austrian-Hungarian forces (the main ally of Germany). 
Sogdanova Z.G. - Periodicals about the harm inflicted by German Fascist occupants pp. 149-156

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2017.8.22085

Abstract: During the first days after the liberation from German Fascist occupation, the regional mass media published records on the sustained human losses and inflicted material damage. The provided data regarding all social spheres that suffered from the occupants carry an emotional tone justified by the human pain. The subject of this article is the periodicals of the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Stavropol Krai as the source of assessing the harm inflicted by the German Fascist occupants over the period of the Great Patriotic War. The key sources for writing this article became the periodicals from the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia and the State Archive of Stavropol Krai. Methodological basis is comprised by the dialectical and materialistic analysis of the historical events and facts published on the pages of periodicals during the post-occupational time. Thus, the periodicals, as the sources reflecting the events at the moment of their accomplishment, allow making a conclusion that policy of fascist conquerors carried mass character, and regardless of the regions and inhabiting peoples was standard, similarly rough, inhumane, barbarian, and ruthless.
Gonta S.N. - Armed Forces and Police of Independent Rhodesia (1965-1979). Part 1: Police pp. 167-179

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2024.1.68820

EDN: DAYQPK

Abstract: This research is devoted to the study of the functioning of the Rhodesian Security Forces (the general name for the police and army forces of Rhodesia) during the years of its de facto independence from 1965 to 1979. The relevance of the study is due to the absence in domestic historiography of any fundamental research that would be devoted to this issue. The subject of the study is the Rhodesian Security Forces. In this (first) part of the work are considered the activities of the Rhodesian police after its declaration of independence. The author has studied the history of the development of the Rhodesian police from its founding until the official cessation of activity in 1980. Also, the author presents data on the number, racial composition, technical equipment, structure of units and other information about the police forces of Rhodesia. After the declaration of independence, the Rhodesian police faced difficulties, but even in such conditions they managed to maintain combat effectiveness and continue to improve. Based on this article, conclusions can be drawn about the important role played by the Rhodesian police in maintaining law and order in a country that was actually involved in the counter-terrorism struggle throughout its existence. Also, we can conclude that the Rhodesian police were only partly a racist structure, since most of the police were of African origin, although there were certain restrictions for them.
Orlova D.I. - The attitude of the USSR to the policy of repatriation at the final stage of the WWII and in the first post-war years pp. 193-201

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2023.11.68924

EDN: UQVDZG

Abstract: This article highlights the participation of the USSR in solving the international problem of refugees and displaced persons in the post-war period; shows the attitude of the Soviet government to the policy of repatriation of Soviet citizens to their homeland, reveals the participation of the USSR in international organizations on the issue of refugees and displaced persons (UNRRA, IRO, UN) at the final stage of the Second World War and after its end, the ways of interaction of the allied countries on these world platforms are fixed. To study the activities of the USSR in the development of the principles of repatriation policy, as well as to resolve the problems of refugees and displaced persons, such methods as historicism, objectivity, as well as the method of comparative analysis together with a comprehensive analysis of documents were used. Based on the present research, we can conclude that the Soviet Union conducted active foreign policy activities to achieve the main goals of the repatriation policy, establishing international cooperation and protecting the interests of its citizens. The bulk of Soviet people who found themselves in difficult conditions of the post-war period were forced to lead their lives in camps for displaced persons, awaiting the decision of the authorities regarding their fate. Despite the active assistance to the return of refugees and social protection from the Soviet Union, the generous amount of the repatriates were tested in filtration camps, especially military ones, in order to identify traitors. In addition, the solution of the problem was complicated by the ardent anti-Soviet propaganda in camps for refugees and displaced persons by representatives of the United Kingdom and the United States, which was gaining momentum in connection with the beginning of the implementation of the means of conducting the cold War.
Lysenkov S. - Organization of medical aid for the Red Army military personnel during the Great Patriotic War pp. 260-282

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2016.3.19196

Abstract:   The object of this research is the organization of medical aid for the active duty military personnel in the conditions of wartime. The subject of this research contains the organizational legal aspects of providing medical aid to the wounded on the battlefield, in the frontline, during medical evacuation and in base hospitals. Special attention is given to the analysis of legal consequences of the expert outcome of injuries, as well as to the determination of the level of disablement of the invalids of the Great Patriotic War and possibility of their return back to duty of defending their Motherland.  The author examines the process of awarding the servicemen of the Red Army with a decoration for being wounded on the battlefield.  Scientific novelty of this work consists in the fact that for the first time in the Russian historical legal literature, the author attempts to conduct an objective analysis of a stage-by-stage organization of medical aid to the wounded active military personnel of the Red Army.  The previously unpublished documents and materials of the central and departmental archives of the Russian Federation are being Introduced into the scientific circulation; their content of allows a comprehensive study of the experience of the Soviet military medicine during the Great Patriotic War.  
Krichevtsev M.V. - Garnisaires in France during the Napoleonic Wars: regulation of repressive measures for maintaining conscription pp. 291-301

DOI:
10.25136/2409-868X.2021.12.37210

Abstract: The Institution of garnisaires was intended for providing lodging to bystanders in the homes of residents in order to comply with the requirements of the government. In France of the early XIX century, it was implemented as a repressive measure to ensure conscription of the recalcitrant. The article describes the legal regulation of the institution of garnisaires in conducting conscription in France of the period of the Consulship and the First Empire. The object of this research is the Institution of garnisaires in the early XIX century; while the changes in legal regulation of this institution throughout the ruling of the First Consul and Emperor Napoleon I. The article employs the normative legal acts of the early XIX century: imperial decrees, governmental acts, executive orders and instructions of the officials of the central and local administration; as well as contextual analysis of legal acts, comparative-historical, and chronological methods. Taking into account that the topic of legal regulation of the institution of garnisaires is poorly covered, the article comprehensively analyzes the content of the fundamental legal acts, determines the peculiarities of stern measures applied for maintaining conscription at different stages of the reign of Napoleon I. The conclusion is made that the legal regulation of the institution of garnisaires during the indicated period has evolved from the first attempts to establish the practice of lodgment as repression, initially not implying specific restrictions, to introduction of more balanced and detailed regulation of the institution with a range of restrictive measures. The formation of legal framework of the institution was completed by 1807–1808 with issuing of the decrees of the Emperor and instructions of the Director General of Military Conscription Jean-Girard Lacuée.
Tret'yakova E. - National security and international law in the nineteenth century pp. 475-493

DOI:
10.7256/2409-868X.2015.4.15646

Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of issues related to national security in the context of their legal registration at the level of international law in the nineteenth century. The article investigates the category of national security, sovereignty, state territory, state border, customs and migration regime, the system of international security secure them in international law, it is determined the level of their formation within the specified period of time. The author has studied the international legal acts and relevant regulations of the Russian national legislation of the nineteenth century to regulate the relevant issues.In the study historical and legal analysis of the legal processing of issues directly related to national security, based on primary sources (international legal instruments and acts of domestic legislation adopted within the specified time period) and scientific papers on relevant issues are conducted.The novelty of the study lies in the historical-legal analysis of international legal regulation of issues related to national security in its relationship with national law.The main conclusions of the research are the following: national security began to take shape long before the advent of respective category, registration related issues occurred both at the level of national and international law; in the nineteenth century category sovereignty began to take shape legally , issues related to the state territory and state borders were regulated , customs and immigration regimes were expanded , forming system of international security started.
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