Genesis: Historical research - rubric Regions of the world in the global historical process
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MAIN PAGE > Journal "Genesis: Historical research" > Rubric "Regions of the world in the global historical process"
Regions of the world in the global historical process
Drong A.R. - The relations between Bangladesh, USSR, and Russia (1972-2015) pp. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the development of relationship between Russia and Bangladesh over the period of 1972-2015. The author thoroughly examines such aspects of the topic as the positions of USSR in Bangladesh Liberation War, ups and downs in diplomatic relations between two countries during the Cold War with the West, reasons of alienation in cooperation between Russia and Bangladesh in the early 1980’s. Special attention is given to the question of modern policy of Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina regarding Russia and new aspect of development in trade, construction, and energy segment. The author refers to the contemporary methodology based on the idea of multipolar world and pluralism of views upon the problems of Russia and Bangladesh. Author’s special contribution consists in the in-depth and objective outlook upon the historical events that took place in critical time of political instability between Bangladesh and USSR, and subsequently, Russia. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the author appeals to modern methods of cultural diplomacy in development of escalation of the friendly and economic cooperation, as well as consolidation of peace and mutual understanding between the nations of Russia and Bangladesh.
Al-Akwa'a A.A., Da Costa Santos J., Omurzakova A. - To the question on peculiarities of interregional cooperation of the countries of Arab East and Latin America pp. 1-11


Abstract: This article examines some aspects of relations between the countries of Latin America and Arab States. The questions of mass migration and the role of Arab diaspora in Latin America are considered. A hypothesis is provided on the beginning of historical migration of the Arabs that took place as a result of depression of their state in Andalusia. The authors determine the peculiarities of life in the recipient country: mixed marriages, religion and culture of the migrants. The examples of close regional and subregional cooperation implemented within the framework of Arab-Latin American summits are provided. The authors examine the trade relations between the countries, relations in the cultural and humanitarian sphere, development of cooperation between Arab states and Mercosur. The statistics on the number of Arab diasporas residing in the countries of Latin America, as well as their impact on the financial and economic spheres is given. The authors also review the relations between separate countries of the regions; presents an opinion that further expansion of cooperation between the countries can be encouraged by the right to free travel for the citizens of two regions. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the relations between the countries of Latin America and Arab states are viewed in the context of profound changes taking place in the modern system of international relations. The article presents a brief historical sketch; however, main attention is turned to the relations between two regions over the recent decades. The main conclusion of the conducted research underlines that the relations between the countries of Latin America and Arab states carry a stable character and have solid foundation for further development.
Torosian A. - Reform and improvement of work mechanism of the United Nations pp. 1-15


Abstract: This article examines the question of reform of the United Nations as one of the key objectives that has been on the agenda of this institution for several decades. The organization was established for the purpose of relieve future generations from the disasters of war that caused indescribable grieve to humanity; however, for quite a while there is an opinion that the UN has lost its authority and influence on the international arena. This article considers the improvement of work mechanisms of the United Nations. Particular attention is paid to the new principles founded in the early XXI century, reforms carried out within the system of UN, as well as position of the Russian Federation pertaining to the subject of research. Currently,  the United Nations is virtually the only institution that ensures security on the international arena, significantly contributes to the prevention of escalation of a high number of conflicts, despite the fact that there do still exist problematic hubs in the activity of this Organization. The UN greatly benefits the international community since its establishment; however, it requires changes and reforms in order to improve its effectiveness.
Belukhin N.E. - Historical patterns of foreign policy of Denmark: the reason for abandoning neutrality after the World War II? pp. 1-15


Abstract: Based on the historical analysis, this article attempts to give a detailed and comprehensive answer to the question about the reasons that forced Denmark to abandon the policy of neutrality after the World War II and become the member of the North Atlantic Alliance. The object of this research is the foreign policy of Denmark in the XV – XX centuries, while the subject is the balancing strategy of Denmark in the conditions of transition from the status of regional power to the status of second-order power, and ultimately, to the status of a small European state that seeks to ensure the own neutrality. Special attention is given to the analysis of strategic foreign policy decisions of Denmark in the conditions of major regional and European conflicts, such as the Dano-Swedish War of the XVII century, Great Northern War (1700-1721), Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815), First Schleswig War (1848-1850) and Second Schleswig War (1864), World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945). The conclusion is made that reaching the actual neutral status for Denmark throughout its foreign policy history was virtually impossible due to the fact that conventional neutrality acquired either a pro-German or pro-British orientation, and in reality represented an attempt to find a complex balance between the interests of the great powers. The need for balancing overlapped the historical vulnerability of Northern European region to external influence. Since the great powers using bilateral diplomacy did allow close rapprochement countries between Nordic countries, the common defense alliance projects both prior to the World War II and after the World War II failed to implement  A crucial point in evolution of the foreign policy strategy of Danish politicians became the negative experience of the World War II, when strict conformity to the policy of neutrality did not prevent the German occupation of the country.
Stepanov I.N. - American opium smuggling trade and John Jacob Astor pp. 1-6


Abstract: The subject of this research is the activity of John Jacob Astor and his role in the American opium smuggling trade. Description is given to the differences between the American and British opium models in China. An attempt is made to determine the peculiarities of Astor's activity in the opium business. The article employs the following sources: works of the German historian Alexander Emmerich from the University of Augsburg dedicated to the American Germans and their fate in the United States; work of the American historian John (Jake) Chen on the history of Chinese diaspora in the United States; work of Jeff Goldberg who specialized in the history of psychotropic substances; article by the member of the Massachusetts School of History  Fredrik Delano Grant, Jr. on the Roosevelt’ opium track’ text of the debate in the British Parliament of April 9, 1840. The novelty of this research lies in familiarization of the Russian-speaking audience with the problems of opium smuggling trade through the research works that have not been previously translated into the Russian language. The conducted analysis of the parliamentary debates in Great Britain determines the commonality of interests of the British and American opium traders with regards to China. The study confirmed the enormous fortune of John Jacob Astor in the American opium smuggling trade, although this type of commercial activity was not primary in his business. The article also describes his continued commercial activity (including opium) in the United States after leaving the Chinese market.
Mikhailov A.A., Fisheva A.A. - Aviation in the development and defense of the Arctic during the 1920s: military plans, science, propaganda, and fiction pp. 7-18


Abstract: This article examines the competition for the Arctic territories between the polar regions that unfolded in the 1920s, which required active development of these lands involving airplanes and airships. At that point, of primary import was the layout of trans-Arctic airways and deployment of flight support facilities in the Arctic territories, with the accompanying use of aviation for ice reconnaissance and rescue expeditions. Special attention is given to the study of the Soviet and international experience in elaboration and implementation of programs on the military and economic development of northern territories. The topic of consistent development of the Arctic involving aviation and aerostatics is reflected not only in scientific and economic programs, but also in state propaganda, publicistic writing and literary works. The novelty of this research consists in the comprehensive approach towards the problems of involving aviation in the Soviet Union during the 1920s for the development of the Arctic, and simultaneously, building the military capacity of the state, and collective perception of the ideas of the development of Arctic territories and aviation. The conclusion is made that the processes of development of polar aviation and division of Arctic territories were the so-called catalyst for each other, which by the early 1930s allowed the Soviet Union to consolidate its position of in the Arctic. The authors’ special contribution lies in examination of various genres of the press as a particular group of sources that had an ideological influence upon public consciousness.
Tolstokulakov I., Akulenko V.S. - To the question of rice and soybeans domestication by the settlers of Korean Peninsula pp. 9-15


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the processes of domestication of the leading cultivated plants of Far East such as rice and soybeans by Ancient Koreans. It is a known fact that since the beginning of Neolithic stage, in multiple regions of the planet has begun the transition from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement. In the opinion of majority of the Russian and foreign researchers, the Korean Peninsula was not an exception, the Neolithic age has marked the formation of the local center of agriculture and animal farming. Despite the irrefutable facts that testify to the emergence of agriculture in primeval Korea, at least since the Middle Neolithic Age, the question regarding the bottom boundary of its inception, as well as the paths of how the far eastern agricultural crops found its way to the peninsula. The basic method of this study consists in the comparative analysis of archeological materials published in the Republic of Korea over the recent years. This article is the first research within the Russian literature that leans on the examination of original Southern Korean theories on domestication of rice and soybeans. Lately the South Korean archeologists have made a number of important discoveries that give grounds to assume that the Korean Peninsula can be justly considered one of the origins of agriculture in the Northeast Asia. The acquired data does not allow stating about the independent domestication of rice in the Korean Peninsula, although with regards to soybeans such conclusions are applicable.  
Peshkin V.M. - Problems in the Relations of the Visegrad Group States with the European Union in 2014-2022. pp. 10-26



Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical conditions in which the disloyal attitude of the Visegrad Group towards the solutions proposed by the EU began to grow during the specified period of time. The analysis of the migration crisis, which has aggravated political, economic, financial, social, and religious problems in the EU countries, is carried out. The EU's efforts to overcome it have become the basis for strengthening the role of right-wing parties in the Quartet. The role of Hungary, which represents itself as a defender of "Europe as a continent for Europeans", which has pursued the most active restrictive migration policy, is considered. The plans of the leadership of Germany and Austria for the management of migration flows, reflecting the ambitions of Berlin and Vienna for the transit and reception of refugees, are presented. The "central" line of Brussels on overcoming the migration crisis is being studied. The tools used by V4 to overcome the migration crisis caused by the vulnerability of the Quartet countries to refugee flows are considered. The article also examines criticism from the "quartet" of the process of overcoming the migration crisis, which saw in the measures proposed by Brussels a threat to the national identity of its small states and a sign of disrespect for the interests of small states in the EU. In general, the migration crisis has resulted in the strengthening of far-right parties in Hungary and Poland, the radicalization of public opinion, which contradicts the main goals of European integration. Thus, the internal political development in some countries of the "Visegrad Four" has actually become a new noticeable element of confrontation with the European Union. Hungary and Poland reacted extremely painfully to criticism of the EU, appealing for support to partners in the Visegrad Group, to other countries where right-wing and conservative parties are also popular (Italy, Austria). As a counteraction, the EU leadership raised the issue of a threat to EU values in Poland and Hungary and considered the possibility of using a mechanism to influence countries that do not respect the values of the European Union.
Usatiuk D. - Fundamentals and factors of deployment in the United States in 1913-1917 Naval construction pp. 10-21



Abstract: The article examines the rationale and practical content of measures to increase the US Navy in 1913-1917. The main attention is focused on the ideological and organizational foundations of the strategy of the American leadership regarding the role of naval power as a factor in ensuring national interests. The design and implementation of the strategy are considered in the context of the reaction of the administration of President W. Wilson to the course and nature of the block confrontation in Europe, to the development of the international situation during the period of US neutrality in the First World War. The research is based on the application of the principles of historicism and scientific objectivity. The theoretical and methodological basis of the study was a systematic approach. On the basis of a comprehensive study of legislative acts, statistical data, official accounting documents and sources of personal origin, along with the materials of well-known historical research, the totality of factors that caused the deployment of naval construction in 1913-1917 was identified, the content and scale of measures to increase the US Navy were determined and evaluated. As a result, it is concluded that by the time the United States entered the war against Germany, the role of the Navy in ensuring the implementation of foreign policy tasks was determined, but the goals of the quantitative and qualitative state of the US Navy for real participation in the resolution of the conflict were not achieved.
Grigor'eva Y.G. - Mongolian-Korean relations in the XX century pp. 24-31


Abstract: The subject of this research is the history of establishment and dynamics of Mongolian-Korean relations, changes in the form and line of cooperation, as well as the peculiarities of bilateral interaction in the XX century. The establishment and development of Mongolian-Korean relations in the XX century took place in the terms of the replacement of several international systems, world wars and revolutions. Historical studies of the cooperation between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea in the XX century is of prime importance for examination of the evolution and current situation in the Mongolian-Korean relations. Methodological foundation contains the general scientific and special research methods: comparative-historical analysis allowed familiarizing with the problem state according to the materials from various sources; contrastive-comparative method allowed conducting synthesis, analogy, systematization of facts, events and phenomena, as well as generalization of data that illustrates the vector and dynamics of development of the relations between Mongolia and the Republic of Korea; chronological method was aimed at determination of the stages of establishment and advancement of cooperation, and qualitative changes in this process; logical method defined the problems and trends in studying the history of Mongolian-Korean relations. The scientific novelty consists in introduction of historical analysis of the Mongolian-Korean relations in the XX century using the relevant and insufficiently studied material in Mongolian and Russian languages. This allowed to objectively assess the process of establishment and development of bilateral cooperation, as well as observe its new facets.
Lukashova S.S., Lukashov N.V. - Religious factor as legal substantiation of partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth pp. 32-42


Abstract: The object of this research is the historical and legal aspects of partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the XVIII century. The subject of this research is the historical documents, normative legal acts, archival and other sources related to the topic. The authors examine the role of religious factor during preparation and conduct of the partitions and “reunion” of the Orthodox lands under the scepter of the Russian Empire. Special attention is given to the attitude of Catherine the Great towards the religious questions, as well as the positions held by the Russian Orthodox Church as a whole, and its separate representatives in particular. Methodology for this study is based on the analysis of historical documents and normative legal acts, using the elements of comparative jurisprudence in the context of secular and ecclesiastic law. The main conclusions made in the course of research allow stating the problem of protection of the Orthodox faith in eastern lands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was of great relevance for the formed part of Russian society, despite the deliberately neutral position established by the imperial court. The authors’ special contribution consists in consideration of the public religious consciousness as a factor of international law and Russian international policy. This factor gains special relevance in light of the recent events related to withdrawing of Ukrainian Church from Moscow Patriarchy.
Lisenkov O. - Modern Age empires: colony management principles on the example of Great Britain and France pp. 38-58


Abstract: The object of this research is the colonial policy of the two largest European empires of the Modern Age: France and Great Britain. In the course of conquering new lands, these countries faced the problem of managing vast territories and diverse indigenous population. The solution consisted in establishment of effective colonial management systems. The peculiarities of functionality of such systems became the subject of this research. The goal lies in determination of specificity of organization and operation of the systems of colonial management in the British and French Empires from the perspective of their interrelation with cultural factors. The conclusion is made that the British Empire retained the traditional government system on the conquered territories – indirect management. The French Empire either replaced the traditional government institutions with European analogues or included traditional system into their system of management as a lower administrative link – direct management. Comparing the described management system, the author notes the French approach was more resource-intensive and did not allow gaining a large profit. This lead to an assumption that the colonial management policy was affected by both, cultural and economic factors. The scientific novelty consists in examination of the systems of colonial management from the perspective of their interrelation with the imperial strategies that are based on the policy of recognition of population differences. Such strategies could be implemented within the framework of two paradigms: unification (formation of the unified imperial culture and institutions in all subordinated territories), and diversity (preservation on the conquered territories of the local cultural and political institutions). Further on, the examples of India, Africa and other regions would demonstrate that there is a direct link between the indicated British and French imperial strategies and systems of colonial management.
Ganiev R.T. - Problems of the Turkic-Chinese relations in 735 - 745 AD. pp. 41-47


Abstract: This article is observing the last decade of existence of the Eastern Turkic Qaghanate. This period had attracted the attention of Russian Soviet scientists much earlier, however, due to the limited use of the Chinese written sources and emphasis on other issues, the Turkic-Chinese relations have not received proper attention. Herein, for the first time, this article will discuss materials of the court chronicler Zhang Jiulin, who was in charge of the central chancery of the palace in 734-736 AD; the biography of the Chinese commander Wang Zhongsi; analysis of the regional situation in the steppe after the death of the Eastern Turkic Bilge Qaghan and the policy of the Tang dynasty regarding the northern nomadic neighbors. The research includes comparative historical analysis, historical- genetic and structural methods and will apply a novel approach by studying an open field areas of the Turkic-Chinese relations, China's foreign strategy towards the nomads, as well as the policy of nomadic tribes Kumo xi and Khitan (who previously were a part of the Eastern Turkic Qaghanate, but after 735 AD they rebelled against Turks with the support of China). The unification of interests of China and the nomads became the main factor, along with the internal political struggle in the Qaghanate that led to the weakening of the Turks and the fall of their sovereignty in 745 AD.
Bibnev A. - Evolution of Bolivarian regionalism pp. 44-57


Abstract: This article is dedicated to examination of the process of evolution of Bolivarian regionalism, which implies the Venezuela’s policy in Latin American and Caribbean basin. The author analyzes the various instruments and mechanism of the regional policy of Venezuela created in the XXI century. This work considers only such regional formation, in which Venezuela unequivocally plays the leading role. In the course of the research, the author highlights the development stages of Bolivarian regionalism, as well as analyzes the factors of its decline. Methodology is structure on the historical approach and interviews conducted by the author with the former representative of administrative office of Ecuador’s President and acting representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Uruguay, who expressed their position regarding the subject of research. The scientific novelty consists in systematization of the already existing scientific conclusions made by the Russian and foreign experts, as well as detalization of aspects that have not yet received proper attention. Within the framework of this study, the author determined the main stages of evolution of the Bolivarian regionalism.
Dzhazzan F.Z. - Iraq War of 2003 and position of the Syrian Arab Republic pp. 45-51


Abstract: The subject of this research is the Iraq War and its impact upon the international relations. The author examines the domestic causes for war, as well as external factors that predetermines its transition into the acute, military phase. The article analysis its effect upon the entire range of international relations in the region, as well as defines the position of leading countries of the Near and Middle East regarding the conflict around Iraq. Special attention is given to the foreign political strategy of the United States in the zone of Persian Gulf alongside the project of creation of the Large Near East. The author applies the most recent publications in Arab and English languages, some of which are introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. This allows conducting a comprehensive analysis of the task at hand in the context of serious transformations within the system of international and regional relations. As a result of this work, the author was able to identify the most essential factor.
Natalevich S.I. - The specificities of administrative governance of insular territories of the British Raj in the late XIX early XX century pp. 49-56


Abstract: The author examines the basic principles of functioning of administrative structure of the main territories of the British Raj in the late XIX – early XX century. This period marks the finalization of bureaucratic system in the hard-to-reach and underdeveloped regions, such as Andaman, Nicobar and Laccadive archipelagos in the Indian Ocean. Due to significant remoteness from the continental India, the islands have formed the unique administrative systems. Therefore, studying the peculiarities of formation and functioning of the colonial bureaucracy of the British Raj in the insular territories appears to be relevant. The attention is focused on the comparative analysis and processes of the establishment of administrative systems of the Andaman, Nicobar and Laccadive Islands. These territories had special status and were under special control of the colonial government. The development of local administrations depended on the strategic importance and resource availability.
Belkovets L. - Soviet diplomacy in struggle for the establishment of neighborly relation with the United Kingdom during the 1920s pp. 57-85


Abstract:   The subject of this research is the process of establishment of relations between the Soviet Russia and the Great Britain in the 1920’s. The author considers explores the circumstances of an exit of the countries from blockade and the conclusion of bilateral agreements on a diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Russia by England. Special attention is given to the attempts of the Russian diplomacy to prevent the breach of relations, as well as emergence of "Chamberlain's note" of 1927.  The circumstances and consequences of the diplomatic conflict are being reviewed. The author gives definitions to the accusation of the Soviet Union of the “anti-British propaganda” and “derogation of England’s prestige” in the countries of the East. Special attention is given to the instigated by England white émigré extremism aimed at population and Soviet government structures, as well as to the subsequent reaction. The author conducts the analysis of the combination of historical and legal facts and implements a method of their scientific evaluation. The original concept of events along with the real image of historical process in all its natural sequence and conditionality is being suggested. The author assesses the position of the global community that ensured support to USSR, which has found its recognition in the peaceful foreign policy.  
Peshkin V.M. - The Crisis around Ukraine and Security Issues in the Visegrad Four Countries pp. 58-73



Abstract: The subject of the study is the impact of the Ukrainian crisis on foreign and defense policy V4. The statements and actions of the Visegrad Group on the Ukrainian issue, which were ahead of the European Union's activity in their efficiency, are being investigated. However, the consolidation of the "quartet" countries has already been seriously tested in the first months and even weeks of the crisis, which will subsequently allow us to talk about the existence of a significant split between the participants. In addition, V4's activities regarding the Ukrainian crisis were mostly in the nature of a reaction to the events taking place, which did not offer any constructive strategies for resolving the process. The novelty of the scientific research in the framework of this article is expressed in the analysis of normative legal acts, statements of the Visegrad Group, demonstrating the different degree of response of V4 to various stages of the Ukrainian crisis, as well as the change in approaches to the defense policy of the "quartet" countries in the specified period of time. Also, the previously unexplored Action Plan of the Visegrad Group Defense Cooperation will be presented in the 2020 edition, which will indicate a wide range of challenges and threats, some of which do not directly relate to the security of the "quartet" countries, which indicates the actual disappearance of a purely regional component in the defense policy of the Visegrad Group.
Antonov I.V. - Eastern policy of Mengu-Timur (1266-1282) pp. 66-75


Abstract: The object of this research is the political history of the Ulus of Jochi as a part of the Great Mongol Empire. The subject of this is the Eastern policy of Mengu-Timur – the 6th ruler of the Ulus of Jochi (1266-1282). The author examines such aspects of the topic as the relationship of Mengu-Timur with the rulers of the uluses of Hulagu – Abaga, Chagatay – Borak, Ugedei – Kaidu, decisions made by the representatives of the uluses of Jochi, Chagatay and Ugedei in Talas Kurultai. Special attention is given to the analysis of relationship between Mengu-Timur and the ruler of the Central Ulus of Kublai, who founded the Yuan Empire. Comparative analysis is conducted on the written sources and scientific works on the topic. The sequence of events is reconstructed in chronological order. The author agrees with his predecessors that Mengu-Timur became the first sovereign ruler of the Ulus of Jochi. The scientific novelty consists in the conclusion that entitlement of Mengu-Timur as independent monarch was not a decision of Talas Kurultai. In Talas Kurultai in 1269 Kaidu was recognized as the leader of the right wing of the Mongol Empire, which included the Ulus of Jochi, Chagatay and Ugedei. The relations with the Great Khan in Kurultai were not settled, and the independence of uluses was not proclaimed. In the early 1370s, Mengu-Timur was named qayan, i.e. the supreme ruler above the khan. In 1277, Kublai's sons Numugan and Kukju were caught by the rebels, who sent them to Mengu-Timur. He did not support the rebels, but kept the son of Kublai. Since that moment, Mengu-Timur did was not subordinate to Kublai or Haidu, did not interfere into the conflict between them, restraining both of them from military clashes. Although Mengu-Timur maintained peaceful relations with other uluses, he was qayan title was not recognized.
Peshkin V.M. - Foreign policy activities of the Visegrad Group in the period 2004-2014 pp. 72-84


Abstract: The subject of the study is the historical conditions in which the process of designing and implementing the Eastern Partnership program began, which became the only significant foreign policy initiative of the Visegrad Four. The role of Poland, which positioned itself as a link between the EU and part of the post-Soviet space, is considered. The plans of France, Bulgaria and Romania in 2003-2004 for a number of post-Soviet countries, reflecting the ambitions of Paris, Sofia and Bucharest in the Black Sea and Mediterranean region, are presented. But under pressure from the European Commission, these initiatives were not further developed, and a decision was made to implement the Eastern Partnership project. The development tools used by V4 for the implementation of the Eastern Partnership project, due to the limited resource base of the Quartet countries, are considered. The criticism of the Eastern Partnership project is being studied, due to the lack of a common understanding among EU members of what prospects the new project can offer to "partner countries". The novelty of the scientific research in the framework of this article is expressed in the analysis of the "energy crises" and the change in the EU's approaches to the post-Soviet space in the late 2000s, which became the basis for the development and implementation by the Visegrad Group in 2004-2014 of the Eastern Partnership program. In this program, the "four" countries played the role of curators and a link between the EU and the post-Soviet space. The implementation of the project allowed V4 to gain political weight within the European Union. When developing relations with the "partner countries", the Visegrad Group tried to make maximum use of all available mechanisms and tools (for example, the potential and experience of implementing joint projects within the framework of the International Visegrad Foundation). At the same time, our own capabilities and resources (coupled with the ambiguous perception of the Eastern Partnership in the EU) did not allow us to fully implement all the stated strategic goals, which seriously affected the effectiveness of the project and the results obtained.
Grigor'eva O.G. - International legal cooperation of USSR on civil affairs during the period of 1922-1956 pp. 86-101


Abstract: The subject of this research is the genesis of the international legal cooperation of USSR with foreign countries on civil affairs during the period of 1922-1956. Based on the international agreements and treaties, as well as other international legal acts of the Soviet Union, the author reconstructs a historical picture of interaction between the competent authorities of the Soviet State and a number of foreign countries in providing the legal support on civil affairs, including collection of the alimony payments to minors, inheritance, custody, etc. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that the work uses the materials from the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Archive of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, which have been introduced for the first time into the scientific circulation. Among these materials is the diplomatic correspondence, agreements between the Soviet Union and other foreign countries, and others. During the course of this research, the author uses a historical method, which allows analyzing the examined legal phenomenon in dynamics, as well demonstrate its interconnection with the existed public relations and events that took place in the global arena during the aforementioned period of time.
Belousova K.A. - U.S. policy in Iraq in the 1990s early 2000s. The last decade of "undemocratic" Iraq pp. 93-108



Abstract: The foreign policy of the United States cannot but be relevant, because, having decided for the whole world that only they can bring order and sow democratic values throughout the globe, their policy and its consequences lead, on the contrary, to discord and chaos. The Middle East region, even without US intervention, is a complex knot of contradictions: the unresolved Arab-Israeli conflict, the importance of the region as an oil-bearing one, terrorism, Islamic fundamentalism sometimes acquiring extreme forms, etc. Iraq, which in essence has never been in the orbit of American influence, has therefore become a threat to US national interests. Using a combination of chronological and case-based approaches, we tried to reveal all the main elements of US policy in Iraq in the last decade of the Ba'ath Party's rule: the issue of sanctions, the problem of the south and north of the country, the activities of the UN commission, etc. "Democratizing" Iraq from 1993 to 2003 the United States pursued an unprincipled and anti-human policy, as a result of which hundreds of thousands of people died, industry was completely disorganized, and in the recent past, under the dictatorship of S. Hussein, a prosperous state rolled back into the pre-industrial era. Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 disintegrated the country, turning it into a quasi-state.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - "Europe - the common home": current challenges and problems. pp. 96-106


Abstract: The subject of study is the fate of the European Union, in a global sense, the whole of Europe. The current policy of the bureaucracy of the Old World has been criticized as a left and a right-wing position. Increasingly, states about the decline of Europe and the West in general. Changes ethnoconfessional view of a number of European countries continues to decrease its role in world politics. Special attention is paid to the evolution of views on European unity, showing the fundamental role of Germany in the process. Showing the main problems (crisis of identity, security, migration complexity), the solution of which depends on the existence of the European Union.The methodological base of the research is a comparative analysis and monitoring, as well as methods of deduction and induction.Attracting foreign and domestic sources and the study, the authors show that the crisis in Europe is caused by the Brussel's ongoing Atlanticist policy, close but unequal partnership with the United States. Strategy of development of the Old World should be the formation of a truly independent domestic and foreign policy, cooperation with Russia, as well othee countries which defend their sovereignty.
Lokhova I.V. - Special features of the Portuguese colonial expansion of the XVXVI centuries pp. 112-123



Abstract: The overview of the causes of the early colonial conquests of Portugal was carried out by using the basic scientific methods of historical research and analyzing sources and literature. The Portuguese expansion was not caused by immediate needs of its economic development unlike the colonial expansion of England and Holland. The article attempts to understand the specifics of Portuguese colonialism and the historical conditions in which it developed. Colonial expansion was carried out in the interests and under the leadership of the fidalgu (nobles). Consequently, the enormous funds coming from the colonies were not spent on the development of production, but on the strengthening of the feudal organization of society. Special attention is paid to the discovery of the sea route to India in 1498, because after that Portugal became a leading world power, controlling the most important trade routes linking Europe and Asia. The novelty of the study can be seen in the fact that the considered topic was a prologue to globalization and the creation of a single world market, and Portugal was at the origins of this process, providing a basis of Western European expansion to the East. Portugal was able to build an empire, controlling vast territories located in the Indian Ocean basin, but could not retain the palm, finding limited material and human resources. The study of Portuguese expansion leads to the conclusion that there were several reasons that influenced the phenomenon of Portuguese colonialism: subjective internal and objective external. Some of these reasons are highlighted in this article.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Balkans at the crossroads of the worlds: Slavic "knot of history" (late XIX early XX centuries) pp. 113-125


Abstract: The subject of this article is the located at the crossroads of civilizations Balkan Peninsula, which throughout centuries is a sphere of geopolitical interests of various coalitions. Aggravation of the imperialist contradictions in the late XIX – early XX centuries led to the formation of "hot spot" in the southeast of Europe, which justly acquired the name of “powder keg”. The close ties between Russia and the nations of the peninsula have century-long traditions, but have been repeatedly subjected to various challenges, both domestic and external factors. The authors lean on the documents and studies of the Russian and foreign origin, which allow restoring the historical picture of the epoch. The main method of the research is the problematic-chronological. Despite the similarity in political and economic processes, the Balkan countries were unable to establish a strong alliance that could become an independent geopolitical player on the global arena. Moreover, the incompleteness of process of the formation of national states caused a series of military conflicts that continue to spark periodically even until present day.
Boltaevskii A.A., Balashkin I.N., Emets V.E., Pryadko I.P. - The Balkan Region through the prism of geopolitics: the end of the XIX - early XX centuries pp. 129-147


Abstract: The subject of research are the geopolitical games that revolved around the Balkans in the late XIX - early XX centuries. Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania - - Key countries in the region were involved in the diplomatic intrigues of the two opposing coalitions of the Entente and the Triple Alliance. Russia played an important role in the liberation of the peninsula from Ottoman rule, lost his position under pressure from England, Austria-Hungary and Germany. The diversity and heterogeneity of the ethnic composition of the peninsula, the difference of cultures, religions, landscape diversity - these are the reasons for a special kind of "contentiousness" of the Balkans. The authors used a wide range of domestic and foreign sources and studies, based on the comparative historical approach, the method of deduction and induction.The authors show that any interference by outside forces in the Balkans have a detrimental and fatal, not only for the region but for the entire world. The Balkans can be considered as the European continent in miniature, so dominant in the region within the state in its historical destiny is to be likened to the lead in Europe in Germany. From the tragedy of the Bulgarian monarchy after the First World War or the collapse of the Union of Yugoslavia after the end of the Cold War, in something similar to the German catastrophe that befell this country during the Second World War.
Bekishiev A.A. - Dagestan within the strategic plans of the Russian Empire and Iran during the early 1740s pp. 252-258


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical events in Dagestan during the period of the early 1740’s, when the new heroic page has started in the history of Dagestan people associated with the fight against Persian hegemony. Towards the end of the Indian campaign, which infatuated Persian ruler Nader Shah, he was focusing on the Dagestan question. Dagestan had an advantageous strategic position, thus neighboring states were attracted to it. For more than two centuries, Dagestan was a “bone of contention” between Iran, Turkey, and Russia. Nader Shah’s Dagestan campaign of 1741-1743 that became one of the major military interventions of the Persian ruler, ended in an embarrassing failure. The enraged people of Dagestan in the face of fatal danger, were able to unite and fight back the mutual enemy. The heroic actions taken by the people of Dagestan against Persian invaders, alongside with the targeted actions of Russian related to the recognition of Dagestan as an important part of Russia’s policy on Caucasus, forced the army of Nader Shah to withdraw his army from Dagestan; this lead to the fact that the foreign policy orientation of the Dagestan people towards Russia became a reality.
Boltaevskii A.A., Pryadko I.P. - Peninsula conflicts: the Balkans in the early twentieth century pp. 259-268


Abstract: The Balkan region has long been a key in Eurasia. To him over the centuries gaze riveted the world's leading powers. But it was the beginning of the XX century. a continuous succession of local wars and delimitation of borders coined the term "powder keg of Europe". Ultimately, the events of those years were the beginning of the change of the underlying foundations of not only European but also the entire world civilization. Sarajevo shot was the beginning of a new era. The article reconstructs the events of a century ago on the basis of journalistic materials at that time, archival documents, modern research. Balkan knot led to large-scale fighting in the struggle for the redivision of the world. Most dramatically affected the First World Slavs: the war became Golgotha for Russia, Serbia, Bulgaria. Russia, like a phoenix, reborn in the Soviet Union, Serbia has lost himself in Yugoslavia, and Bulgaria received a second consecutive humiliating. The revival of the Slavs occurred only at the end of World War II.
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